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PART I. (History, Antiquities, &c.) 

(Nob. I TO IV.— 1880: with 22 Plates and 2 Maps.) 


The Philological SecretaKy. 

^ ^ in ^ 

'* It will flourish, if naturalists, chemistSi antiquaries, philologers, and men of science 
in different parts of AsiOf will commit their observations to writing, and send them to 
the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such communications shall be long 
intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall entirely cease." Sir Wm. Jones. 









FOB 1880. 

No. I. J^ag^ 

Description of the Great ^iva Temple of Gangai Kondapuram and 
of some other places in the Trichtnopoli District. — By Lieht.- 
CoL. B. R. BRANFiiiiiy (with a Plate), 1 

Bade Megalithic Monuments in North Arcot. — Bj Lieut. -Col. 

B. R. Bbai^fill, (with a Plate), , 8 

The Coins of the Maharajahs of Kdngpa. — By C. J. Robgebs, 

(with a Plate), % 10 

Note on an Inscription found upon a stone lying near the ruins of a 
Masjid on Lanka Island, Wular Lake, Kashmir. — By Majob 
H. S. Jabbbtt, 16 

Coins on the Sunga or Mitra Dynasty, found near Rdmanagar or 
Ahichhatra, the ancient Capital of North Panchala, in Rohil- 
khand: — the property of H. Rivett-Cabwac, Esq., C. S. I., 
F. S. A., &c. Descrihed hy A. C. Cablleyle of the Archaeolo- 
gical Survey oE India, (with a Plate), 21 

CoinB of Ghias-ud-din and Mu*az.ud-din bin Sdm. — ^By C. R. Stulf- 

ITAGEL, M. R. A. S., (with a Plate), 29 

No. II. 

A Collection of Hindi Roots, with Remarks on their Derivation and 
Classification. — ^By Db. A. F. Rudolf Hoebnle, (with an 
Appendix, containing an Index of Sanskrit roots and words, 
occurring in the Collection), 53 

Coins supplementary to Thomas' Chronicles of the Pafh^n kings of 

Dehli. — By C. J. Rodoebs, (with two Plates), 81 

Memorandum by H. RrvETT-CABi7AC,'C. S., C. I. E., F. S. A., on Coins 

of the Sunga Dynasty, (with 3 Plates), 87 

iv ContenU, 

No. III. 

Remarks on the Afglidns found along the Eoute of the Tal Chotiali 
Field Force, in the Spring of 1879. Part I. — By Lieut. R. C. 
Temple, B. S. C, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S., &c., (with three 
Plates, and two maps), 91 

On the Surjaprajnapti. Part I. — By Db. G. Thibaut, Principal, 

Benares College, 107 

Memorandum on Clay Discs called " Spindle Whorls" and Votive 
Seals found at Sankisa, Behar, and other Buddhist ruins in the 
North Western Provinces of India. — By H. Rivett-Caenac, 
Esq., C. S., C. I. E., F. S. A., (with three Plates), 127 

Supplementary Memorandum. — By the same, (with a Plate), 137 

Note on some Copper Buddhist Coins, — By H. Riyett-Cabnac, 

C. S., C. I. E., F. S. A., (with two Plates), 138 

No. IV. 

Remarks on the Afghdns found along the route of the Tal Chotiali 
Field Force, in the Spring of 1879. Part II.— By Lieut. R. C. 
Temple, B. S. C, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S., &c., (with 3 Plates 
and 2 Maps), 143 

On the Suryaprajnapti. Part II. — By Db. G. Thibaut, Principal, 

Benares College, 181 

Coins supplementary to Thomas* " Chronicles of the Pafh^n kings 

of Dehli.** — By Chas. J. Rodoebs, (with two Plates), 207 

Copper Coins of Akbar. — By Chas. J. Rodgebs, Amritsar, (with 

two Plates), 213 




FOB 1880. 

PL I (pp. 5, 8). Eude Monuments in Arcot. 

PL II (p. 14). Coins of the Mah&r&jahs of Eangra. 

PL III (p. 24). Coins of the Mitra Dynasty. 

PL lY (p. 28). Coins of Ghi&g-ud-dln and Ma'az-ud-din bin Sdm. 

Pis. y & VI (pp. 81, 84). Coins supplementary to Thomas' Chronicles of 
the Pafhdn kings of Dehli. 

Pis. YII, VIII, IX (pp. 87-90). Coins of the Mitra or Sunga Dynasty. 

Pla. X, XI, XII (pp. 165-163). Sketches from Afghanistan. 

Pis. XII, XIV, XVa (pp. 127, 187). Spindle Whorls, &c., found at Sankisa, 
Behar and other Buddhist Ruins. 

PL XV (p. 135). Clay Seals, <ftc., found at Sankisa. 

PU XVI, XVII (p. 138). Copper Buddhist Coins. 

Pis. XVIII, XXXIIIa (pp 208, 210). Coins supplementary to Thomas' 
Chronicles of the Path4n kings of Dehli. 

Pis. XIX, XX (p. 213). Copper Coins of Akbar. 

Maps» Nos. 1 & 2, (p. 92). Sketch Map of the March of the Tal Chotiali 
Field Force. 


Page 207, line 2, r^iwf (With two Plates). 

208, „ 7, „ Plate XVIII. 

209, „ 1, „ Plate XVIII, a. 

210, „ 11, „ PlateXVin, a. 






y ^ 

Descripiion of the Great Siva Temple of Gangai Koi 

some other places in the Trichinopoli District. — 

By LiETTT.-CoL. B. R. Bbanfill. (With a Plate.) 

Dnring the past season I visited and examined the great Siva temple 
of Gangaikonda (-Shola-)puram (Gangacondapuram of A.. S. 79), situate in 
tbe extreme E. N. E. part of the Trichinopoly District, 20 miles S. W. 
from Chidambaram. 

Aa this is the largest* and best specimen of a South Indian temple 
proper I have ever met with, I venture to ofPer a short description of it. 
Bonghly speaking it is a facsimile of the great Tanjore Temple, possibly 
its prototype, or perhaps more probably a copy ; but never having been 
'* restored," as the Tanjore example has, and being built throughout in a 
very hard kind of stone, it retains much of its pristine appearance and 
purity of design, which has been lost there. 

I made notes of my observations on the spot and took measurements, 
sketches and some impressions of the inscriptions with which its base is 
covered, as specimens of the character, which is mostly old Tamil, very 
similar to that at Tanjore. 

Gangaikon4apuram is the site of a deserted town supposed to have 
been the city or chief town of Gangaikonda Chola. 

♦ The largest Indian sanctuary towers mentioned by Fergiisson (Hist, of Arch. 
VoL HL) are those of JaganAth at Puri and the great Tanjore Pagoda, which arc 80 
and 82 feet square at base respectively. 


2 B. R. Bran fill — Description of the Great Sioa Tt7nple. [No. 1, 

Most of the inscriptions appeared to be mere statements of gifts 
made to the temple by private persons. The western and southern 
(side) inscriptions appeared to be mostly in the Tamil character and 
language with occasional Sanskrit formulae to begin and end with. Those 
on the northern side were said to be chiefly in Grantha and Telugu or 
other (than Tamil) characters. 

The temple consists of a grand stone " stubi" (as they called it), a 
sanctuary steeple or Yim^nam on a raised basement or terrace, decorated 
by a rail ornament below, having the upright posts engraved with griffins 
(or Ydli)y and an elaborate scroll-enveloped animal or figure on every 
third or fourth post, but no cross-bars or horizontal rails between. 

The Alodni or terrace-path is 3 J feet wide, surrounding the entire 
temple, including the great Veli-mandapam or Outer court, at a height of 
about 5 feet above the (original) ground level. 

The great pyramidal Yim&na is 100 feet square* at base and about 
165 feet high. The double story below the pyramid and immediately 
above the terrace basement is vertical, with five compartments or towers 
on each face (north, west and south) of the temple, separated by four 
deep recesses, with a handsome sculptured ornament {purdna kumham) 
in each recess. Each projecting compartment has a fine sculptured figurey 
chiefly ^aiva but not without important Vaishnava figures, and the plain 
intervals of flat wall are covered with (?) historical scenes of rishis, kings, 
worshippers and attendants, celestial as well as terrestrial, in low relief. 

Above the double vertical story rises the pyramidal stubi in seven 
stories to the neck which is spacious and supports four bulls (as at 
Tanjore) below the dome or semi-dome. 

The whole temple is of stone throughout, and the domed top is 
apparently carved to represent a copj)er tile or leaf-pattern covering, like 
that of the five halls (sabha) at Chidambaram. 

The only or chief ornament of the pyramidal portion of the tower is 
the square and oblong cells of "Rath" (= car) or Gopuram (= spire-roofed) 
pattern, with their elaborate fan-shaped windows, like spread peacocks' 

There is little if any stucco to be seen, the whole being of pure 

On the east side and attached to the great stubi is the Mele. 
Mandapam (= a high court or west court), a three-storied portico or 
transept covering the cross aisle between the north and south entrances to 
the Temple ; this is built to match the Vimana, as at Tanjore. 

To its east again and attached to it, is the west wall and end of the 
great Outer court (Veli-mandapam), begun in the same magnificent scale 

• See note above. 

ISSO.] B. R. BranfiU— i><?^<?r/>//o« of tie Great Siva Temple, 3 

and style, bat never completed : for it is broken down or left off rather 
abruptly, and finished by a plain lai^e hall, completely enclosed by its 
four walla and flat roof, only half the height originally designed. 

It measures 80 feet wide, North and South, and 163 feet long. West 
to East, with a plain doorway in the middle of the east end, having huge 
stone warders (duxirapdl)^ but otherwise devoid of any fine ornamenta- 
tion. It is 18 or 20 feet in height, and the roof is supported by four 
rows of plain stone pillars. 

There is a large uncovered and incomplete portico in front (East) of 
the Yeli-mandapam, approached by a double flight of steps from North 
and South and 10 or 12 feet above ground level, which is the level of the 
interior of the mandap and temple. 

The court-yard of the temple is about 610 feet East and West, by 350 
feet North and South, with a fine gdpuram or entrance tower built entirely 
of stone (fast falling down) on the East, of grand but suitable proportions, 
not half the height of the temple itself. Usually the gdpuram is 8 or 10 
times as high as the temple sanctuary. 

The court-yard or quadrangle was once surrounded by a double-storied 
open cloister of plain but solid stone work, said to have contained 365 
cells (in the two stories), but only a few of these remain in the centre of 
the north wall there is a small plain doorway. 

The surrounding wall was of stone and must have been about 25 feet 

The sculptures round the base of the temple are very good iu design 
and execution. 

The architecture struck me as grand, simple and pure, with many 
traces of the wooden construction of which it is, in many respects, a copy ; 
especially in the projecting beam-heads at the angles, each of which is 
sarmounted by a rude lump roughly resembling a flattened spiral (conch-) 
shell, perhaps intended for the salagram (black ammonite or serpent-stone) ; 
only this is a Saiva temple. 

I did not notice the Naga, but saw traces of trees with umbrellas 
over them. 

The (proper) right hand Dwarapdl has the right foot raised and 
resting on a stump (of a tree), encircled by a serpent with a half -swallowed 
elephant in its mouth, at all three doorways alike. 

The projecting stone cornice of single convex flexure is massive, but 
does not stand out so far as in many more modern cases 1 have noticed 
elsewhere, but is, I should say, more free and prominent than some to be 
seen at Chidambaram. 

I did not see the imitation of wooden rafters and laths, with nail 
heads &c., to be seen at Tinnevelly. 


4 B. R. BranfiU — Description of the Great Siva Temple. [No. 1, 

The usual Bull (Nandi) in front of the temple is a poor one, compar- 
ed with that at Tanjore. 

The minor temples and shrines in the court-yard are inferior and 
mostly in ruins. 

One of the more conspicuous of the sculptures represents Siva coming 
out of an opening (yoni or split) in a cylindrical stone column (or 

This figure is represented at Tanjore and elsewhere, and is to be seen 
repeated here several times in various parts of the Gangaikonda Shola- 
puram temples. 

A figure of a rishi (Markanda) on his knees, with forehead on the 
ground, is below. 

The pillars and pilasters are very plain, square in the four towers 
(or ra^7*-like portions), forming the four corners of the stubi, orna- 
mented by pointed leaves below the capitals, which are very fine large 
tabular slabs. 

The square pillars or pilasters are not cut away to the octagon 
form leaving square blocks, as is common. The pillars and pilasters of 
the next, intermediate, partitions or towers are octagon throughout, with 
similar lanceolate ornamentation and (octagonal) capitals. 

The central partitions or towers have 16-gonal pillars and pilasters 
with similar ornaments and capitals. 

The plinth moulding is very grand, bold and chaste. It re-called to 
my mind the pattern of the plinth moulding of an unfinished temple at 
Kuttalam (Gourtalhm) in Tinnevelly. 

The flat portions of the walls are covered with (?) historical scenes 
in which rishis and countryfolk, herdsmen &c., figure largely. 

There are three or four wells in the Temple court, one of which 
(the Sin (g) ha Tirtham) is connected with the legend of the founding of 
the temple and possesses a never-failing supply of very good water. 

I noticed that the name on the Tamil inscriptions was Gangaikonda 
Sholapuram and Gangaikondapuram. The inhabitants now call it Gangai- 
kandapuram. They told me that the Stalapur&na or local historical 
record of Gangaikondapuram had been taken to Tanjore and a copy placed 
in the Rajah's library there, whilst a copy (or the original) was taken and 
kept by the copyist who now resides at Nachaiydrkdvil (or at Tirichirai) 
near Kumbakdnam. 

Another place of interest I visited may be worth mentioning though 
quite modern, and that is Ramalinga-pillai-salai, a remarkable church or 
college building, called variously Fardesintadam, and Sanrndrga-Sahai, 
situate on the high road from *' Cuddalore" to Yriddhichalam, a mile or 

1880.] B. R. BranfiU — Description of the Great Siva Temple, 5 

so west of the point where the high road from Madras (vi4 Fanrutti) to 
Komhakonam crosses it. 

A few years since, one Eamalingapillai collected followers and money 
and attempted to establish a new religion. He appears to have taught 
the ethics of Christianity without its theology. But I could not get at 
any precise particulars. Having collected some hundreds of followers 
(2000 was stated) and built his college, Rdmalingapillai retired with some 
ceremony into concealment in a house, now styled " Ti7*um6ligai,^^ in the 
village of Mottukuppam, a few miles distant from the College. 

He is said, by his followers who now await his re-appearance at ** the 
last day,'* to have never come forth from the room in which he disap- 
peared, or to have been seen again. 

I think the true facts of the case are worth eliciting and putting on 
record. The building is a remarkable one of brick and chunam in the 
modem Eurasian composite style, and the domed part of the roof or cupola 
appears to be covered with sheet metal. 

I also visited Chenji or Sanji-Kot^ai (Anglice Oingee), a remarkable 
precipitous bluff rock, covered with and surrounded by fortifications of no 
very ancient date apparently. It is just the kind of stronghold that was 
likely to be seized on and held as a citadel by the successive cooquering 
armies that have overrun the Carnatik for some centuries past. 

The most interesting thing I observed here, beside the natural 
fastness (a notice of which is to be found in the South Arcot Gazetteer) ^ 
was a very rudely carved stone lying in front of a small shrine halfway 
up the rock on the south side, dedicated to a local goddess called 
£amala-kanni-y-amman to whom human sacrifices were formerly offered. 
Plate I shows copy of a rough pencil sketch taken hurriedly on the 
spot. Four human heads occupy a square raised shield, with two parallel 
bars in the centre like a pair of dumbells with small knobs, which might 
stand for footprints. Each pair of heads is separated by a trisuh 
like mark immediately above and below the pair of bars in the centre. 
Above these in the centre at top is a pair of ram*s (?) horns, surmounted by 
a short transverse bar and appendage which I could not make out, and in 
the centre below, a corresponding pair of buffalo (? kulgd)^ horns and 
head, A bow to the right and five arrows to the left on the lower part of 
the stone, at each side of the raised part, complete the carving. The arrows 
are club-headed and feathered, and one of them is furnished with a hole at 
one end, as if to hold a line. The entire stone is an oblate circle about 3^ 
feet high and 4 J feet wide, and not very thick, lying- flat on the ground. 
Close to it is an upright figure of *' Minudaiyan Yirappan," with hands 
together in the attitude of respect or supplication, and a sacrificial post 
stood near. 

G B. R. Brtinm-^Deseripifiou of tlie Great Siva Temple, [No. 1, 

The grdm-munsif said that this " kovil'* or chapel wsts held in great 
respect by the country-folk and was originally there before the present 
fortifications were built. Sacrifices are still made in times of drought and 
dearth and are supposed to be very efficacious. 

The temples at the base of Chenji and some of the sculptures and 
remains are very interesting, extensive and well wrought, but apparently 
modem, though quite deserted and going to ruin. The monkey god 
Hanuman is to be seen in several places sculptured on the rocks. 

Since the road was made which passes through part of the Chenji 
fortress, it has been frequently visited and despoiled of its sculptured 
treasures. I was informed that the fine columns which adorn the'^* Place^* 
at Pondicherry were removed hence by stealth, by an enterpriziiig 
Frenchman. But we need not grudge them, for they are appreciated 
highly where they are, instead of being neglected and lost sight of in the 
spot where they formerly lay. 

Some very handsome sculptures have been removed and set up at 
Cliittdmdr, a few miles distant to the eastward, near a new temple built 
by a neighbouring chief. 

The traditional founder of the fortress is said to be one Supalaka (or 
perhaps rather Tupdkala) Ndyak. 

I may here mention that the Stalapurana of Senji-K6ttai' was stated 
to have been taken away by the Collector of the District (S. Arcot), a few 
years ago, and never returned. 

At Mailam (^zMayurastalam) near Tindivanam, the Tambur^n (or 
abbot) informed me that his temple was founded by King Jayamba or 
Jayambaga MaharAja, from the north, who also founded or built Senji- 
K6ttai. This old fellow is a very fine specimen of a man who never 
touches flesh or any cooked food, but lives on fruit and milk only. He has 
repaired and restored his temple and is now building a fine stone gdpuram oa 
which I was shown a sculpture of himself in the style of an old bearded 
liishi. He reminded me of the Tamburan (or abbot) of Tiru(p)pan- 
andal near Kumbakonam. 

Another very interesting place I visited near Tindivanam is Peru- 
mukkal (" PtfrwacoiZ" of Ornie and of the Indian Atlas, sheet No. 78). 
Perumukkal is the common pronunciation in the district. At the place 
itself it is called, and written also, Perumukkul. 

Like Senji-K6((ai it has been a fortified stronghold for some centuries. 
It has a flne large stone mandap on the summit and some small temples or 
shrines, but the ruins of some larger ones strew the summit, sides and base. 

The rock is an isolated one of dark granitic boulders, very precipitous 
in most places. It is the last to the S. S. Eastward of the rocky masses 
that stud the plain of the Karnatik to the south-west of Madras. 

1€S0.] B. R. Bran611— 2)<?*m>^/o« of tlie Oreaf Siva Temple, 7 

I noticed stone circles at its eastern base, as well as at other stony 
places to the west and south-west, on both banks of the Ponniyar (S. 
Fennar or Pinakim.) 

Mr. Garstin in the S. Arcot District Manual gives Peru-mukal (^= great 
travail), from a legend of Sitadevi having here given birth to twins. There 
are two villages near, called Nalmukktil (or Nanmukkul) and Palamuk- 
kul, names having reference to the same legend. Mr. Garstin also men- 
tions Janikipeftai, and I may add Bdmandthapuram, all in the immediate 
viciDity. But the old Sanniyasi or hermit sent for the stalapurana (kept by 
an artizan in the neighbourhood) and wished to show me from it that the 
proper name of the hill is Mukkiyachalam, and that it is therein styled 
Madhyakasi (Middle Kasi) and is the scene of Kishi Yalmiki's penance, 
death and burial. A ruined shrine attached to the mandap is pointed out 
as the spot where he was interred. 

There are the remains of many fine sculptures here, destroyed by the 
Muslim, and many inscriptions on the base of the temples. 

The fort was held and besieged repeatedly in the wars of the Karndtik 
in which much damage was done by the roundshot. 

The following observation may be worthy of record. 

At Gangaikon^apuram the wells are said to have a perennial supply 
of good water near the surface, that fails not in the driest seasons ; and 
at Chidambaram the same is said of the great tank in the temple enclosure. 
At Tiruvadi (AS. 79), close to Panrutti, I noticed in the bed of theGedilam 
or Garudanadi (the " Cuddalore** river) a natural spring or fountain of 
clear water, welling up with some violence in the midst of the muddy 
river-water. It is said to be perennial and to be as good as Kav^ri water, 
whence it is locally called KoUadattumSiai = Kolladam or " water- spring". 

In connection with these I may mention the artesian wells that have 
recently been opened at Pondicherry and suggest that the perennial supply at 
Gangaikon^apuram, Chidambaram and Tiruvadi may be explained by there 
being at those places a connection with the water-bearing stratum whi ch 
is the source of the artesian wells, underlying the extensive laterite beds 
of the Cuddalore or S. Arcot di-strict. I have heard of other places, parti- 
cularly near Villapuram on the South Indian Railway, where the subjacent 
springs have been tapped by the natives and the outflowing water long since 
utilized for irngating their fields. 

8 B. R. Branfill — Bude Megalithio Monuments in North Arcot. [No. 1, 

Hude Megalithio Monuments in North Arcot, — 
By LiEtJT.-CoLOXEL R. B. Beanpill. (With a Plate.) 

I have just had an opportunity of visiting the disused tomb-Jleld at 
Iralabanda Bapanattam, in the Palman^r taluk of North Arcot. 

The tombs here are of unusual interest from the size, shape and ar- 
rangement of the slabs of which they are composed, and the rarity of their 
chief characteristic. 

The usual kistvaen or megalithio sepulchral cell is enclosed by three 
concentric rings of upright stone slabs, each slab having its top rudely 
worked (chipped or hammer-dressed) into a semicircular or a rectangular 
shape, and set closely side by side alternately, the round-heads standing 
higher than the intermediate flat-heads by the amount of their semi-diame- 
ter, ». e,, the height of the rounded portion, so as to form a parapeted wall 
of rounded merlons with flat silled embrasures. 

These walls or parapets rise in three concentric tiers on a slight 
mound or cairn, a foot or so above the general ground level. 

The outer circle or tier consists of some 24 slabs, nearly 3 feet wide, 
half of them being semicircular at top and standing about 3 feet high, the 
whole forming a ring fence or enclosing wall about 30 feet in diameter. 

The second tier has IG slabs, 8 of them round-headed, rising to a 
height of 6 or 6 feet above the cairn or mound ; the whole forming an in- 
termediate ring- wall about 22 feet in diameter. 

The third or inner wall is composed of four prominent round-topped 
slabs, 8 to 10 feet wide, and 12 or 15 feet high above the cairn, and 4 or 6 
feet higher than the other four flat-headed slabs that stand between them, 
and complete the inner ring, an octagon of some 16 feet in diameter, or 
rather a square of 12 to 15 feet, with the corners cut off. 

The kistvaen or sepulchral chamber nearly fills up the internal space, 
the capstone or covering slab of which sometimes projects horizontally 
beyond the chamber below it, so as to fit closely to the fc^r great round- 
headed slabs that enclose it, the 4 flat-headed corner stones being only 
about the same height as the capstone, and narrower than the others. 

The only entrance to the interior was apparently intended to be solely 
by small holes broken in the two or three central slabs on the east front, 
and nearly opposite to the similar hole in the eastern wall-slab of the kist. 
There is a kind of antechamber or closed portico between the inner 
chamber and the inner enclosing wall, provided with a moveable shutter 
stone or slab. 

The stone slabs used throughout are comparatively very thin, being- 
usually about 3 inches thick, and even the great capstones seldom exceed G 

1880.] B. Branfill — Bude Megalithic Monuments in North Arcot. 9 

The whole forms an imposmg structure, and recalls the idea of a small 
citadel or fortification. 

There are many examples, perhaps a score or more of this pattern, still 
partly standing, and about as many more of a very similar kind, only with* 
out the round-headed projections, all the slabs in each ring or tier being of 
the same height, about 7 feet above ground level, and completely hiding 
the enclosed kistvaen. 

Dividing the tombs into three classes according to size, and counting 
the fallen and half buried, as well as those standing, there are 170 of the 
1st or biggest, 210 of the 2nd, and 200 of the 3rd or smallest sort, a simple 
kiflt composed of slabs from 2 feet square and upwards, more or less buried 
in the earth, and without any enclosing walls or circle of stones remaining. 

Most of the tombs in this nehropolU are much ruined and overgrown 
by jungle so that 1 suppose there may well have been many more than 600 
tombe here, within a space 500 yards long and 300 wide. The interments 
have but a shallow covering of soil, sometimes less than one foot. 

On excavating they were found to yield the usual sepulchral relics, ex- 
cept that iron weapons were very scarce or entirely absent;, whilst the terra- 
cotta coffers were more abundant than in the similar tombs of Mysore. In 
cne, a few ornamental beads, similar to some taken out of the Coorg tombs, 
were found lying near the remains of a human skull. 

Some of the coffers, sepulchral troughs or trays, were ornamented 
with a chain ornament in festoons and furnished with projecting rings or 
loops and prominent hooks, as if to hang garlands on. Some were mere small 
flat oval troughs, whilst others ranged up to i feet long, 2 feet wide and 
high, and were furnished with four or five pairs of legs. 

Perhaps however I need only further mention the chief novelty that 
struck me, and this may be no novelty to others. 

Two or three Tamil letters were found scratched on a fragment of a 
little bowl. They seem to spell the words saduma or ehathum or chadud ; 
the final letter ( ? m^ is very doubtful and may be intended for a terminal 
4^ or /, if that were admissible. 

I have some rough notes and sketches of a few of the monuments, but 
had no leisure to explore further. A careful collection and close scrutiny 
of every fragment of the pottery (which is abundant and of the rude but 
antique and polished kind) would probably yield some valuable and curious 
information as to the habits, &c. of the tomb builders. 

The locality has a bad character for being feverish and is in a very 
retired part of the country just above the Eastern Ghats. 

The way to it lies through Chitttir and Palman6ri whence there is a 
good road for 15 miles co the S. W. to Baireddipalle, and thence a bridle 
path for 6 miles vid Neilipatla to Bilpanattam. The nearest name marked 

10 C. J. Rodgers— 2%d Coim ofihe MakdrajaU of Kdngra, [No. 1, 

on the old Indian Atlas, Sheet No. 78, is " Yerlahund&h" (? Irala-rock). 
The. Irala are the wild folk who roam the jangle in search of forest pro- 
duets and a free silvan life. Daring the rainy season some of them are said 
to dwell in these tombs, many of which would afford them perfect dwelling- 
houses, and the marks and relics of their recent occupation are to be seen 
frequently and unmistakeably. 

I know of but three or four other places where these peculiar rounded 
slabs are to be seen, but they will probably be found to be more common 
when looked for. 

The Coins of the Mahdrdjahs of Kdngra, — By C. J. Bobgebs. 

(With a plate.) 

Kangra is the name of a fort and town situated at the junction of two 
mountain streams which form a tributary of the Bids on its right bank ere 
it leaves the hills. The coins in the accompanying Plate II go by the name 
of E&ngra coins now-a-days. Bnf the r4jahs whose coins they are were known 
in history by the name of the Rajahs of Trigartta, the country of the three 
rivers, the Rdvi, Bids and Sutlej. The family of these Rajahs claims its de- 
scent from Susarma Chandra, governor of Multdn at the time of the Mabdbhd- 
rata. After the war was over they went to the hills for refuge and erected 
the fort of Edng^ for their protection. The district under the Rdjahs of 
Kdngra seems to have been like all districts governed by such Rajahs in old 
unsettled times. Eiingra was their mountain stronghold. Hie neigh- 
bouring district of Jalandhar was subject to them, and must have furnished 
a considerable portion of their revenue. So the Rajahs of X4ngfa would be 
known at that time as Rdjahs of Jalandhar. Being of the lunar race they 
kept the title Chandra after their names. 

The Indo-Scythians conquered the fort of Kdngra. When Mahmdd 
conquered it " the genealogical roll of the Indo-Scythian princes of Kabul 
for sixty generations was found in the fortress of Nagarkof by Mahmdd's 
soldiers*'* (E4ng^ is known in the history of India by the name of 
Nagarkof). From this fact, and from the immense amount of wealth 
taken from Kdngra by Mahmtid, General Cunningham infers that ^ E&ng- 
fa must have belonged to the Rijahs of Eabul for several generations, and 

• General Chmningham*B Arohseological Report, Vol. V, for 1872-3, p. 155. Th© 
General quotes Abu RihiLn's etatement ae contained in Al Biruni. I may here state 
that I am indebted to this report for nearly all my facts concerning the Mahirijahs of 
E&ngnra and to General Cunningham for much valuable aid generously given when I 
began to collect the coins drawn in the plate. 

1880.] C. J. Rodgers— I%tf Coins of the Maharajah^ ofKdngra, 11 

thai it was their cbief stronghold in which they deposited their treasures/'* 
Not only this, but G^eneral Cunningham thinks that the wealth aceumula- 
ted in K4ngnt at that time consisted of the silver pieces of the Hindu 
Bajahs of Kabul which are even now found so plentifully throughout the 
Pan jab — ^the coins of Samanta Deva, Syalapati Dera, Bhim Deva and Eha* 

davaja DeTa.t 

One foct bearing strongly on this view the General seems to have over- 
looked. All the coins of the Kdngra Rajahs with some few rare exceptions 
are of the horseman type. Some are of the bull and horseman type with 
the names of the Bajahs over the bulls. Nay more than this, the earliest 
Kingra coins bear the name of Samanta Deva over the buU. That they 
were coined in Kangpa no one will doubt who will cast his eye over the 
coins of the Bajahs in the plate. 1 once attributed the first two coins to 
Susanna Chandra. But a careful examination of the letters together with 
the results of a comparison of the letters of other coins with these, has 
convinced me that they are the coinv of Samanta Deva. 

The list of names of the Bajahs of K4ng^ from Susanna Chandra 
down to the last Rajahs is of course obtainable. There is no reason for 
doubting its correctness. But as yet no coins have been found going fur- 
ther back than Prithvi or Pithama to whom General Cunningham assigns 
the year 1330 A. D. This is an approximation only, but based on fair rea- 
Boning. Judging by the number of coins obtainable of any prince we may I 
think fairly infer the length of his reign. The fewness of the coins argues 
that the reign was short. Before Pithama 1 believe the coins of Saminta 
Deva were coined and used at Kdng^a. There are immense numbers of 
these coins found yearly in the Panjab. Some of them have the horseman 
after the usual type, horse well shown and the whole body of the rider with 
letters on either side his head. The bull is well developed too and the 
name above it is generally legible. But the Kdngra type of Samanta Deva, 
which the die-cutters of the mints of the R4jahs of Kang^a seem to have 
slavishly adhered to, is unmistakeable, after it is once studied and known. 
The other well drawn coins are probably those of the Kabul or some other 

We must not be surprised if the coins of all the BAjahs are not obtain- 
able. The coins of Kashmir, though very abundant, have many kings 
unrepresented. The coins of Chumba a neighbouring state to Kdng^a bear 
only the names of a few Rdjahs, although the list of kings numbers no less 
than 170 sovereigns. Coining seems to have always been considered the 
peculiar privilege of paramount sovereigns or of independent rulers. Bear- 
ing this in mind, we need not wonder if any hiatus occurs in the lists of 

• Ibid, p. 166. 
t I have seen sevezal hundreds of these coins this your. — C. J. B. 

12 C. J. Eodgers— OT« Coins of the Mahdrdjaha of Kdngra. [No. 1, 

coins as compared with that of the B&jahs. Nor must we wonder if a small 
number of coins turns up bearing names of rulers to whom we cannot attri- 
bute anj country. Jalandhar and Kdngra must have been subject at dif- 
ferent periods to Kashmir as well as Kabul and perhaps to Kanauj. Gene- 
ral Cunningham gives the following list : — * 


Name in 

Name on 











Contemporary of Firoz. 














Contemporary of Muhammad Sayid of 
Delhi, A. D. 1433—1446. 




There is <me coin known of Devanga. 











Died 1528, A. D. 













Behelled against Jah&ngir, 1619 A. D. 
Triloka was the last king who coined. 
There are 1 2 more names given in the list. 

A little study of Plate II will show that the coins are of several kinds. 
The commonest is that which has a hull on the ohverse, with the name of 
Bdjah ahove the hull. The reverse in every case except one has on it what 
is intended for an image of the horseman and horse. But as a rule there are 
only the legless hind- quarters together with the thigh and hoot of the rider 
visible. The one mark on nearly all of them is the spear the horseman carries. 
First of all fixing this and remembering that the spear is carried close 
behind the man's thigh, to the right should come the horse's head and to 
the left the hind-quarters. But in reality only portions come on the coin. 
The die must have been as large as the silver coins of Samanta Deva which 
are a little broader than a four-anna piece. The boot is in some cases fully 
visible. But the head of the horseman is nowhere to be found. The spear 
has a notch on it near the bottom and a flag at the top. So it was a regu- 
lar lance. Whether the man wore armour or not we can't say. 

These coins are found in considerable numbers not in Kdngfa itself, but 
in Ludi^na, Jalandhar and Umritsur. Vast quantities of them are how- 

• Vol. V, ArchaBological Report, p. 152. 

1880.] C. J. B.odgers—The Coins of the Mahdrdjahs of Kdngra. 13 

ever annuallj melted down and very soon there will be no more obtainable. 
Some of tbem may contain a very small amount of silver. It is very 
seldom I now meet with any in Umritsur. It is so with everything. I do 
not know what provision Government may be making to secure a cabinet of 
coins for the museums of the country. I believe no provision whatever is 
being made. A few private collectors are at work for their own cabinets 
which in the course of a few years will find their way to Europe. The 
coining generation will have to receive history on mere hearsay. The nu- 
mismatic monuments are fast disappearing. The old Rdjahs in many cases 
are known already only by name. No records are obtainable of them. One 
would think that before it is too late Government should interest itself in 
the matter. The British Museum is far richer in the coins of India than 
any Museum in India. This is a mistake. If India is to be for the In- 
dians, it is a pity to export from the country all those mementoes of former 
things and dynasties. Patriotism and loyalty go hand in hand with us. It 
would surely be wise in our Government to create a love of country in the 
hearts of the people of India. We want something to displace the grasp- 
ing and selfishness which everywhere show themselves. The historic 
remains which lie round about us are not understood, or are rather misun- 
derstood and not valued. History is taught as a matter of dates and 
names and is useless. Museums are collections of odd things which are to 
the educated and uneducated alike voiceless. The teachers of history can- 
not read the coins which would add interest to their lessons. 

Of all the provinces of India, the Panj4b has more historic associations 
than any other. From the time of Darius to that of the Empress of India, 
the Fanjdb has been an arena on which great struggles have taken place. 
Tet the coin cabinet of the Lahore Museum is wretchedly poor. A few 
(jneco-Bactrian coins, a few Indo-Scythian coins and a few odds and ends 
with the names attached to them of the persons who presented them (!) are 
all that are visible to the ordinary visitor. The curator, in whose charge are 
the valuable coins which are always kept under lock and key, is generally 
engaged during the day. So visitors passing through Lahore see next to 
nothing of what ought to be visible at all times. There is no catalogue of 
the ooinSy and many valuable ones have been already lost. This is again a 
mistake. It is exactly the same at Delhi, where the coins are all in a box ! ! 

These remarks are made not in a captious Spirit, but with a real desire 
to direct attention to the proper use of museums and provincial coin cabi- 
nets, and also with the hope that both be made more use of in the 
education of the people for whom the museums were built and with whose 
money they are supported. 

I will now proceed to make a few notes on the coins represented in 

Plate IL 

14 C. J. Rodgers — The Chins of the Mahdrdjaha of Kdn^ra. [No. 1, 

No. 1. ifi a coin of Samanta Deva. Obverse above bull Srt Sam : reverse 


No. 2. is a coin of the same prince, with Srt Samanta above bull, inverse 


No. 3. Pithama. Obverse Sri Pithama Chandra (Deva), reverse horse- 

No. 4. Ditto Obv. ditto., rev. do. 

No. 5. Ditto. Obv. ditto., rev. do. Horse's neck ornaments shown and 

whole leg with pointed boot. 

No. 6. Apurvva. Obv. Maharajah Sri Apnrvva Chandra (Deva), rev. 

horseman plain and horse's eye visible. 

No. 7. Ditto. Obv. Sri Apu(rwa) Chandra Deva Maharajah, reverse 


No. 8. Ditto. Obv. Sri Apurwa Chandra, rev. horseman. 

No. 9. Ditto. Obv. (Sri Apu)rvva Cha(ndra) Deva, rev.^horseman. 

No. 10. Ditto. Obv. bull, above which Sri Apu(rvva), rev. horseman. 

No. 11. Bupa. Obv. bull, above which Sri Bupa Cha(ndra), rev. horse- 

No. 12. Obv. bull, above which Sri Eupa Chandra, rev. horseman. The 

horses of Nos. 10, 11 and 12, have beads round their necks. 

No. 13. Apurwa. Obv. (Apurvva) Chandra Deva Maha(rajah), rev. 


No 14. Singdra, Obv. Mah^r^jah Sri Sing^ra Chandra Deva, rev, 

horseman. Very poor. 

No. 15. Megha. Obv. Maharajah Sri Megha Chandra Deva, rev. horse - 


No. 16. Hari, Obv. Maharajah Sri Hari Chandra Deva, rev. horsemaiU 

Neck ornaments and eye of horse visible.* 

No. 17. Ditto. Obv. Maharajah Sri Hari Cha(ndra Deva). The letters of 

the first line are all suspended from one line drawn across the 
coin as in Hindu letters. Bev. horseman. Head of horse^ very 
much deteriorated. 
(This king Hari soon after his accession tumbled into a well while out 

hunting. He was rescued after an interval of several days had elapsed. In that 

* Since I wrote this article I have come across a coin of Harf ^^. The coin 

in the paper is of Hari ^f^. Now in conversing a few days ago with G^eral 

Cunningham on this matter I said that 1 was inclined to ascribe this rare coin to the 
king who was the brother of Karmma and who was hidden in a well for some days. 
He quite agreed with me. The coins of the paper which as I say are found in great 
numbers, would then resolve themselves into the coins of the king Hari who lived 
after Triloka, A. D. 1630-o0, whose coins those of Hari resemble iir make and letters. 

1880.] C. J. Rodgers— I^ Odim of the MaMrdjahg of Kdngra, 16 

interval however he was accounted dead : hiB brother ascended the throne, 
and his wives mounted the funeral pile. When he came back he found 
Ksrmma reigning, and he went and took up his abode in the outskirts of 
his brother's dominions. I cannot account for Hari*s coins being so plenti- 
foL Out of several thousands 1 have seen, I have seen only one of Karm- 
ma, while at least one-fourth of the whole must have been Hari*s. A Hari 
succeeded Triloka : perhaps these or at least some of them maj be his coins 
although General Cunningham's list closes with Triloka.) 
No. 18. Karmma. Obv. bull, above which Sri Earmma, rev. horseman. 
No. 19. Sinsdra» Obv. Sri Sansdra Chandra Deva, rev. horseman with 

a large flag on which is a peculiar mark. 
No. 20. Avatdra. Obv. Maharajah Sri Avatara Chandra Deva, rev. 

(There is one coin of Devanga, the goModied^ known ; I gave one to 
(General Cunningham.) 
No. 21. Narmdra. Obv. Maharajah Sri Narendra Chandra Deva, rev. 

Na 22. Dharmma, Obv., in a square area which is surrounded by a circle 

of dots, Dharmma Chandra ; rev., in a circle surrounded with 

a circle of dots, Durga Devi. 
No. 23. Tr^loa. Obv. Maharajah Sri Triloka Chandra Deva. All the 

lines have the letters suspended from one line going across 

the coin. This coin and No. 8. are alike in this matter. 

Rev. horseman. 
No. 24. Ditto. Obv. ditto without lines, each letter separate, rev. horseman. 

Hinder part of leg and thigh visible and hind*quarters and legs 

of the horse.* 
The coins of Megha, Avatdra E^armma and Dharmma are very rare. 
" The coins of Bupa, Singara, Sansira and Narendra are rare. Those of 
Pithama, Apurwa, Triloka and Hari are common. The Kdngfa types of 
Samanta Deva are very common." 

* Where the whole name is not on the coins, the part omitted is in brackets. 

16 H. S. Jarrett — 2Tote on an Inscription found in Kashmir, [No. 1, 

Note on an Inscription found upon a stone lying near the ruins of a Masjid 
on Lanka Island, Wular Lake, Kashmir, — By Majob H. S. Jae- 

BETT, B. S. C* 

The inscription which is in Persian, is as follows : — 

^Ij ^ Jtj>^ ^.pyt *^-v^ *^ eA^ J j^^ ^^ ijij ^ 
May this edifice be as firm as the foundations of the heavens, 
May it be the most renowned ornament of the universe, 
As long as the monarch Zayn Ib4d holds festival therein 
May it be like the date of his own reign, — " happy." 

As is well-known the letters of the Arabic alphabet, like those of the 
Hebrew orPhenician and consequently of the Qreek,are used as numerals, and 
the grouping of certain letters into a suitable word is frequently made to serve 
as a memoria technica among the Easterns to recall a date. In the above 
inscription, the numerical value of the letters in khurram {^j^ ^^PPj) 
is 847 which is the year of the Hijra it is intended to record. This 
date is equivalent to A. D. 144!3-4 during which Zayn-til-^dbidin (the 
Zayn Ibdd of the inscription — ^for both have the same meaning, viz,^ orna- 
ment of the Adorers) ruled in Kashmir. 

It may be interesting to glance cursorily over the events which pre- 
ceded the accession of this prince from the period of the close of the last 
Hindu dynasty in the eleventh century of our era. 

The Hindu history of that country has been discussed in a short Essay 
by Horace Hayman Wilson which will be found in the XVth Vol. of the 
Transactions of the Asiatic Society. He takes as his guide the first of the 
series of the Baja Tarangini, by Ealhan Pandit who commences his history 
with the fabulous ages and carries it down to the reign of Sangrama Deva 
the nephew of Didda Hdni in Saka 949 or A. D. 1027 approaching to 
what Wilson considers to be the Pandit's own time Saka 1070 or A. D. 
1148. The next two works of the series, viz,, the Kajavali of Jonah' Raja 
and the Sri Jaina Eaja Tarangini of his pupil Sri Vara Pandit, continue the 
record to the accession of Fath Sh4h, which Wilson places in A. H. 882, 
but is given by Muhammad Aazam author of the Persian history of Kash- 
mir, as in A. H. 897 (A. D. 1491-2). 

• [A rubbing of this inscription was sent to the Society by Mr. Arch. Constable. 
The stone bearing the inscription is apparently a slab of black slate, well polished 
and finished, and measures 21) by 12 inches and 2} inches thick. The rubbing was 
taken on the 22nd September, 1874. The inscription, as shown in the rubbing, con- 
tains several inaccuracies ; thus in the 2nd line «^ J is wrongly spelled «,^3 - the Ist 

and 4th lines have j^ instead of j^^ two dots being omitted apparently for want of 
space. Ed.] 

1880.] H. S. Jarrett — ITote on an Inscription found in Kashmir. 17 

In the following survey I have followed the narrative of tliis last men- 
tioned historian who calls himself the son of Khayr uz-Zaman and who 
commenced writing his history in the year 11^7 A. H. (A. D. 1731-5) 
during the reign of Muhammad Shah of Hindustan. His work follows the 
order of the Sanskrit and is divided into three periods, the first treating 
purely of the Hindu dynasties, the second of the Muhammadan, and the third 
of the subjugation of the country by the House of Timiir, with some con- 
cluding remarks on the features and curiosities of the country. 

With the second period alone is this Note concerned, and the narrative 
is taken up at tbe accession of the last Hindu Kajah Sahdco in A. H. 705 
(A. D. 1305-6). During his reign occurred an irruption of the Turks 
under Zulju whose ravages left for generations the traces of his incursion. 
Forced to leave the country in the winter after a stay of eight months, the 
army, betrayed by guides, perished in the mountain snows. IMany of the 
inhabitantii of the ountry had fled in fear of their lives, some to Tibet, 
others, including Kajah Sahdeo, to Kishtwarah where he remained in hopes 
of some day recovering his crown. His General Ham Chand who had been 
among the fugitives returned to Kashmir with a refugee from Tibet named 
Bihju to whom in former times he had accorded his protection. The coun- 
try was now in a state of anarchy, each petty chief asserting his own inde- 
pendence. Kam Chand and his people occupied the fortress of Lar. llijhu* 
or Binju (for the name is indistinctly written) seeing his opportunity 
gathered a few followers round him, made himself master by stratagem, of 
Lar, put Bam Chand to death and took his family prisoners. He now 
(A H. 725 A. D. 132^1) openly assumed the sovereignty, married the 
daughter of Ram Chand and won to his side the son of that Chief by grant- 
ing him the government of Ldr and Tibet and appointing him to a high 
command in the army. Though Buddhism was nominally the prevailing 
religion at this time, the country was distracted by the dissensions of secta- 
ries, whose hostile and contending claims to religious truth perplexed the 
inquirer dissatisfied with the national religion. Such an inquirer was Haj4 
Hinju, who after much perturbation of spirits and constant prayer, was led 
by divine inspiration — so runs the simple narrative — to watch a Moslem at 
his devotions. He saw, admired and believed, and soon led his court and 
people to embrace the Muhammadan faith. This monarch died in A. H. 727, 
after a reign of a little more than two years and a half, and the ruins of a 
once noble alms-house and a splendid mosque attest his reverence for the faith 
of his adoption. His widow Kotahrinif married Udayn Deo, brother of the 
last Bajd, who continued with his consort to carry on the government till 
the year A. H. 742, when he died. One of the Generals of tbe army coming 

* The Bijataranginf has the name Binchan. 
t In the Bajatarangini Eotah liani. 

18 H. S. Jarrett — Note on an Inscription found in Kashmir, [No. 1, 

of a royal stock, named Shabmir who, settling in Kashmir in the reign of 
Sahdeo as a merchant, had fast risen to place and power, now thought him- 
self strong enough to marry the twice-widowed queen and to usurp the 
crown. She refused his overtures, but he made himself master of her per- 
son, and she was forced to yield a reluctant consent to the espousals. She, 
however, slew herself during the marriage festival and Shabmir now be- 
came undisputed master of the crown (A. H. 743 A. D. 1342-3) and 
assumed the title of Sultdn Shams-u'd-din. He died in 747 A. H. (A. D. 
1346-7) leaving two sons, Jamshid and Ali Sher. 

The reign of Jamshid was short. He was defeated and slain in battle 
by his brother who succeeded him in 748 under the title of A14-u'd-din. 

Ala-ud-din*s rule of ten years is marked by no important event. Ho 
died in A. H. 748 (A. D. 1356-8) and was buried at Ala-u'd-dinpura. 

His son Shahab-u'd-din succeeded to the crown on the death of his 
father. He employed his energies in clearing the country of rebels and 
marauders, and annexed Fakli, Dantaur and the tract, called the Saw4d 
Kabir, to the crown. He wrested Tibet from the ruler of Kashghar and 
ventured to march towards India, then ruled by Firtiz Shah. After a 
campaign in which the victory was with neither party, peace was concluded 
on these conditions that the country from Sirhind to Kashmir should ap- 
pertain to Shah^b-'ud-din, while all to the eastward should acknowledge the 
sovereignty of Firuz Shah. Muhammad Aazam* notes with surprise that 
this fact, which he says is mentioned by many historians, is left unnoticed 
by the author of the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi. I may add that it is equally- 
omitted by Elphinstone. (A. H. 758, A. D. 1356-7.) 

On his return to Kashmir, he built the capital of Shahdb-u'd-dinptira 
of which now not a trace but the ruins of a mosque remain, and he destroj'ed 
the large idol temple at Bijdrah.f In the year A. H. 778 (A. D. 1376-7) 
he died. 

Kutb-ud-din his brother succeeded him in A. H. 780 (A. D. 1378-9). 
He ruled with justice and moderation and was celebrated as a scholar 
and a poet. Kutb-ud-dinptira commemorated his name and the metropo- 
lis of his kingdom. He died in A. H. 796 after a reign of sixteen years. 
During his time occurred the advent to the court of Sayyid Ali Hamaddni, 
the sixteenth in direct descent from Ali-b-Abi-Talib, the son-in-law of 
Muhammad. He was revered for his sanctity and eminent virtues, and his 
influence guided the counsels of the monarch. The Sayyid bestowed on him 
his own cap which Kutb-tid-din wore in the royal crown. It is feigned that 

* His son Muhammad Aslam, who is the anthorof the History of Kashmir entitled 
the Gohiur-i A&lam and has made considerable additions to his father's work, g^oes so 
far as to say that the conquests of Shahab-dd-d^i were carried northwards beyond the 
Oxus and southwards beyond Lahore. 

t Called also Bihtoh or Bij BihiUah, 

1880.] H. S. Jairett — Note on an Inscription found in Kashmir. 19 

its eflScacj secured the throne to the monarch's successors until the reign of 
Fath Shdh who directed it to he huried with him, from which period dates 
the decline of the dynasty. 

His son Sultan Sikandar, hetter known hy the title of the Iconoclast 
from the number of idols he destroyed, assumed the sovereignty in A. H. 
796 (A. D. 1393-4). During his reign, the rapid advance of Timtir 
on his march to India, induced Sikandar to conciliate the Tartar conque- 
ror hy despatching his son Shahi Khdn known afterwards as Zayn-u'l A&bi- 
din to his court with presents and friendly letters. Timdr gratified hy this 
conduct, left him in possession of his territory but detained Sh&hi Khan in 
Samarkand which he never left until Timdr*s death. Sikandar after a 
reign of twenty-five years and nine months, died in A. H. 822. A superb 
mosqne which contained 372 columns, each 40 cubits in height and 6 in 
circomference, was begun and .completed by him in the space of three years 
under the direction of two famous architects Khwajah Sudr-tid-din Khora- 
sani, and Sayyid Muhammad Nuristdni. To his piety was also owing the 
erection of the great mosque of Bijdrah, and with the exception of the 
rattle of the royal kettle-drums, no profane music was permitted to disturb 
the austere tranquillity of his capital. Through his munificence the walls 
of the romantic gardens of Sbalimar were extended as far as the Parganah 
of Phag and their stability was assured or blessed by the burial beneath 
their foundations of all the Hindu works that could be collected. As these 
treated either of idolatrous rites, astrology or history that was fabulous, 
they were considered by the monarch as condign objects for destruction. 

He was succeeded by his son Ali who reigned but six years and nine 
months. This prince bent upon performing the pilgrimage to Mecca 
resigned his kingdom in A. H. 828 into the hands of his famous brother 
lAjn dl ^4bidin and set out on his journey. A. H. 822. (A. D. 1419). 

A H. 828. (A. D, 1424-5.) Zayn til Aabidin was noted early in life 
for his abilities. He employed the time he had spent in Samarkand in 
adding to his store of knowledge, and on his return to his country he 
brought with him a number of artificers, such as paper-makers, book-binders, 
carpet-weavers, saddlers and others to improve the industries of his own 
land. His brother Ali having reached the territory of his father-in-law 
the Jammu Chief, was persuaded by him to abandon his pilgrimage and re- 
sume his sovereignty. Ketuming therefore with an army, he was met by his 
brother Zayn ul Adbidin, who gave him battle, defeated him and placed 
him in confinement wherein he shortly after died. The powerful faction of 
the Gurjis who in the time of his father possessed great influence in state 
affairs, and who favoured the cause of his brother, was exterminated by him 
at Naushahr, at which palace he erected a place for his own residence. 

His time was now spent in promoting the prosperity of his country 

20 H. S. Jarreti; — Note on an Inscription found in Kaskmtr. [No. 1, 

and in repairing the ravages o£ the irruption of the Turks under Zuija 
which the lapse of more than d century had not yet been able to efface. 
He was a liberal patron of men of letters and encouraged the progress of 
the arts, especially favouring the artificers whom he had introduced from 
Samarkand. He travelled much over his dominions and his Hindu and 
Muhammadan subjects lived at peace with each other undisturbed by 
religious dissensions, which if they arose were amicably settled by puncha- 
yets at which the monarch himself would preside. This conduct gained 
for him the title of the Great King. 

According to tradition in the vicinity of the Wular lake once stood a 
city of which the Raja was Sudrasen. By reason of the enormity of his 
crimes, the waters of the lake rose and drowned him and his subjects. 
It was said that during the winter months, at low water, the ruins of a 
submerged idol temple might be seen rising from the lake. Zayn ul Adbi- 
din constructed a spacious barge which he sank in the lake and upon which 
be laid a foundation of bricks and stones till it rose high enough to be level 
with the water. Upon this he erected a mosque and other buildings and 
gave the islet the name of Lanka, The expense of the work was defrayed 
by the fortunate discovery of two idols of solid gold which had been 
brought up from the lake by divers. On the completion of Lanka the 
kino" ordered a great festival to be held wherein great sums were distribut- 
ed amongst the poor. Verses were written by the poets to commemorate 
this event, and among these the inscription under notice by Ahmad AUamah 
Kashmiri was engraved upon a stone and placed above the Mihrdb or sanc- 
tuary of the mosque. This Ahmad Kashmiri was the author of theNdr- 
nama, a Persian translation made in the time of Zayn dl Adbidin of an an- 
cient History of Kashmir in the Kashmirian language by Shaikh Nur-tid-diu 
Wali. His translation was 'made use of by Muhammad Aslam the son of 
Muhammad A^zam, in amending the omissions of his father's History. 
Mention of the slab with its inscription is made by Muhammad i^azam 
who gives a faithful transcript of the verses Muhammad Aslam states 
that he visited Lanka in 1167 A. H. (A. D. 1753) and observing the 
inscription carried it in his memory and records it in his work. His 
second line runs thus — 

which shows that either his memory failed him or he was unable to decipher 
the line more correctly given by his father. 

The further history of Zayn lil Adbidin it is perhaps unnecessary to 
record. He died in A. H. 880 (A. D. 14.76) and was succeeded by his 
son Hydar Shah. His tomb may still be seen below the Zayna Kadal, the 
fourth of the thirteen bridges that span the river Jhelam in its course 
through the vaUey of Kashmir. 


18S0.] A. C. CsLvWejle— Coins of the Sunga or MUra Dynasty. 21 

CbiM of the Sunga or Miira Dynasty, fonnd near Rdmanagar or Ahichhatra^ 
the ancient Capital of North Fanchdla, in Rohilkhand: — the proper " 
ty of H, RrvETT-CABNAC, Esq., c. i. e., p. s. a., &c. Described by 
A, C. Cablleyle, of the Arch<Bological Survey of India. 

(With a Plate.) 

The great ruined site of Ahichhatra, the ancient capital of North 
Pancbala and now known as Rdmanagar, has of late heen yielding a plenti- 
ful supply of the coins of the Sunga or Mitra dynasty. Mr. H. Kivett- 
Cflmac has heen so fortunate as- to procure a considerable number and 
rariety of these coins from that find-spot, and he kindly placed them in my 
hands for examination and identification. 

The fact of so many coins of this dynasty having been found so far 
to the north-west from their proper capital city, Pushpapura (or Patalipu- 
tra), may perhaps be held to be a proof of the wide extent of their sway. 
While making some excavations at Bhuila, the site of the ancient city of 
Eapilavastu, in the Basti district, I obtained a considerable number (pro- 
bably about a hundred) of the coins of the Mitras, dug newly from the 
soil, in deep excavations, while I was present on the spot ; they were 
mostly of Agni Mitra and Indra Mitra, with a few of other later kings of 
this dynasty. These coins were mostly of small size ; but the coins obtain- 
ed by Mr. Bivett-Camac, from Eamanagar, are mostly of the largest size, 
with three or four only of the smallest size. 

About one hundred and ten of these coins, belonging to Mr. Kivett- 
Camac, have passed through my hands ; and of these, several bear names 
of kings which are either new, or of rare occurrence, such, for instance, 
as Bhadraghosa, PhagHni-mitra, Surya-mitra* and Anu-mitra, — besides 
several coins of Bhanu-mitra, which were already known. The most nu- 
merous coins were those of Bhumi-mitra, and the next numerous were 
those of Phaguni-mitra, — after whom, in the descending scale of number, 
Jbllowed Agni-mitra, Bhanu-mitra, Surya-mitra, Bhadra-ghosa and Indra- 
mitra ; with also a very few, from other localities, of the later kings, 
whose coins are of quite a different type, such as Vijaya-mitra, Jaya-mitra, 
Satya-mitra and Saya-mitra. 

From the numerical proportion in which the coins of various kings are 
found in a hoard, we can generally make a pretty good guess as to who 
were the earliest, and who the latest, of the series. Thus, the king of 

• [This name was at first read Srayan'mitra by the author. General A. Cunning- 
bun first suggested the true reading Suya or Surya-mitra ; see Proceedings As. Soc 
Beng., January 1880 ; see also below p. 28, Ed.] 

22 A. C. Carlleyle — Coins of the Sunga or Mifra Dynasty, [No. 1, 

whom the greatest number of coins are found in a hoard, may be accepted 
as being either the latest, or the contemporary king, of the dynasty, at the 
time when the hoard was buried or lost ; while the king of whom the fewest 
and most worn coins are found may be accepted as the earliest, in point of 
time, of the series. But a similar numerical proportion of coins of differ- 
ent kings may, sometimes, also have been brought about by accidental 
circumstances ; and therefore we must, in all cases, be guided by the older 
or later forms of the alphabetic characters, which appear in the legends on 
the coins. 

But if we follow the rule enunciated above, in a general sense, with 
sufficient judgment and discrimination, we may apply it in the present case. 
Thus, as the coins of Bhumi-mitra are the most numerous, in propor- 
tion, in the hoard found at Ramanagar, we may suppose that he was the 
latest king of the dynasty, at the time when the hoard was buried, and that 
the hoard was buried during his reign. 

In like manner, as the coins of Phaguni-mitra are the next in point 
of number, to those of Bhumi-mitra, — or in fact nearly equalling them, — 
and were, at the same time, far in excess of the coins of any of the other 
kings, we may conclude that Phalguni-mitra, was the immediate prede- 
cessor of Bhumi-mitra. 

The coins of Agni-mitra and Bhdnu-mitra follow next behind, in 
numerical proportion. But as the coins of these two kings are nearly 
equal in number, it becomes difficult to decide which of them was prior to 
the other. There is, however, one marked distinction about the coins of 
Bhanu-mitra and that is, that the central symbol, of the three symbols 
above the name, is always punched into the coin, with a square punch ; and 
the symbol in this square punch-mark depression is generally a repetition 
of the raised symbol to the right of it ; while on the coins of other kings, 
the central symbol is generally different from either of the other two. Now 
this central square punch-mark depression I have also found on a few coins 
oi Surya-mitra, who, from the greater rareness of his coins and the rather 
more antique form of the alphabetic characters of the legend, I consider to 
have been a predecessor of Bhanu-mitra, — and from these two kings' coins 
having the square punch-marked depression in common, I should say that 
Bhanu-mitra must have been the immediate successor of Surya-mitra. 
Agni-mitra must therefore be of later date, and should probably follow 
inunediately after Bhdnu-mitra. 

The coins of Bhadra-ghosa are the fewest and the most scarce of 
all. And the alphabetic characters of the legend, are of an older tyi)e 
than on any of the other coins, and more nearly approach the forms of the 
old Lat character of A^foka. Moreover the large coins of Bhadra-ghosa 
are very much worn, so much so that the legend is blurred and indistinct. 

18S0.] • A. C. Carlleyle — Coins of the Sunga or Mitra Dynasty, 


Bat Mr. Bivett-Carnac has one most beautiful little coin of Bhadra- 
gbosa, of Tery small size, on which the legend is as clear and distinct as 
poasibley — really wonderfully clear for such a small coin. 

The occurrence of only one undoubted coin, — besides one doubtful 
one, — of Indra-mitra, in this collection, is somewhat puzzling to me, — 
because, from the style of the alphabetic characters on his coins, I do not 
think they are so ancient as those of some of the other lyings \ and I would 
be inclined to place him certainly after Agni-mifcra. The only reason 
that I can offer for this comparative (and perhaps only apparent or local) 
scarceness of the coins of Indra-mitra, is that his reign may have been a 
short one, and either that his residence was in some different part of the 
country, or that the distribution of his coinage was partial I did not find 
that the coins of Indra-mitra were any more scarce than those of other 
kings, among the coins of this dynasty which I obtained at Bhuila (Kapi- 

But, in the present case of the Rdmanagar coins, I think there may be 
Uioiher way of accounting for this, probably merely temporary or local, 
scarceness of Indra-mitra's coins. I would suggest that Indra-mitra was 
the son and immediate successor of Bhdmi-mitra, and that the Kdmanagar 
hoard was buried immediately after the death of Bhumi-mitra, and in 
the early part of the first year of the reign of Indra-mitra. This would 
account for the plentifulness of Bhiimi-mitra's coins, and the scarceness of 
Indra-mitra's, in the Rdmanagar find. 

I will now give a list of those Mitra kings whose names have been in 
any way authenticated \ and I will place them in the chronological order in 
which I think they should be placed ; and opposite to the names of those 
of whom coins were found in the Bamanagar hoard, I will place the number 
of each found, respectively. 

Initial Date. 

B. C. 


Names of Kings. 

Number of OoiuB 
found at Uamnagar. 




Surya-mitra, | 7 

Bhanu-mitra, ' 10 

Agni-mitra, ; II 

Anu-mitra, 1 

Phaguni-mitra, | 28 

Bhumi-mitra, 34f 




1, certain, 
1, douhtfuL 

24 A. C. Carlleyle — Coins of the Sunga or Miira Dynasty. [No. 1, 

I will now proceed to give a detailed description of the coins them- 
Belyes, see Plate III. 

I. — Bhadbaghosa. 

1. Coin, very small. 

A square depression, caused by a die, containing the legend, with three 
symbols above it, — Bodhi Tree, Linga, and Serpents. 

Legend — Bhadraghosasa. 


A curious dumpy figure, as broad as long, of Buddha standing teach- 

2. Coin, large. 

Obverse, A square depression, containing the Legend, with three 
symbols above it. 

Legend — Bhadraghosasa. 

(Note. — The three symbols above the legend are, to the left a Bodhi 
Tree standing on a square base or in a square railing ; — in the centre, a 
linga guarded by two serpents (Ndgs) which rise up on each side of it — ; to 
the right, two serpents intertwined, forming a circular knot in the centre, 
with their two heads extending out, right and left, above, and their two 
tails extending out, right and left, below. This same description will apply 
to all other coins bearing these symbols.) 


Two objects, not distinct. 


3. Coin, middle-sized^ pretty large. 

In a square depression, the legend, with three symbols above it. 

Legend — Surya-mitrasa. 

Symbols above legend : — To left, Bodhi Tree, as before. To right, 
two serpents intertwined, as before. In centre, a square punch-marked 
depression, containing a symbol, which appears to be composed of several 
snakes intertwined. 


Device indistinct. (But, on another coin, it appears to be the symbol 
of Sangha with the Buddhist Wheel of the Law, below it.) 

4. Coin same size as the former. 

In a square depression, the legend below, with three symbols above it. 
Legend — S ury a-mitrasa. 

1880.] A. C. Carlleyle — Coins of the Sunga or Mitra Dynmty, 25 

Bymhoh above the legend: — To left, Bodhi Tree, as before. To 
right, two serpents intertwined, as before. In centre, linga guarded by 
two serpents (Nags) whose heads rise above it on each side. 


Apparently the symbol of Sangha, with the Wheel of the Law 
of Buddha. (This was referred to, in describing the previous coin, the 
reverse of which is defaced.) 

III. — BhXnti-mitea. 

5. Coin pretty large. 

In a square depression, the legend below, with three symbols above it. 

Legend — Bhdnu-mitrasa. 

(Sometimes the last part of the name appears to be mitrasa.) 

SymhoUy above the legend. To the left, the Bodhi Tree, as before. 
To the right, two serpents intertwined, as before. In the centre, a square 
punch-mark depression, containing a symbol composed of four snakes 
intertwined, and forming a squarish shaped figure. 


The symbol of Sangha surmounted by the Wheel of the Law of 
Buddha. But it is possible that it may be intended for a figure of the 
Sun (Bhdnu) placed above a pedestal. 

IV. — Agni-mitba.. 

6. Coin, large. 

In a square depression, the legend below, with three symbols above it. 

Legend. — Agimitasa. 

Symbols above legend. To left, Bodhi Tree, as before. To right, two 
serpents intertwined, as before. In centre, Linga, guarded by two ser- 
pents (Nags), one on each side. 


Figure of Buddha standing, with right hand raised, and rays radiating 
from his head. He stands on a Buddhist Ilailing, between two trees. 

7. Coin, middle-sized, rather small.* 
Ob terse. 

Legend and symbols the same as in the preceding. 


Buddha standing, with right hand raised, and flames ascending from 

• [This is a mistake ; coin No. 7 in the Plate is not one of Agni-mitra, but of 
Bh6mi-mitra, like No. 10. By a mischance the wrong coin seems to have been sent 
to be figarod ; Ed.] 

26 A. C. Carlleyle — Coins of the Sunga or Mitra Dynasty. [No. 1, 

his bead and shoulders. He stands on a sort of ornamental pedestal, pro- 
bably representing the Lotus. 

V. — AlOJ-MITBA.. 

8. Coin, very small. 

Surface of obverse of coin, concavely depressed. Legend in a line 
below. Three symbols in a line above. 

Legend — Anu-mitasa. 

SymboiSf the same as on the coins of Agni-mitra. 


A Buddhist Railing. Above it, a large round ball, surrounded by a 
circle of dots. On each side below, a small round ball, with a curved semi- 
circular figure below it, the concavity of the curve being turned downwards; 
these two latter symbols resemble in shape the later modified old Indian 
form of the letter "T", just preceding the Gupta period. I think 
the central symbol above (namely the round ball surrounded by a circle 
of dots) may be intended to represent the Sun. 

VI. — PnAQinfl-MITEA. 

9. Coin large. 

In a square depression, the legend below, with three symbols above it. 

Legend — Phaguni-mitrasa. 

Symbols^ above the legend. To left, Bodhi Tree standing on a square 
pedestal. To right, two serpents intertwined. In centre, a Linga, with two 
seri^ents (Nags) twined round it, their hoods raised up on each side of it. 


Buddha standing on a lotus, with a canopy over his head. 

VII. — BlIUill-MITEA. 

10. Coin, large. 

In a square depression, legend in one line below, with three symbols 
in a line above. 

Legend — Bhumi-mitasa. 

Symbols, Bodhi Tree, Linga with serpents (N%s), and two serpents 
intertwined in a knot, — as on the coins of Phaguni-mitra and Agni-mitra. 


Buddha standing between two trees, on a Buddhist Railing. Rays or 
flames ascend from the head of Buddha. 

1SS0-] A. C Carlleyle — Coins of the Sunga or Mitra Dynasty, 27 


II. Coin, rather small. 

Legend and three symbols in a square depression, as on the other 

Legend, — Indra-mitasa. 

Symbols, the same as on the two preceding coins. 


A squat figure of Buddha, above a Buddhist Railing. 

(^Note : — The legend on some other coins of Indra-mitra, which I 
have seen, appeared to read simply as " Inda-mitasa," while on a few it 
seemed to have the still more mutilated form of ^^ Ida-mitasa." 


Since my Paper on the coins of the Sunga or Mitra Dynasty was 
forwarded to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, I have seen in the collection 
of Mr. Rivett-Camac, another apparently unique coin of a king of this 
dynasty called Ayu-mitra, which I believe to be a new name. This 
king must have been one of the latest of the dynasty, as the letters of 
the legend belong to the later Gupta period. 


Coin, round, middle sized, copper. 
Obverse, Bull. 

Inscription, underneath, A-yu mi-ta-sa. 
Beverse. Apparently a Peacock and Palm-tree ? 

The legend on this coin is clearly and distinctly just as I have given 
it above, and there can not be any doubt whatever about it. This coin 
therefore must not be confounded with the common, though similar, coins 
of Saya-mitra, with which I am well acquainted. 

In order to complete the list, I may mention that I have heard from 
General Cunningham that he has a coin of a king of this Dynasty named 
Dhrava-mitra. But as I have not seen Qeneral Cunningham's coin 
and therefore I do not know its age, I can not tell where to place Dhruva- 
mitra in the line of succession. But no doubt Greneral Cunningham will 
describe the coin himself. 

With the sole exception of the last named king, I think I feel pretty 
certain of the place which the rest of the Mitra kings respectively should 

28 C. R. Stiilpnagel — Coins of Ghids-ud-din, Sfc. [No. 1, 

occupy in the order of succession. We now know of fourteen kings of 
this dynasty, and I would place them as follows : — 

1. Pushpa-mitra. 8. Bhiimi-mitra. 

2. Bhadraghosa. 9. Indra-mitra. 

3. Surya-mitra. 10. Vijaya-raitra. 

4. Anu-mitra. 11. Satya-mitra. 

5. Bhinu-mitra. 12. Saya-mitra. 

6. Agni-mitra. 13. Ayu-mitra. 

7. Phaguni-mitra. 

The fourteenth king would be General Cunningham's Dhruva-mitra ; 
but not having seen the coin, 1 can not tell in what position to 
place him. 

Of course I have never seen any coin of Pushpa-mitra ; but he is 
nevertheless sufficiently authenticated otherwise ; but I have seen and 
examined coins of all the remaining twelve kings. 

With regard to the name Surya-mitra, 1 may now state that I have 
since seen several other coins of this king, and that the result of my 
examination of these other and more perfect specimens is that the name 
must be read Suya or Surya Mitra ; and in this I agree with General 
Cunningham. On most of these coins the name appears to read as Suya^ 
with a dot (.anuswara?) above the y; but on at least one coin, the 
name reads clearly as Surya, the repha appearing quite plainly on the top 
of the y. 

Coins of OhidS'Ud'din and Mn'oz-ud-din bin Sam. — JBy C. R. Stitlpnagel, 

M. B. A. S. 

(With a Plate.) 

The extracts from the Tabakat-i-Ndsiri made by Sir Henry Elliot in 
his History of India contain but little information concerning Ghias-ud- 
din of Ghor, nor is this want of details much to be regretted except for the 
fact that the coins obtained hitherto generally join the name of this ruler with 
that of his younger brother Mu'az-ud-din who is looked upon as the first Pathdn 
king of Delhi. It is stated that when ' Ala-ud-din Husain, surnamed Jehan- 
soz, ascended the throne of Fir6z-k(5h, he imprisoned his two nephews 
Ghias-ud-din Muhammad Sam and Mu'az-ud din Muhammad Sam in a fort 
of Wahiristan, and settled an allowance for their maintenance. He took 
Ghazni, but did not make it his permanent residence. After his death he 
was succeeded by his sou Sult&n Saif-ud-din. This king released the two 

1880.] G. B. Stalpnagel— Cbm« of (Sfhids-ud-din, ife. 29 


princes, his cousins, of whom Ghi^-ud-din dwelt peacefully at Firoz-koh, 
taking seirioe with the Sultan Saif-nd-din, whereas the more adventuroas 
Prince Ma'as-ud-din proceeded to Bdmi4n and there found employment 
under hu nncle Fakhr-ud-din Mas'dd. But when Ghi^-ud-din succeeded 
to the throne of Gh6r after Saif-ud-din's tragical death, Fakhr-ud-din in- 
stigated his nephew Mu'az-ud-din to bestir himself and likewise acquire a 
regal position. The latter accordingly started in all haste to his brother's 
court where he was received in a friendly spirit. He served Ghi4s-ud-din 
one year, after which the countries of Kasr-kajdr&n and Istiya, between 
Herat and Ghazni, were assigned to him ; and at a subsequent period he obtain- 
ed possession of the city Takinab&d, specially noted as the largest town in the 
Garmsir. In 569 A. H. (1173 A. D.) Sult^ Ghids-ud-din conquered the 
town of Ghazni, but returned to Gh6r after placing his brother Mu'az-ud- 
din upon the throne, who secured in addition the territories of Ghazni and the 
country round about in 570 A. H. In the third year after this time, Mu'az 
ud-din led his forces to Mult^, and henceforth his history becomes merged in 
tiiat of India. Of Sultan Ghiis-ud-din scarcely anything more is known, 
but it should be remembered in his favour that, instead of getting his bro- 
tiier murdered, he treated him with the greatest kindness, and always 
associated his name with his own on the coins of the realm. Ghi4s.ud-din 
died at Herat in 599, and Mu'az-ud-din was murdered by the Gukkars at 
Bohtak in 602 A. H. 

Coins in the joint names of Ghi&s-ud-din and Mu'az-ud-din have already 
been published by Mr. Edward Thomas in his " Chronicles of the Pathan 
Kings of Delhi," two of which are of gold and two of silver, the latter being 
ingraved in the first plate and numbered one and two, the latter being iden- 
iieal with the one described by Wilson in the Jriana Antiqua, pL XX, 29. 
I have lately acquired eight specimens of dirhems of these Ghori brothers, 
all of them different from those already described. Of these, three are 
simikr to No. 1, pL I of Mr* Thomas's book ; see Plate lY. They are of 
sQver weighing, on an average, 74 grains and have their legends arranged in 
tiuee concentric circles, the patronymic occupying the centre. The first, 
however, differs in this that the outer circle containing the date (597) is 
finmd in the obverte with the name and title of Ghi^-ud-din, and not on 
the reverse as on Mr. Thomas's coin. I thought it at first just possible that 
the engraver might have committed a mistake, and changed the outer circles 
of the obverse and reverse, but such a supposition is unlikely from the 
transcript of the coin in the body of the book, which clearly shows that the 
date belongs to the reverse. Moreover it is totally immaterial on which 
side the date is actually placed, and it is actually found on the reverse 
together with Mu'az-ud-din's name, on two of the coins described in the 

30 C. R. Stulpnagel— C<?t«« of Qhids-ud-din, Sfc. [No. 1, 

sequel of this paper. Although the margins are both a little abraded, they 
can with ease be supplied from the next coin. I may, however, remark that 
this coin could not have contained the name of the month of the year, as 
there is not sufficient space for its insertion. 
The following is the transcript : 

Date 597. 

ajU) 4JA4A. j crfe**^ ^ c>-» **-• • • <y (^)^^ • • First circle, 

^ift ^\kU\ Alft ijy^j *♦«* aJJi ill aUi if Second circle. 

^^1 ^t ^,c^\ ^ ^A ^^ Third circle. 

^Lm ^^ (>4.s^ Centre. 


• • • tj^f^ (y^\ {ji^ J i^^k ^Irr) ^j vkjJ' j^ First circle. 

yuo fJaxJi ^^lkl-J( aU\ ^^Ji^)^^M\ Second circle. 

>^iyt e;JdJ| J UiiJi Third circle. 

^L. ^^ Osi^^ Centre. 

The last two of the three coins with concentric inscriptions referred to 
above, differ from the first in this that they have the arrangement of date 
just as in the Thomas's pi. I, No. 1 ; viz., the date (596) is placed on the 
reverse containing the name of Mu*az-ud-din. The size, however, is smaller, 
and the letters less bold. The Ariana Antiqua, pi. XX, 85 is probably a 
similar coin to my two ; but as Wilson, owing to the worn condition of the 
coin in his possession, was unable to describe it, I include it in this paper. 
The outer circle of the obverse contains the Surah common to all Ghori 
coins ; the second has half the Kalima, which is afterwards continued in 
the second circle of the reverse ; and the third circle and centre show the : 
names and titles of Ghi4s-ud-din. The reverse has in the first or marginal 
circle the place of mintage and the month and year in which the dirhem 
was struck. Part of the second and the third circles and the centre, like 
those of the obverse, contain the titles and names, but of Mu'az-ud-din« 

Ghazni^ month Zi-ul-hajja^ A. H. 596. 


j^j ^ cri*^-*' is^^ h^ (3*^' c^J^ J iS'Hi^, ^j^j lU) J^>'f >k First circle. 

1880.] C. K. Stulpnagel— Ci>fn« of Ghids-ud-din, ^e. 31 

^Ifl c;LkUJl aUi ^:;jiJ^U;r Al^l Kl *^f y Secondcircle. 

^1 jJ» e;J«>^» J ^^^ tiilxi Third circle. 

^ cr? •^♦** Centre* 

yfr,J^ liM* Aiw d^**^' t^-i <^ *i>^ **^ ^^ (^-^«^ ^"^ v-r^ First circle. 

^y**^Jfe*Jl ^j,lkLJ| &U| J^-^ «j^«* Secondcircle. 

,ji^l yt er!«*^^ J ^•i' Third circle. 

^U ^ A*.«* Centre. 

The other five coins have never been described before, as far as I know, 
and are qaite of a new type. They were obtained from an itinerant Kabu- 
11 who was very shy in speaking of the place where they had been originaU 
Ij procared ; but as in his conversation he said that he had been in Ghazni 
and Kabul, and had lately come to Lahore by way of Jellalabad, it may be 
reasonably presomed that they were not found in the Panjdb, but in the 
Kabul valley, or perhaps in or near Ghazni. AU of these coins are likewise 
MnominaL The weight is between 56 and 79 grains. The area on either 
side is a square composed of double lines, with the inscription arranged in five 
lines. The enclosing margin is of course in four sections. It is bounded by 
doable circles. The margins are partially abraded, but fortunately one coin 
18 sufficiently well preserved and the following inscription can be therefore 
made out with accuracy : 

Dates 697 and 598. 


Area:— aUiKiaJiK 

aUI Jymj «3^•** 

Margin : — *^ eW*^' o^ i^J^ &^^ cH^i j J^^ ^j^j d^j vkpiy^ 

Area: — «iJl ^iH«>^^Wj 

Margin : — ij^ ij^J crt«--5j o^ ^jj^ ^^ ^jJ\ 1^ ^j^ 

82 C. B. Stulpnagel— Co»fM 0/ Qhids-ud-^in, ^e. 

Of these five £rbemS| four have the date on the reverse together with 
the name of Mu'az-ud-din, and one on the obverse, l^one contains the pUce 
of mintage. 

All these coins, bearing evidence to the joint rule of the two brothers, are 
dated 596, 597 and 598 A. EL, and must have been issued towards the end of 
their reigns, for GhiiLs-ud-din died in 599 and his brother three years after- 
wards. Comparing the titles of the two sons of Bah&-ud-din Sam, the 
elder, Ghi&s-ud-din, is always called ''ul'azam"the greatest, Sult&n, ulnasr- 
1-din illah and abdl fath, whereas to his younger brother are applied 
mu'azm, '' great," 8ult4n, nasr-1-din and abtil muzafr. It was only after 
the death of Ghi&s-ud-din that Mu'az-ud-din called himself by the higher 
Bounding title of 'azam. 






.-' ,- '^ r' 

O' \ 

No. II.— 1880. 7 : ^^ V \ 

A GoUeetion of Hindi Boots, with BemarJcs on th^ D^iyatip^^anc^' / 
Classification. — By Db. A. F. Budolf Hoee^i^.l. p:\^^^^ ' ^/ 

This Collection was prepared by me some years ago and w^wii^ally 
intended to form part of my Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Lan- 
guages, and to illustrate the Chapter on Roots. The present introductory 
remarks give the substance of that chapter. 

The Hindi, like any other language, possesses roots. By this term 
I here mean the constant element in any series of sense-related words. 
Thus in the ELindi words hol-i " speech," bol-dhaf " calling," hol-and 
"speaking," hoUd "spoken," hol-ai "he speaks," &c. the constant ele- 
ment hoi is the root ; the remainder are suffixes and vary according to 
the meaning which is to be expressed by means of the root. 

A root may be determined in Hindi, or for that matter in any Gaudian 
langoage, by detaching the suffix of the 3rd person singular present ai 
(or e) from the word, when the remainder will be the root. Thus in boUai 
"he speaks," kar-ai "he does," bujh^i "he understands," bol, Jear dixudi 
hujh are the roots respectively. 

For comparing Hindi roots with Sanskrit, this is the most con- 
venient rule. For a large number of Hindi roots are not derived from 
the pure Sanskrit root, but from that modified form of it, which is con- 
fined to the present tense (or the so-called special tenses generally). 
Thus the Sanskrit root hudh " understands," takes the form budhga in 
the present totfse, whence arises the Hindi form bujh. From the Sanskrit 
ludk comes the 8rd person sing, present budhyate, in Hindi hujhai ; but 
£rom it comes also the participle future passive boddhavya " to be under- 
stood" ; in Eastern Hindi this form is hujhab or bujhibf Western Hindi 


84i A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots, [No. 2, 

hiijhibau, which transliterated into Sanskrit would be hudhyitavya. This 
shows that in Hindi the form hujh acts as a root, precisely as hudh 
does in Sanskrit. 

Putting aside mere phonetic differences, as in the Hindi sikh or stkh, 
Mardthi ^ik "learn," Eastern Hindi chavy Western Hindi chal " walk," the 
Gaudian languages differ very little with regard to their roots. There are, 
however, a few exceptional cases of roots which are confined to some 
particular Gaudian language. Thus " see" is in Sindhi pas, Marathi pdh^ 
but in Hindi dis or dekh, the Sanskrit pas^ preksh and dris ; again " come" 
is in Sindhi ach, Bangdli dis or d«, but in Hindi dv or a, the Sanskrit 
dgachh and dyd. 

Boots, as a rule, do not undergo any change, when entering into con- 
junction with suffixes ; except in the formation of the Causal Verb, in 
which case a long vowel is always shortened ; thus hoUand *' to speak," 
but bul'dnd " to call'* ; chhor-ani " to loose," but chhur-dni " to cause to 
loose" ; ghum-and " to turn," but ghum-dnd " to cause to turn" ; pt-nd 
" to drink," but pi-ldnd " to cause to drink", &c. There are, however, 
a few exceptional cases of changeable roots. These are kar " do," dJuir 
** place," ^a " go," le " take," de " give," mar " die." These roots assume 
a considerably different form in the formation of the past participle and 
past tense ; viz., the first five become ka or ki, dha or dhi, ga or gi, la or />, 
da or di respectively, and mar becomes mu. The regular, unchanged 
forms, however, also occur, and generally these three forms are peculiar 
to some one or other of the Hindi dialects. Thus the High Hindi has 
the past participle ki-yd " done," Eastern Hindi ka-il or ka-yal, but 
Western Hindi kar-au ; Eastern Hindi also has the radical form ki in 
Jci'his " he did," ki-hin " they did."* So also High Hindi ww-a or mar-d 
" dead," Eastern Hindi mu-il or mu-ah 

Roots, when determined as above explained, may be divided into two 
classes, primary and secondary. To the former class belong all those roots, 
the originals of which, though sometimes more or less disguised by subse- 
quent phonetic modifications, exist in Sanskrit. Secondary roots are those, 
which have no Sanskrit original, though their origin can be traced to Sans- 
krit elements. Thus the Hindi root khd " eat" is a primary one ; for its 
original is the Sanskrit root khdd ; but the Hindi root paith "enter" 
is secondary ; for there is no Sanskrit root pravishf, though there is a 
Sanskrit participle pravishfa "entered" (of the root ^r«-risj, from which 
it is derived. 

Among the primary roots there are a few which have suffered no 
phonetic modification. Thus, the common root chal " walk" ; W. H. 
ehalai, H. H. chale, Skr. chalati, " he walks." (The E. H!!, however, has 
eliarai). But most of them have passed through some sort of phonetic 

* A is a euphonic insortion, for the sake of assimilation to lih'%9 " he took", lih^in 
" thoy took". 

1890.] A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Qollection of Hindi Boots, 85 

change. These changes are of seven kinds, of which sometimes one, some- 
times several have afEected the same root. Thejr are — 

1. Simple phonetic permutation, consisting in the elision or softening 
of a consonant, the contraction of adjacent vowels, and the like. E. g., 
itW "eat," Skr. khdd ; chu " leak," Skr. %i*^—^or " break,'' Skr. ^wf 
(causal of trut) ; par ** fall," Skr. pat ;^-paro$ " distribute," Skr. parivesh ; 
Aa«be," Skr. bh^ (bhava), Ac. 

2. Incorporation of the " class-sufflx,^^ that is, the suffix, which in 
Sanskrit is inserted between the root and the personal endings, and 
according to which Sanskrit roots are divided into ten classes. In Hindi 
these suffixes are incorporated with the roots. Thus, bujh ^^ understand," 
Skr. budh + ya (budh IVth class) ; hop " be angry," Skr, kup + ya {kup 
IVth) ; ndch " dance," Skr. nrit + ya (nrit IVth) ; sun " hear," Skr. 
sri + «» (sru Vth) ; bhanj " break," Skr. bhanaj fbhanj Vllth) ; jdn 
"know," Skr.yi -h nd (Jnd IXth), (fee. 

3. Incorporation of the passive suffix ya. Thus, lay "belong," 
Skr. lay + ya ; sich " irrigate," Skr. sich-ya ; de " give," Skr. di + ya 
{da), &c. 

4. Change of " classJ* In Sanskrit all roots are divided into ten 
classes, partly according to the various suffixes which some take before the 
personal endings in conjugation, partly according to internal phonetic 
changes which some undergo. The simplest roots are those of the Vlth 
class ; they are not subject to any internal change, but merely add the 
suffix a. In Hindi all roots alike are reduced to the simple form of the 
Vlth class. This is done (a) by sometimes substituting the suffix d of the 
Vlth class, for another suffix ; or (b) by changing the final vowels of 
other class-suffixes (u in the Vth and VII Ith classes, a in the IXth class) 
to a. Thus (a) pdva " obtain" (Vlth), Skr. prdp + nu (Vth ; as if it 
were prdp + a Vlth) ; mdnya "ask" (Vlth), Skr. mdry 4- aya (Xth) ; 
again (b)' kara " do" (Vlth), Skr. kar-u (Vlllth, kri) ; jdna " know" 
(Vlth), Skr. jd + nd (IXth, jM). That is, the Hindi roots pdv, 
many (wilf), kar,jdn, all of the Vlth class, correspond to the Sanskrit 
roots prdp, mdry^ kri, jnd, of the Vth, Xth, Vlllth and IXth classes 
respectively, Ac. 

5. Change of " voiced Some Hindi roots are derived from the 
passive base of a Sanskrit root. Thus, bhaj " break" (active), Skr. 
hhaj -^ ya ** be broken" (passive of bhanj) ; de " give," Skr. di-ya " be 
given" (lid) ; sak " can," Skr. sak -f ya (sak) ; bik " sell" (act. intrans.), 
Skr. vikri-ya (vikri), &c. 

6. Change of tense. Some Hindi roots are derived from the future 
base of a Sanskrit root. Thus dekh " see", Skr. drakshya (future of drif) ; 
(old H.) nakh or nankh "destroy" or "throw away", Skr. nankshya 
(future of nos) ; (old H.) krakh " draw", Skr. krakshya (future of krish) ; 
hktch or khaich "draw," Skr. krakshya (future of krish). 

36 A. P. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Roots. [No. 3, 

7. Addition of the pleonastic suffix api. Thus si^hdv "please," 
Skr. suJch (as if it were sukhdpi). In causal rootss this is the universal 
rule; e, ^., kardv (or shortened kard) " cause to do,"^ as if it were derived 
from a Sanskrit root kardpi (instead of kdrt). 

It will be observed that the laws 2 and 4, and again 3 and 5 are 
closely connected. 

The preservation of a final single consonant (especially a hard con- 
sonant) in a Hindi root is a sure sign of its having been affected by the 
8rd or 6th law. The final g of such a very common root as lag would 
not have been able to escape elision during its passage through Pr&krit, 
unless it had been protected by another consonant following it ; Skr, 
iagati " he belongs" would become Pr. ladi, H. lai ; but Skr. lagyate is 
Pr. laggaty H. lagai or lage,* 

The termination aya of Sanskrit roots (or rather bases) of the Xth 
class and of causals is contracted in Prdkrit to e. This e is changed to a 
in Hindi, by the 4th law. Thus Skr. mdrgaya " ask" is Pr. magge^ 
H. rndfiga (i?hr) ; Skr. tro^aya "break" is Pr. tode^ H. tora. On the same 
principle the Skr. vikriya " sell" (pass.), which in Pr. becomes vikke, is HL 
bika; thus Skr. vikriyate "it sells," Pr. vikket,'H., bikai or (contracted) 6»A;0. 

Secondary roots may be divided into three sorts, according to the 
manner of their derivation ; whence they may be called derivative, de- 
nominative and compound roots. 

1. Derivative roots are those which are obtained by the shortening 
of a radical vowel, JE. g., nah " flow" from nahd " bathe", Skr. snd. It 
will be observed that this process is the exact reverse of the well-known 
method by which Causals are formed in Sanskrit. These are made by 
lengthening a radical vowel ; e, g.y from the simple root kar " do" Sanskrit 
forms the causal root kdri " cause to do," for which, by the 7th law, 
Hindi places kardv or kard. Now, mistaking ndhd, which really is a 
simple root, to be a causal root (as if it meant '' cause to flow"), Hindi 
re-derives from it a simple root nah ; the pair of roots nahd and nah being, 
in outward appearance, exactly like the pair kard and kar, 

2. Denominative roots are made by treating nouns, as if they were 
roots. The nouns which may be treated in this way are either substantives 
or participles. To the former class belong such roots as jam " germinate," 
derived from the Sanskrit substantive janma " birth" (of the Skr. root 
jan " be born"). Of the other kind are paifh " enter," derived from the 

* This process is expressly mentioned by Pr&krit Grammarians, in the case of 
a few roots ; as Pr. rujjhdi (or nibbhdi) act. " he hinders" as well as pass. ** he is hin- 
dered," from Skr. pass, rudhijate ** he is hindered," while the Skr. act. is runaddhi 
(Vllth cl.) ; see H. 0. 4, 218, 245, 248. But it clearly occurred in more cases, than 
they recognized ; thus, in all those cases enumerated in H. C. 4, 230. The case of the 
Hindi root bhiy " break" is exactly similar. See also S. Goldschmidt in J. G. O. Soc^ 
Vol. XXTX, p. 492. and Weber Saptafataka, p. 64. 

1880.] A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots. 87 

Sanskrit participle />rat^w^/a "entered" (of the Skr. root^^^^-t^? "enter'*) ; 
laith " sit" and pi^h " beat", derived respectively from the Sanskrit 
participles t^avishfa " sitting" and pishfa " beaten" (of the Skr. roots 
ipff9f« and pUh) .* 

8. Compound roots consist of the Sanskrit root kri "do" or 
'* make," and some noun governed by it in the accusative case ; in fact, 
they represent phrases in a contracted and much corrupted state. They 
csn easily be recognized by their terminal consonant k^ which alone remains 
of their original radical element kri. Thus ehuk " cease" is derived from 
ehyut + kri, which is a compound of the Sanskrit noun ehyut " flowing 
away" and kri "make ;" e. y.,the Skr. 3rd pers. sing. pres. ehyut-kriyatCj lit., 
** he is made a flowing away," is Pr. chukkei, H. ehukai {or chuke) "he 
ceases." Similarly ruk " stop" or " be hindered" comes from rut + kri^ 
i e.f from the Sanskrit noun riidh " hindrance" and root kri " make ;" 
again kasak " be pained" or " suflier pain" from kasham + kri, i, e., from 
the Skr. noun kasha " pain" + kri " make." It is probable, I think, that 
the Prakrit termination (3rd sing, pres.) kei, Hindi kai or ke, is phoneti- 
cally derived from the Sanskrit passive krtyate " he is made," Skr. rut 
karoti would mean " he makes a hindrance" ; this phrase, being treated 
as a compound word, would form the passive rutkriyate,\ " he is made a 
hindrance" or " he is hindered," whence would regularly arise the Prakrit 
rukkei, and the Hindi rukkai or rukke " he is hindered." Many of these 
compound roots are intransitive, which would naturally agree with their 
derivation from a Sanskrit passive root or base. Others which are tran- 
sitive could, however, be no less easily derived in the same way, by the 
aid of the fifth of the above-mentioned laws, the " change of voice." 

By far the largest number'of Hindi roots can be brought under one 
or the other of the above-mentioned classes. Still there remains a small 
number of roots, the derivation of which, as yet, cannot be satisfactorily 
explained ; e, g., dho " carry," lauf " return.'* Even these, further research 
will probably show to belong to one of the two great classes. 

The root dekh claims some special consideration on account of the 
controversy regarding its origin to which it has given rise. Various 

* Bcames in his Comp. Grammar, Yol. IH, p. 37 (footnote) says ahont me that " he 
diacnflsed this as if it was his own discovery in Indian Antiquary, Vol. I, p. 357." The 
word "if" is superfluous. The fact is, my article appeared in the December number 
of that Journal in 1872, and was written some months previously. Beames' Ist Vol. ap- 
peared towards the end of that year, and I did not receive it till after some time in 
1873 ; 00 that when I wrote the article, it was impossible for me to know, that my 
views had been anticipated by Beames ; though, indeed, it may be questioned, whose 
the merit of the first discover}' is, if such a matter can be dignified by that name. 
Moreover my theory has a much wider application than Beames', as it includes nouns 
as well as participles. 

t A mongrel form, no doubt, but nothing unusual in colloquial speech. 

88 A. F. R. Hoernle — A Collection of Hindi Boots, [No. 2, 

theories have been put forward,* among which that of Childers is now 
probably more generally accepted than any other. Stated briefly, his theory, 
as first applied to the Pali root-form dakkh, is that this root is derived 
from the Sanskrit future base drahshya (Skr. drakshyati = Pali dakkhati), 
its original future meaning having been forgotten in later timesf- The 
theory, if true, must, of course, equally apply to the root in its Prakrit 
and Qaudian form dekh. In this form, however, it can hardly be directly 
connected with the future base. But there is, both in Prakrit and 
Gaudian, another very common root pekh, also meaning " see'*. It 
appears to me most probable that the original form dakh was in course 
of time changed to dekh, in order to assimilate it to pekh.X The forma- 
tion of such, more or less unintentional, assimilations is quite in keeping 
with the genius of vernacular languages. There are some very striking 
instances in Hindi. For example there is in E. Hindi the pair of roots 
de "give", and le "take", representing the Sanskrit roots (^ and /a&&. 
The 3rd singular present are dey, ley, Pr. dei, lei ; here ley and lei " he 
takes" are formed in assimilation to, or after the analogy of dey and d&'i 
" he gives". Prakrit has also the regular form lahdi " he takes", from 
Skr. laWiate, Again the E. Hindi has the past participles dihal " given", 
lihal " taken" ; hero dihal is formed after the analogy of lihal, from 
Prakrit lahida. From the transitive pair of roots pekh and dekh, ano- 
ther, similarly assimilated, -pair pikh and dikh is derived with, generally, § 
an intransitive meaning " be seen", " appear". A more serious objection 
to Childers' theory, in my mind, was the fact, that the origin assigned to 

♦ The whole subject of this controversy will bo found briefly, but lucidly reviewed 
in Beames* Comp. Grammar, Vol. Ill, pp. 45, 46. He does not mention, however, 
the ingenious theory of the two Goldschmidts (Paul and Siegfried), who explain 
de/ckh as a denominative root derived from the past participle drishta, by assuming 
the well-known modem pronunciation of "^ »A as ^9 ArA to have already existed in 
Prakrit ; (see S. Goldschmidt's Pracrtica, pp. 6 — 8, and P. Goldschmidt's Essay in Got- 
tingcr Nachrichten, 1874, pp. 518 — 520). But there is no evidence, really, of the existence 
of that usage in Prakrit ; moreover in the modem vernaculars, "^ would not be pro- 
nounced ^ , when it stood first in a conjunct, but only when it stood singly or second 

in a conjunct; thus one might hear puruJch (^^^) or barkhd ('RT), but not jehk^h 
(SJU, always y^A /A). 

f In Kubn's Beitrage zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung, Vol. VII, p. 460; 
also in a private letter to myself. 

t Beames also was of this opinion in his Comp. Gr. Vol. I, p. 162, where ho 
remarks : " it is perhaps worth notice that in scenic Prakrit a very frequent word for 
* seeing* is pckkh, and that possibly the existence of this verb may have had some in- 
fluence on the creation of the somewhat anomalous form d^kk. The idea is based on 
the well-known fondness of the Indians for jingling words of similar sound." He 
now appears to have abandoned it, in Vol. Ill, p. 46. But it cannot be dispensed 
with ; so far at least, as the relation of the later dekkh to the earlier d^ikkh is concerned. 

§ In the old Hindi of Chand's Prithiraja Rasau, dikh and pikh are commonly used 
in a ti'ansitivc sense (sec, e, y., the verse on p. 39) ; also in modern Hindi occasionally. 

1880.] A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots. 89 

dekh seemed to be an unique one. So far as I know, no parallel case of such 
a process of creation of a new root from the future base has hitherto been 
shown to exist. Quite lately, however, in xnj reading of Cliand's Prithi- 
raja Basaa, preparatory to my edition of it in the Bibliotheca Indica,* 
I have come across two other striking instances of that process, so that 
I now incline to consider Childers' theory to be fully proved. For this 
reason, I have nowf inserted it in the list of laws of formation of roots, 
above enumerated. Those two instances are the roots nahJch or nankh 
"destroy" or ** throw away" and krakJch " draw" or " pull." The former 
occurs, e, y., in the following verses : 

^^fti 7r^?t «ir^ 'ft B (or ^ ) 27, 88. 

i e, " impatiently he throws away his rosary with his hand" ; again 

IR ^TK ^'^ ftre^^T iTt^ n 27, 84. 

i e, " the chiefs of the cavalry he fearlessly destroyed." 
The root hrakJch occurs in the following lines : 

ftWT ^r^ ^t ^^ ^T« fq^T I 

». e, " unblushingly searching for a partner, Sachi (wife of Indra) espied 
him, and, like as the fish her young, so she drew him to herself." 

Now the origin of these two curious roots finds a very easy explana- 
tion, by applying to them Childers' theory. The future of the root nas 
"perish" is in Sanskrit naiikshyati, which would be Pr. nanlchai or 
nakkhal^ whence in Hindi nankhai or nakkhai with meaning of the present. 
It is to be noted, that in Hindi the meaning of the root has become tran- 
sitive (by the 5th law). Similarly the Sanskrit future of the root 
hriik " draw" is krakshyati, Apabhram^a Pr. krakkhai, whence in Hindi, 
with meaning of present tense, krakkhai. It should be observed, that the 
rhyme in the above lines would require krikhyau or a root krikh. This 
may serve to illustrate the process by which assimilations of radical forms 
are brought about in the vernaculars. 

But further there is a another well-known Hindi root, the origin of 
which, hitherto very puzzling, now finds an easy solution and thus serves 
as an additional confirmation of Childers' theory. This is the root khecli or 
khaich or khench (i^) or khainch (^^) " draw." The Sanskrit conjunct 
ksh may change in Prakrit to kkk or chchh ; thus the Skr. root preksh " see" 
hecomes pekkh or pechchh in Prakrit ; the Sanskrit future base draksliya 

* Three fasciculi of this Epic have heen published, one of the 1st Vol. by 
Mr. Beamcs, and two of the 2nd Vol. by myself; a fourth fasciculus (3rd of Vol. 
II) as well as an annotated English translation of the 1st fasc. of Vol. II will appear 
in the course of this year. 

t It is not in the list given in my Comparative Grammar, pp. 161 — 171. 

40 A. F. R. Hoemle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots, [No. 2, 

" will see" becomes dakkha or daehehha in Pdlkrit (see H. C. 3, 171).* 
Similarly the Sanskrit future base krakshya or karkahya would, in Prakrit, 
become kajckha or kachchka ; and the Sanskrit compound future base 
akarkshya (of root d + krish "draw") would become dakkha or daekchha. 
With the insertion of the usual euphonic y, the latter would become 
dyachchha. The Prdkrit Srd singular future accordingly might be 
dyachchhdi or (with the not unusual nasalization instead of the redupli- 
cation of a consonant) dyanchhn; and, assuming Childers' theory to be 
true, this form miglit occur as a present, equivalent to the Sanskrit 
karshati. Now what I have thus constructed theoretically, is an actual 
fact, as testified by Hema Chandra in his Grammar (4, 187). He gives 
the following forms dyanchhaiy ayanchhai^ dinchhaif as Prakrit equi- 
valents of the Skr. karshati. The last form diinchlKn (^TTTWr) ^&s arisen 
by contracting ya into f, and is that form which has immediately passed 
into Hindi, with this difference only, that chh has been disaspirated (a 
process not uncommon in the modern vernaculars). Hindi has ainchai or 
enchai (^^ or ^^). Now to return to khech and its compeers ; the uncom- 
pounded root krish would yield a Prdkrit form kachchhai or kanchhalj 
which in Hindi, by transferring the lost aspiration of chh to k and by 
assimilation to ai^chai and enchai^ would result in the modern forms 
khaifichai or khenohai (iB^ or #V ), or without nasalization, khaiehai and 
khechai. It will be observed that the later forms khe^chai or khaifichai are 
related to what would be the earlier forms khanchai or kanehhdiy just as 
the modern dekhai and Prakrit dekhhm are to the Pdli dakkhati. 

There are two other roots which also deserve a special word. One is 
the root hokh " be" or " become." It is an equivalent of the commoner root 
ho by the side of which it is very commonly used in Eastern Hindi. In 
"Western Hindi, I believe, it is unknown. It is regularly conjugated, through 
all tenses. Its origin is obscure. I am inclined to look upon it as formed 
by the same (practically pleonastic) suffix sk which also occurs in such roots 
as achchh " be", gachchh " go", jachchh " hold", the element sk would 
change in Prakrit either to kkh or to ehchh ; so that hhusk (or hhavask) 
would become Pr. hokkh, H. hokh, just as dsk (of ds) becomes Pr. achchh, 
H. achh, or yask (of yam) becomes Pr. y achchh. Possibly — though I do not 
think it, probable — the origin of dekh might be accounted for in a similar 

* See also footnote on page 49. The Pr&krit word aariehehha " similar^' exhibits 
the root-form diehcha, which is to dekkh (or dUckh), as peehehh is to peJckh, On the 
other hand its Sanskrit equivalent sadrikska exhibits the Prakrit root dekh or diehh in 
its Sanskrit dress dfikshf and is, I believe, the only instance of the admission of 
that mongrel Prdkrit root into Sanskrit. 

t The MS. readings vary. H. C. also gives the forms ano^^cAAaV and naehhat; 
in the former the nasal has been transferred to fill up the hiatus, in the latter ot if 
contracted into a. 

1S80.] A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection of mndi roots, 41 

The other is the still more common root dv (or H. H. d) "come." 
Its origin has, I think, not yet been satisfactorily explained. One would 
naturally connect it with the Skr. root i-ya, from which, clearly the 
Marathi root ye " come" is derived. But this does not explain the termi- 
nal consonant v in the Hindi dv. Now it is a curious fact, that the root 
dt imitates, in every respect, the conjugational forms of the root ^dv (Skr. 
prdp^pra^p)^ instead of those of the root^a "go" (Skr. yd) which one 
woold expect it to follow. Thus, present participle E. H. dvat or W. H. 
dtatu "coming," E. H. pdvat or W. H.pdvatu* "obtaining," but E. H. 
jdt or W. H. jdtu " going ;" past participle E. H. &il or dyal or dvd, 
W. H. dyau " come," E. H. pdil or pdyal or pdvd, W. H. pdyau " ob- 
tained," but E. H. gdU or gayal or gayd, W. H. gayau " gone ;" 3rd sing, 
present H. dvai, H. H. dve " he comes," H. pdvaiy H. H. pdve " he 
obtains," but lEL.jdy, H. 'H.,jde " he g6es." I incline, therefore, to think 
that there is here another instance of the, already noticed, tendency of 
the Indian Vernaculars to assimilate verbal forms, so that the v in dv is 
dae to the influence of pdv ; an influence, natural enough, when it is 
remembered that v, equally with y, is often inserted between two adjacent 
Towels for the sake of euphony.f This assimilation is a very old one. 
There are traces of it in Prakrit as well as in the Gipsy dialects. In Pra- 
krit there is the 3rd sing. pres. dvei,X ftnd shortened dvai (H. C. 4, 367) 
" he comes." The regular Pr4krit form would be dddi or shortened dai 
(see H. O. 4, 240) ; but just as there is uttli&i or shortened ufflta'i (H. 0. 
4, 17) for uffhdai or ufthdi (see Vr. 8, 25) " he stands up" (of root ut'8tM\ 
so there nciight be dei or ddi (of root d-yd), from which, by the insertion of 
tlie connecting consonant Vy there would arise dvei and dvai. § 

The following List of Hindi Roots is arranged alphabetically, in two 
parts. Part I contains primary roots, while Part II consists of secondary roots. 

* Pdyatu in Kellogg's Hindi Grammar, p. 202, § 377) is a misprint. 

t This influence of pdv even intrudes occasionally into the conjugation of jd 
''go" ; thus the £. H. has sometimes ^av^ "gone," like dvdjpdvd; and the 3rd sing. 
fiteii,jdve is rather common in H. H. beside ^'d^ ovjdye. 

X This form is quoted by Dr. B. Mitra from the Pingala in the Vocabulary appended 
to his editioiL of the Sankshipta-sara. I have not been able to verify it ; but the form 
is not intrinsically improbable. 

{ It is just possible to connect dv with the Skr. root api^i ; thus 3rd sing, apyeti 
Pr. ffj)pA or dpa or dvei (cf. kddum "to do" for kattum). H. G. 4, 400 seems to refer 
it to Skr. d'pad (or better d-pat ?). The Bang&li uses an altogether different root, dia 
or if. Beames, in his Comparatiye Grammar (III, pp. 44, 45) rightly refers this root, 
as well as the Sindhi achy to the Skr. root d-gaehh {pi d-gam), Disaspiration of an 
aspirate and pronunciation of ehk as s are not uncommon in the Indian vernaculars 
(see my ComparatiTe Grammar, {{11, 145, exc. 2). The root dgachh would become 
in Pr. dachh (see Delius, Radices JPraeritieae, pp. 69, 70) or dyachh ; by contraction in 
P^ngili, the former would become da (for dehh)^ the latter dia (for dichK), The root 
all might, howeyer, be also referred to the Sanskrit root (i-9i>. 


42 A. P. K. Hoernle— ^ Collection af Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

Paet I. — Primary Roots.* 

1 ij^ roam = Skr. ir^, Passive ^ejd (with active sense), Pr. W%X, 

(H. C. 4, 230), H. ^S. 

2 ^RTT resemble = Skr. ^ + ^ I. cl. ^H^^lHi, Pr. ^^T^tf; (H. C. 

4, 259 = Skr. ^irftwfif), E. H. nr^^i 
8 ^U\come, see introductory remarks, p. 41. 
4 ^TT^ feed = Skr. ^-^, I. cl. ^T^^, Pr. ^|T^^ (H. C. 4, 259 

= Skr. iBT^), E. H. ^im. 
6 ^Wf^ pluck up = Skr. ^f^ «^^, I. cl. ^m^fii, Pr. '^nnfT (H» C. 4, 

187), H. ^^rv (with transfer of aspiration, as in %% see p. 40 

and my Comp. Gramm. § 132) ; see No. 28. 

6 ^9T^ reveal = Skr. ^^-^, X. cl. ^9gl4t|hr, Pr. ^A4i<i|^ or VI. cl. 

^»^«^ (H. C. 4, 33), H. 5^m^. 

7 ^n^rise = Skr. ^T^-^T, Passive ^raft^ (with active sense), Pr. ^1^ 

(cf. E. M. p. 27 and Ls. p. 345, also ^W:) or VI. cl ^TJi: (H. C. 
4, 17), H. ^. In Pr. also VI. cl. ^rjnn; or contr. ^TfTi: C^"^- 
8, 26), in H. deest. 

8 ^^ /y = Skr. ^-^, IV. cl. ^rfUlS, Pr. ^5%^ (Cw. p. 99, Spt. v. 

223) or VI. cl. ^TfT, H ^. 

9 ^fP^ descend = Skr. ^W-Tf, I. cl. ^JUrftr, Pr. ^UtT (H. C. 4, 389), 

H. ^cK. 

10 ^^^ intr. upset, come off from, come doum = Skr. ^W-ft^, I. cl. 

^?t-iMir (^s^wfir), Pr. ^rarari; (H. C. 4, 174), H. ^uf . 

11 ^i|T^ or ^f|T^ tr. upset, take doion=: Skr, ^TO-w^, Causal ^?[. 

tn^r^jfir, Pr. ^mro^ or Vl. cl. ^nn^t:, H. vd«ii^ or ^ht^. 

12 ^xnn^ ffrow up = Skr. ^^^^, IV. cl. ^?toS, Pr. ^rnwi^ (cf. H. C. 

3, 142), H. Wr. 

13 ^i|^ 5ot7 = Skr. ^-^^, I. cl. ^W^^fr, Pr. ^«TOi:, H. ^iT^; 

cf. root ^Bf^ . 

14 ^TT;^ keep in reserve = Skr. ^^-1, Causal ^fT^fir, Pr. Mi*^l<f^ or 

VI. cl. ^^TTT* H. ^HT^. 

15 ^«TT raise up, excite = Skr. ^5^-^, Causal ^IJlT'lfif) Pr. ^ *Hi<f^ 

or VI. cl ^SWRT, H. ^^T<. 

16 ^T^ or ^fr^^ grow up, also reprove = Skr. ^-^TV , I. cl. ^V^^, 

Pr. ^3TB^ (T. V. 3, 1. 133 = f«l?B^, H. C. 4, 259 has ^TO^r:), 
E. H. ^5^, W. H. ^^. In the sense " reprove" perhaps con- 
nected with ^^r^ ? 

17 ^3T^ subside = Skr. -^W-^, I. cl. ^RRTfir, Pr. ^TVCi; (H. C. 4, 85 

^T'^^, v. 1. ^^Ri: (with euphonic \), H. ^3^?:. 

18 *^ be drowsy = Skr. ? , Pr. ^ (H. C. 4, 12 = fir??rqfif), 

H. 9S^. 

* Sec List of Abbreviations at the end of this article. 

1880.] A. P. R. Hoernle— ^ OoUectlon of Eijidi Boots. 43 

19 TO^ he edited, raised up = Skr. ^^-id , I. d. ^|i^1^, Pr. ^8rȴRi[ 

( Vr. 8, 3) or ^TOiiT (cf . iffif for wifw H. C. 4, 365), H. ^^ ; or 
denom. from "^re^, Pr. '^•H, cf . H. C. 2, 59. 

20 wrar see secondary roots. 

21 $T^ bw^ = Skr. ^iT^-fE^, IV. cl. ^^'TfTOfiT, Pr. %^fi:, H. ^iS. 

22 %T^ rot = Skr. ^^-1^, I. cl. ^PPrefif, Pr. ^'RWT or ^m^X, H. 

^m (for v»r?«). 

23 W\do = Skr. «, VIII. cl. J^^lfif, vedic also I. cl. WKfn, Pr. ^i; 

(Vr. 8, 13), H. ifT. In Pr. also X. cl. wtT (H. C. 4, 337) ; 
Vedic also V. cl. li^fir, Pr. f^ (Vr. 8, 13), deest in H. 

24 TO test = Skr. W\, I. cl. ^«r1lf, Pr. ^r^T> H. TO. 

25 1^^ tighten = Skr. ^|^, I. cl. V^fif, but also VI. cl. IRftr, whence Pr, 

^TBi:, H. TO. 

26 «H say = Skr. ^r^, X. cl. V^irfw, Pr. ^^i; (Spt. v. 35) or VI. cl. 

^[^ (H. C. 4, 2. Cw. p. 99), H. ^. 

27 wrz cut = Skr. W^, Causal TO^Ht, Pr. ^rfi: or VI. cl. Vfi;, 

(cf. 1. sg. ^rs H. C. 4, 385), H. wt. 

28 ^rrs* draw see secondary roots. 

29 <T^ or ir(^ tremble = Skr. ^\, I. cl. if^fTT, Pr. ^q^ (H. C. 1, 30), 

H. 4Tq or ^rr. 

30 fro or ^fhr buy = Skr. "ift, IX. cl. ifturrftr, Pr. f^^i; (Vr. 8, 30) 

or ftr^ (Dl. p. 22), H. f^$ or ^$. 

31 IPI /wwfkf = Skr. fr^, X. cl. fpiftr, Pr. y??; or VI. cl. ff i;, H. f^t. 

32 JR or |(^ >i««p = Skr. ^i| (or m%), h cl. ^^t, Pr. J^ H. ^^ 

33 €w or iil\ scrape, dig = Skr. 55;?, X. cl. 'fl^r^S, Pr. ^rt?: or vm:, 

W. H. ^ or E. H. <K. 

84 ^T^^ be angry = Skr. ^i^, IV. cl. fWf?T, Pr. fiqi; (H. C. 4, 230), 

H. 4t$. 

85 ^ be expended, sold = Skr. ^tj^ (X. cl. or Causal of f^). Passive 

^um, Pr. 18^, H. ib5. 
Z^m eat = Skr m% I. cl. ^l^ffT, Pr. ^mT or (contracted) ^OT (H. C. 
4, 228), H. W?l.» . 

37 <T^ cough = Skr. iire, I. cl. 4l^c(, Pr. ^W\, or unn;, (cf. H. C. 1, 

18 1, Vfj^ = J^fTft^), H. <TW. 

38 fire ^^ delighted, flower ^^^ ^kv. ■*^'*^, Pass, l^t^^, Pr. ftrj^ or 

fiWIT (cf . H. C. 4, 168 Wl and 4, 382 ^5r), H. f^. 

• In Prakrit also the Paasivo ^i^n is uaed, apparently in an active sense ; e. g, 

"^nl " they eat" (Dl. p. 64, quoted from the Mrchchhukatika ; R. _M. p. 87, seem- 
ingly quoting the same, gives ^■^ifiO* 


44 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Oollection of Hindi Boots, [No. 2, 

39 ^^ or ^ he vexed = Skr. fB^ VI. cl. fta*^; but also VII. d. 

f%*or IV. cl. ftr^, Pr. fwsfT (H. C. 4, 224), H. €t^ or 
(corrupted) ^M. 

40 ^ he opened or open = Skr. ^, Passive ^^, Pr. ^^ or ^in[, 

H ^. See Nos. 41, 44.* ^ " ^ ^* ^* 

41 ^ pluck = Skr. "^t^, Passive ^T«3^ (acfcivelj), Pr. ^IT (H. C. 4, 

116, said to be a substitute for Skr. $nrw of root gr ), H. 

42 ^^ play = Skr. #tTff (cp. €t^ and #^^), I. cl. "JRl^fk, Pr? 

(H. C. 4, 188) or ^t (H. C. 4, 382),^^ H. ^f. (Pr. also ift^i: 
Dl. p. 47). 

43 #T throw away, lose = Skr. f^t^^, VL cl. f^fH, Pr. ftePnr, H. %^ 

(with ^iTfor ^, see my Comp. Grammar, § 122). 

44 %T^ open = Skr. ^ divide, X. cl. il^^%, Pr. %m: or VI. cL 

^TVr or ^]^rr, H. ^If. See Nos 40, 41. 

45 to: tie = Skr. if^ , IX. cl. irarfir, also I. cl. iwfir, Pr. af^ (H. C. 4r, 

120), H. l[f, 

46 JT-y or 31^ /orw, ^rowtf = Skr. TO, I. cl. ^z^, Pr. 3r¥i: (H. C. 4, 112), 

H. ?J§ or 31^, See Nos. 54, 59. 

47 3l^r^/orw = Skr. TO, Caus. ^TZilfir, Pr. 91^^^ or 9rVT^ (H. C. 4, 

340), H. TOit. 

48 ^ or ftrit^ (?om;i# = Skr. 3m, X. cl. ^?rf?r, Pr. ^T (S. B. 11, 27) 

or VI. cl. JT^ (H. C. 4, 358), H. ^lif or (corr.) firif (see my Comp. 
Grammar § 35, note). 

49 ini he spent = Skr. 3r«^, Pass. T^, Pr. nmx. (Vr. 7, 9. 8, 58) H. 3|$. 

50 irf^T^ or lif^^ir\ to ahuse = Skr, i![% or ^'S^, X. cl. Jnr^fir, Pr. 

^Irm^ (cf. H. C. 2, 104) or 3if%^iiiT, E. H. arfr^rt for gffi^ t? . 

51 31^ we/^ = Skr. it^y I. cl. Jl^ffT, Pr. 3Rgnr (H. C. 4, 418), H. 3r§. 

52 31^ seize = Skr. IT^, IX. cl. JZlfTfir, Pr. VI. cl ll^^ (Vr. 8, 15) or 

t^ (T. V. 2, 4. 157), H. 3f^. 

53 3IT «iw^ = Skr. fi, I. cl. 3ri^E|%, Pr. 3n^ or (contr.) JTTT (Vr. 8, 26), 

H. 3n^. 

54 3n^ or arnj, or E. H. i^r^form; see secondary roots. 

55 firT/«// = Skr. ^, VI. cl. fin:f?r, Pr. fii^, H. fji^. 

56 5^ i^Areae? = Sk. ji^, VI. cl. jT^fif, Pr. j^^ (H. C. 1, 236), H. 3J'$. 

57 ir^^ catch = Skr. -^^ (or JV^h I- cl. -^^^ Pr. ;fi^i;, H. iij^/ 

58 ^ decline = Skr. '^f;^ depress. Passive ^lj% Pr. ^^, H. TO. 

59 ^f^/om, Afl^;?tf» = Skr. to^, I. cl. toJJ, Pr. ^^ (H. C. 4, 112) 

H. ^f . See Nos. 4(;, 54. 

♦ The roots ^^, W^, TO are all connected with one another and with the San- 
skrit roots %T^. ^1^, %T^, W^, ^re, ^^ TO, ^T,^T, which all mean 1, "limp," 
2, " divide" or " break." The original form, apparently, ia %^ or ^|^ ^ rather 

1880.] A. F. E. Hoernle— ul Collection of mndt Boots. 45 

60 TO or f^ rub J he worn away = Skr. '^^, I. cl. ^ftr, Pr. VI. cl. 

ipg^ (^ '^^rfrr) or froi; (H. C. 4, 204, where it is said to be a 
gabstitute of iliifcl), H. H^ or fro* 

61 ^m thraWf destroy, mix = Skr. i^, I. cl. ^fir, Pr. ^^ or WST. 

( n. C. 4, 334. T. V. 3, 4. 6 where it is said to be a substitute of 

nf^Tt), H. ^. 

62 ^ or ^T^ mix with a liquid, dissolve = Skr. ^ (also 9i( and 

Sr^), I. andVI. cl. ^fn (also W[m^, ^nfir, W^lfir), Pr. 5^ 
or in^i: (Vr. 8, 6. H. C. 4, 117), H. 5§ or ii§ (see also Bs. Ill, 
p. 56). 

63 W^ revolve = Skr. ^i^, VI. cl. ir^?T, Pr. ^mx (H. C. 4, 117), H. ||& 
'^ (also Bs. I, 344). 

64 dr gather, stbrrou/nd = Skr. U^ ? ; compare H. ^ house with Skr. 

65 X^ mount, increase = Skr. ^^f^lp^, VI. cl. ^^<^f)f, Pr. (dropping ^) 

^fT <^r ^n: (T. V. 3, 1. 128), H. ^* 

66 ^n^ he abashed = Skr. ^ffH. P^css, Passive "^^^ Pr. ^^«IT (see 

H. C. 4, 395. ^fimT, T. V. 3, 4, 65. ^pJWi;), H. ^. The 
transitive form is ^}\ or ^T^ . 

67 ^ graze = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^Tftr, Pr. ^nCT, H. ^. 

68 ^^ or "^TWitoalk = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^^fif, Pr. ^^ffX or ^RTi: (H. C. 

4, 231), H. ^ or ^. 
60 ^ drip = Skr. ^, I. cl. '^m, Pr. 'qn; (H. C. 4, 233), H. ^§. 
See No. 74. 

70 ^T^ masticate = Skr. ^w*, I. cl. M^Pd, Pr. ^^^, H. '^^ (see also 

Bs. Ill, 40.) 

71 H^ think = Skr. Hn, X. cl. f^^ftr, Pr. WhT (Spt. 156, H. C. 

4, 265) or W«n: (H. C. 4, 422), H. Wt. 

72 f^n gather = Skr. fif , V. cl. f^mfir, Pr. VI. cl. f^TTC (Vr. 8, 29. 

H. C. 4, 241), H.f^. 

73 ^ gather, choose = Skr. f^, V. cl. f^^ T f c f , Pr. VI. cl. ^to: (H. C. 

4, 238), H. Y^. "* 

74 ^ leak = Skr. '^^r (or •^^), L cl. %^f?f, Pr. ^^TUi; or ^^^ 

*" (H. C. 2, 77), H. ^ ^ 

• ^<l+ •l^ lit./fl// upwards, an untisiial word in Skr., but formed exactiy like 
the common compound ^rW + ^ — The final ^ of H^ becomes ^ in Pr., see H. 
C. 4, 130 HMXi and Vr. 8, 51. H. C. 4, 219 %^X' The initial ^ is dropped, and 
tlie aspiration of H transferred to ^ or lost altogether, just as in the root ^1^^ 
denre, from ^f^T^ = "^^T^ or from T^5T (see my Comp. Grammar } 132). In 
old H. the root is ^J M. has both ^T^ and ^^; but G., S. and B. have ^%, 
which ia the form given by H. 0. 4, 206 ("^^O- T. V. 3, 128 gives both TH and 

46 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

75 ^ kiss = Skr. ^, I. cl. ^fir, Pr. ^^ (Vr 8, 7J), H. ^. 

76 WT thatch = Bkr,^w%, X. cl. wn^^fir, Pr. WTOT (cf. Dl. 54) or VI. 

cl. wm?: (T. V. 2, 4. 110 or WT^ iQ H. C. 4, 21) or WTi: (by 
contraction ; cf . Vr. 8, 26), H. WHT 

77 fw^ or f^^ or W^ be hidden = Skr. f% dtoell secretly, Causal 

Passive "Som, Pr. i|"0li: or fW'^'IT, H. fif^r or (corr.) f^ orw^. 

78 ft or fh^ touch = Skr. ^, VI. cl. ^frfir, Pr. f«T or fw^ (H. C. 

4, 182), H. fl^ or "ftt. See No. 80.* 

79 ft^ waste away = Skr. f^, Passive ftf^, Pr. fl^m: (H. C. 4, 

434), H. ft$. 

80 W or ^X ^<>^^ = Skr. W^, VI. cl. iprfif, Pr. W^, H. i^ or W^. 

^ See No. 78. "* - "* "^ 

81 ws or ^ be released = Skr. ^ cut, Pass. V^^, Pr. WIT, 

H. ^ or W%. 

82 WtlL ^^^^«^ = Skr. ^^ Causal ^^^qfir, Pr. WT^T or VI. cl. ^Vi;, 

H. tl^ (see also Bs. Ill, 52). 

83 «nt 9^^^ ^*^^^ = Skr. m^. Causal «Rr<rfiT, Pr. «r^ (Spt. 75) or 

VI. cl. ^IWi:, H. 51$. Skr. also IV. cl. «JT^^, Pr. 911^ (H. C. 
4, 136), H. deest, 

84 «I^ recite = Skr ^TW, I. cl. «I^qfw, Pr. an«: (Vr. 8, 24), H. «RT- 

85 «k; be feverish = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^^ftr, Pr. mK^, H. 9I<. 

86 ar^ burn = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^irffT, Pr. m^X. (H. C. 4, 865), 

II* Qi^* 

87 m ffo = Skr. ^, II. cl. utRt, Pr. VI. cl. aii'i^f^ or (contr.) WT 

(H. C. 4, 240), H. m<l. 

88 STT^^ or ^fPrx:, «?a^cA = Skr. ^TTO, II. cl. WJrfil, Pr. I. cl. aimTT 

and VI. ci. mm^ (H. C. 4, 80), H. aiprr or aiR. 

89 9ipr A;/iow = Skr. in, IX. cl. wfTinf?r, Pr. VI. cl. «inri: (H. C. 4, 

7), H. an$, (also Bs. Ill, 41). 

90 ^ live = Skr. ^a^, I. cl. aft^fcT, Pr. ^Kt (H. C. 1, 101), H. 


91 «rw fyht = Skr. ^^, IV. cl. ^«m, Pr. «j«i|rT (Vr. 8, 48), mk 

(also Bs. I, 328). In old H. also i]i«ir. 

♦ H. 0. 4, 182 identifies the roots fi?^ and fif^^ with Skr. ^i|H^, for which ho 
gives the Pr. Pass. fc«IT (H, C. 4, 257). The latter is merely a hardened form of 
fif^^ which would he the regular Pass, of ftf^ or rather of ftPH!. Now Skr. 
WJ = Pr. fir^ or, on account of labial ^, = W^ (see No. 80) ; again in Pr., 
^ -= ^ = ^.= «f . Hence Skr. ^W& = Pr. •ft^lT =^ •ft'^ ■= f^^. It 
follows that the radical forms T€^ and W^ (H. Wi andl[) are derivative roots, made 
from the Passives f^^ and W^, and that the Skr. root T^ is merely the Pr. root 
W^ in a Skr. dress (cf. Pr. ^9^X &c., and see S. Goldschmidt in J. G. O. 8, 29, 493). 

18S0.] A F. R. Hoeriile--^ Collection of Hindi Boots. 47 

92 i|» he joined = Skr. «nP, Passive «|7Ii), Pr. ^5T, H. «j«; a very 

old secondary denominative root of ^H p. p. of Skr. root i] w . 

93 WIT jom = Skr. «r^, X. cl. #T7i|f^, Pr. irrir or VI. cl. mWK,, 

H *^, ' 

91 li^ar^ii^, dispute = Skr. 117 , I. cl. m^fif, Pr. if^s;, H. t|7. See 
No. 96. 

95 mw or nx fall oj ^ Skr, inj, VI. cl. (H^), Pr. m^ (H. C. 4, 

130 for UTi;), H. »if or i«^. See No. 97. 

96 «lf^r«#A about = Skr. fC7, Passive H^JH (used in active sense), Pr. 

«iE^ (H. C. 4, 161. for vs^), H. i«rt.* 

97 nX w««P ^= Skr. K^, Causal W^^, Pr. irii: or VI. cl. ijm;, 

H. «ST^. See No. 95. 

98 lii^ polish = Skr. ^^ shine (?), Causal wifTfr^jfiT, Pr. •nmi^ or 

VI. cl. •hPTC, H. ir% ; cf . Skr. HWTT brilliancy, ^Vm^J flame. 

99 ^or ^stitch ^ Skr. ^^, I. cL w^fn, Pr. ^HfT, H. i| or ^. 

Probably a compound root of IB- 

100 TO or '^j^ break = Skr. ^, VI. cl. ^^fir, but also IV. cl. ^^sjfH, Pr. 

JITC (H. C. 4, 230) or'^li: (Pingal, as quoted by R.^'m. p. 99;, 
H. igjg or ^fT. 

101 31 cheat = Skr. ^ri , I. cl. iQPlfff, Pr. ?rJlT, H. CT. 

102 ^^ or vn? throw aioay = Skr. T he scattered, Causal i^^^rfir, Pr. 

•^T^ o/vL cl. •VKT, H. WT^ or ^ (cf. H. C. I, 217 vcj). 

103 ^f^^ or WTW or w^ hite = Skr. ^^ or ^^, 1. cl. ^vrf^ or i^^fa , 

Pr. T^ (H. C. 1, 218) or W9T» H. ^^ or ^rl.or ^|. 

104 ira swin^ = Skr. "5^, X. cl. ^T^irfTT, Pr. ^T#i: (H. C. 4, 48) or 

*r^ (see H C. 1, 217 ingrT) or VI. cl. iTOT. H. wm- 

105 ¥*^ cover = Skr. igBfl, Pass. ^Rxm (used actively), Pr. "^X, 

(Spt. A. 64 for 3^ ) or VI. cl. -^^i: (H. C. 4, 21, where it 

• In B. this root is confounded with 1T^ " sweep." It is closely connected 
with the root Vi7 , the original meaning of which is preserved in Marafhi *' nuh 
violently into contact with," and in the Hindi *5^ " quickly." Hence it comes to 
mean, on the one hand, " dispute, argue" ; on the other hand, '* become intermixed 
confusedly", *' be entangled." With the latter meaning the root Hi^ has been received 
into Sanskrit ; from it comes the Skr. *ir^ " shrub," " underwood," the H. W^ or W¥. 
The oziginal meaning it has preserved in the Skr. HiPiffi ** quickly." The root may 
possibly be derived (as Bs. I, 177 says) from Skr. '^fW -f-^RT, though the sense of 
'^roam about very much" would be expressed rather by "^fff + ^^<Sr. But ^^*ffi 
or Pass. ^^Wl?! (in act. sense) would regularly give Pr. IW^ti; or ^9HFS1[ or (by 
elision of ^) f ^ or flT» whence modem Hi* or Hi«^. In the case of the root 
^) ^doee not change to V. (see H. C. 1, 195). 

48 A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

is said to be a substitute of WT^), H. V^. (See YH). p. 43, 6^ 
67). Perhaps compound root of l^phtS. 

106 v1^ accuse =c Skr. ? Pr. 7^ (H. C. 4, 118 where it is said to be 

a substitute for Skr. f^RHl,), H. '€^^. Perhaps a modification of 
vT^, No. 103. 

107 ^r^ approach — Skr. "31^^, I. cl. 'TT^if, Pr. 7IVT, H. "^rjl. 

108 ^^ search = Skr. *» , VI. ci. ^fir, Pr. ij^, H. ^5. 

109 ?ni^ hum = Skr. TH^, I. cl. irTf?r, but also IV. cl. TTQirrT, Pr. ITW^ 

(see H. C. 4, 140 ^Jf-BTi;), H. w§. 

110 lf\ <?n)M = Skr. ^, I. cl. ?rTfir, Pr. W^ (H. C. 4, 86), H. ?fT. 

111 ?n^ attend = Skr. ?nf, X. cl. W^^fif, Pr. ?T%i: (H. C. 4, 370) op 

VI. cl. Kmxy H. 7n5r 

112 UPl stretch = Skr. ?|i^. Causal HHflffT, Pr. mWT or VI. cl. HTW^i 

H. m^. 

113 lfT\ «««^« = Skr. w cro«9, Causal TTT'D^, Pr. HKf, or VI. cl. WITT* 

H. ?nT. 

114 g^ intrans. weigh, he we^Ac(f = Skr. g^, Passive g^?T, Pr. gunc, 

H. gH. 

115 Wl^ or ^n; hreah = Skr. «^ ie ^om, Causal wi^^fir, Pr. irrix op 

VI. cl. ^\My (see H. C. 4, 116, where however it is given as 
intrans.), W. H. ?^% or E. H. "^TT. 

116 ^T^ or ^nj weigh = Skr. gi^, X. cl. m^irfir or I. cl. HT^Pd, Pr. 

m^ or ^PTi: (T. V. 2, 4. 97), H. tlf or h^* 

117 iiWori|'^5e arrested, he supported = Skr. ^JM, T. cl. ^S^^, EV. 

ispwi;, H. nw or iw See my Comp. Grammar § 120. 

118 iITii or W^ or HT^^ or uTi?^ stop = Skr. T^fv he firm. Causal ^pn^fTT, 

Pr. ^Jlt; or VI. cl. "WT* H- 'jT^* &c. 

119 %i^ pile, prop — Skr. ^^^^, IV. cl. ^TOfif, Pr. ij'on;, H. ^t$. 

120 ^H he pressed down, he cowed = Skr. ^« , Passive ^npr, Pr. ^^n^ 

or •^^, H. ^t (?) 

121 ^^^ split = Skr. ^ I. cl. ^^rfir, Pr. ^^T (H. C. 4, 176), H. ^. 

122 ^ intrans. hum = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^^f«T, Pr. ^^^ (Pingala, as 

quoted by li. M. p. 113 ; H. C. 2, 218 allows only W^; but the 
root ^r^ does not occur in H), H. ^. 

123 ^rr split = Skr. ^ , Causal ^Kilfir, Pr. ^TT or VI. cl. ^TTT, 

H. i^. 

* H. G. 4, 25 gives Pr. (j^i, ; but the root g^ in a trans, sense does not occur 
in H., thougli it is found in M. g^ o^ goJ^. i^ g^p the root JPS admits a X. cL 
form H^^f^i from which the Pr. and M. trans, root ^^ is apparently derived. 

1880] A. P. R. Hoernle— ^ OoIJection of Rlndt Roots. 49 

124 ^rw trans, hum = Skr. ^, Causab ^T^irfir^ Pr. f^T^i; or VI. cl. 

^rn, H. ^r%, see No. 122. 

125 fi[^ show z= Skr. fi^, VI. cl. fincfir, Pr. fi^^, H. f^$. 

126 f^^ or ^^ to appear = Skr. VJ^ «<?<?, Passive mjT^, Pr. V^^i, or 
^ ^^TXH. C. 8, 161), H. f^ or ft% . 

127 ^ y»wj = Skr. ^, Passive ft^ (used actively), Pr. ^ (Cw. p. 99, 

H. C. 4, 238), H. ^«l^or ^. In Pr. also VI. cL i^ (Spt. v. 2i6), 

128 ^^ gee = Skr. ^, Future ipipfvr (used in sense of present), Pr. ^^^ 

(H. C. 4, 181), H. ^. See introductory remarks.* 

129 ^ place or seize = Skr. if, I. cl. ysixfn (seize) or i|^ (place), Pr. tf^ 

(H. C. 4, 234), H. if^. 

130 ^ or 1IW sink, he pierced, run into = Skr. lifj^, I. cl. %i^^, Pr. 

irex or ^^X, (Pingala in R. M. p. 118, said to be a substitute for 
HIwfiT), H. iltor^. 

131 unf hold = Skr. if, Causal ifn:«rfif, Pr. i^T or VI. cl. 1*?^:, H. ly^. 

132 5f wash = Skr. upr , I. cl. VJ^fn (or V, VI. cl. wfif), Pr. VT^i; 

(DL p. 77) or (with euphonic ^ ) ^^\, or V^^ (Spt. v, 133, 
283) or W^T (H. C. 4, 238), H. ^ or ^it. 

* The Skr. conjimct V may in Plr. become TC or ^ . This will explain the 
origin of the synonyms of "^^^t which are enumerated in H. G. 4, 181 ; viz., with 
Viaie formed ^^^*ili «Skr. ^WlH^rfir (from root ^R-^^) ; the same, contracted, 
becomes ^nmK (with ^ for^l^; see H. C. 1,172); and the latter, expanded, 
hecomes ^^9^1 (with ^1^ for W, see my Gomp. Giamm. § 48). With ^ are 
farmed ^W«l^l, « Skr. ^^^Plfif (for ^flll^f,, with euphonic ^, see H. 0. I, 180), 
and Pv^^l = Skr. fw?[lRfir (from fif-^lt ) . Again ^ appears to be softened in 
^^«^^ which IS probably identical with ^«f«*'^1[. From the manner in which 
HeDachandra places ^^VT between f^^^l, and ^*i«i'^v it would almost seem 
as if he looked upon it as a contraction of M*l^l = Skr. 3n^^f?f (of ?|-^1B^). In 
daiacal Sanakrit the future of Tlf^ takes the irregular gui^a ^ (instead of ^Qf^, 
see Panini VI, 1, 66) ; but in the ordinary speech, no doubt, both forms n^fif and 
\^rir were used. It is the latter of the two, from which the Fr&krit forms are 
derired; thus 'II*1^W1=^^^'MI. (not = '5^T^T)=^^^!'^f'r- The altema- 
tire form of ftrV^T would be PH^^NJI^ ; this seems to be intended by the form 
f^^WI^ in Vr. 8, 69 (with 9 disaspirated for ^). The Pr. ^RTOT is regularly 
formed from Skr. ^Wftf = Pr. ^TOT (see Delius Rod, Prae.) or ^CTBT (H. C. 1, 
48); and Pr. 'Vf^lT^T is the Skr. ^R^TWfir. In MariLthi, the Pr. root ^\\ becomes 
1?^. The Pr. ^W^T is derived from Skr. ^ft%*^ftr (with ^^fil contracted to 
^> see my Comp. Gnunm. { 122) ; and Pr. "^^^T is probably a mere corruption of it. 
Kone of all these forms, as far aa I am aware, has left any representative in modem 


60 A. P. R Hoernle— ^ Collect ion ofRindi Boots. [No. 2, 

133 if^r dance^ see secondary roots. 

134 ^ or ^T intr. bend, how = Skr. w^, I. el. ifilfir, Pr. inrc (see HL 

C. 1, 183, irfiw 1. pi.) or ipn: (H. C. 4, 226), H. ift or tr?. 

135 iRnr^ or f'T^r^ trans, bend, fold = Skr. ir« , Causal ^nrirfir) Pr. 

«r^|3i; or VI. cl. ir?T^T> H. iRT^ or fiRT^ (with ^ for % see my 
Gomp. Gramm. § 55). 

136 Wfn bathe = Skr w, II. el ^rifir, Pr. IV. cl. Tfrnr (cf. Dl. 20) 

or (contr.) ^^TT (H. C. 4, 14), H. ^TTT^. 

137 m^ dance = Skr. nnf^, IV. cl. mfffn^ Pr. ir^ (Vr. 8, 47. H. C. 4, 

225), H. irr^. 

138 ftnirr^^ or f^Pfr^ jpull out, see secondary roots. 

139 fif^T^ espel = Skr. fir^-i|f^, Causal f^TWRT^^rfir, Pr. fi^T^T or VI. 

cl. ftrHTTOT, H. ftww; cf. No. 138, the Skr. root ^ being 
perhaps adopted from Pr. ^f^for Skr. w\. 

140 f'TOT^ or ftror^ peel ; see secondary roots. 

141 ftw^ be cleaned, he peeled = Skr. ftf-^T, I. cl. ptf^^fa , Pr. 

142 f^^m\ clean, peel = Skr. fif-^ (or fir-^), Causal fif^K^ftr, 

Pr. fiW^ITi: or VI. cl. ftw^nT, H. fiT^? 

143 fiHf^ swallow ; see secondary roots. 

144 ftriTTT to make clear = Skr. t^-^T^, Causal firow^fir, Pr. ftrat^^ or 

VI. cl. r^««ii^\, H. firaTT, applied to water, which is made clear by 
letting it stand still, till the impurities have settled down, and thea 
pouring it off ; hence the root has also the meaning " pour off." 

145 f^^ he separated, be decided, he accomplished = Skr. ftrc-^r^ divide 

(X. cl. f«nl;ff^fir), Pr. fii^^rtr or fk^snx (H. C. 4, 62, where it is 
said to mean ^fW ^itr ^T wfir), H. f^iif . It is the pass, or 
intrans. form of No. J47. The Skr. root is transitive. 

146 fir^^ or ftfHT accomplish = Skr. fiT^-^, Causal faRi^irfir, Pr. 

ftWT^T or VI. cl. f^T^, H. f%^T^ or f^RT^ (with trans- 
ferred aspiration; see my Comp. Qranun. § 132). 

147 firtl^r separate, divide, accomplish = Skr. fiP^-^ divide, Causal 

r^^li^ifir, Pr. ftR^T^T or VI. cl. ft^n^, H. fiRtf . See No. 145. 

148 fi|*l« separate, divide, accomplish = Skr. f^^^-^' y, I. cl. fir^v^, Pr. 

r^*^«v» H. ftrt^ (with It for m, see my Comp. Gramm. § 148), 
This is merely another form of No. 147. 

149 ftRT^ hinder = Skr. ftr-^, Causal fimiT^, Pr. f^r^T^ (H. C. 4 

22) or VI. cl. f^PCT, H. f^iiTT . 

150 fiTOT come out = Skr. ftw^ I. cl. f^^f^, Ft, ftr^KT (see R. 

M. p. 107 ; or ^f^^Ti: H. C. 1, 93. 4, 79), H. fiWT. 

151 *i^ pinch = Skr. f^-^ contract, VI. cL t^f^fir, Pr. firing 

H. ^1^ (with % for f:^). 

1880.] A. 7. R. Hoemie— J Chlleetion of Hindi Boots. 51 

152 ^ he digested = Skr. i|^ digest, Passive ^^i^, Pr. i|^, H. ir^. 

153 ^vni send = Skr. i|-^PT, Causal ^ram^^f?r, Pr. ^irtT or VI. d. 

ilfT^ (H. C. 4, 37), H.iyirT^. 

154 ^^ or ^ fall = Skr. in[, I. cl. iprfir, Pr. iT¥T (Vr. 8, 51), 

W. H. J^, E. H. q^. 

155 ^^ fvsoJ = Skr. fRT , I. cL ii^fir, Pr. irir^ (H. C. 1, 1^9), H. ^f . 

156 iPDt or ^KW examine^ test = Skr. ^H^^, I. cl. ilf^W, Pr. ^Wi:> 

H. incd. It also has the secondarj meaning *' become habituated", 
owing to repeated trial. 

157 ifT^ heeome acquainted = Skr. ^-f^, Pr. VI. cl. •^ft^, H. ^qr^. 

158 ^V or ^TT run away = Skr. ^^|fT^, I. cl. 1791^^, Pr. iT^TT^HI or 

(contr.) ^nnr (Pingala, quoted by R. M. p. 129),* H. ^Wi[ or 

159 irf^/(ww)B»? « Skr. qfc-^, I. el. irft^j^, Pr. irPCfn; (H. C. 4, 

259 said to be = WWriT ), H. ^ft^. 

160 TO^ offer food =^ Skr. irFr-f^\, Causal irft^«lirtlT, Pr. ^^WT 

or VI. cL Mrc94li, H ir^I% (with ^T = T^, see my Comp. Gramm. 
§ 122). 

161 ^^ be smread = Skr. 31-^, I. cL 3W^, Pr. ir^^ (H. C. 4, 77), 


162 TOIT spread = Skr. 3l-W, Causal 3W1^^, Pr. ^WT^ or VI. cl. 

^mi\, H. ^^^. 

163 ^fhw i>er«p»rc = Skr. i|-f^^ IV. cl. 5iftR|f?f, Pr. ^fo^sn; (see H. 

C.4, 224), H.irfhS. 

164 ^^m t^iteh =s Skr. 3l-f^, IV. cl. ^rft^fir, Pr. •n^WfT (perhaps con- 

tracted for *Rf9nv^9IT)» S« ^raw. 

165 ^f^irr^ or f^rPTT^ cause to put on, cause to dress = Skr. f^-^ , 

Causal fqirr^ilfif, Pr. ftnT^T or VI. cl. fgiTTT^T. H. ftr^fUlt 
(with transposition of i(^and ^) or irf^^^ (with transposition of 
f and % see mj Comp. Gramm. § 133). See also Nos. 166, 167 
for a similar transposition. From this root is formed the derivative 
root PnfT or ^%^^put on, dress. 

166 qfrc i^* ^f <^^* = Skr. ^fK'^J, Passive irftft^ (with active 

sense), Pr. vfft^X (see Cw. p. 99, sdtra 21 ^) or qfrili; (see Wb. 
p. 59 ^ and ^ of root ^) or ^jft^, H. ^f%^ (with transposi- 
tion of Tv and ^, see No. 165). This root, however, might be also 
a derivative root from qfiTKT^ No. 167. In the Gujardti form 
9t^ the i; of the second syllable has modified the vowel of the 

167 sf^FT, cause to put on, cause to dress = Skr. ^-MJ, Causal ^f^T^- 

• T^ra, I suppose, is a misprint for H^iv 

52 A. F. E. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

^iflT, Pr. qft^T^ or VI. cl. ^f:i^T^ or ^^ITT^, H. ^f^l^ (with 
transposition of T and T » fts in Nos. 165, 166). 
168 iriN or inj^ or ^T^Wx obtain^ arrive = Skr. ii-H, I. cl. ^niwfir, Pr. 
•'IV^i; or ^»^ (H. C. 4, 390), H. Ripw or inp^ or ^9^* It is 
formed with the pleonastic suffix ^, like the root TRQ, see intro- 
ductory remarks ; only in this case, ^ changes to ^ and is after- 
wards disaspirated. Mard^hi has ^llf^ or ^T%t^, where the ^ o£ 
the second syllable has modified the first. 

69 tri^ let /aZZ = Skr. ^, Causal trm^fif, Pr. qri^ (H. C. 4, 22) or 
VI. cl. in^ (H. C. Ill, 163), H. TiT^. 

70 iTTT accomplish = Skr. ^, Causal ^Trc^ftf> Pr. ilT^ or VI. cL ^KT 
(H. C. 4, 86), H. inr. 

71 ^m cherish = Skr. ^, Causal ^^ilfir, Pr. xfim or VI. cl. m^l,, 

H. m^. 

72 ^j\ obtain, Jmd = Skr. ^^UT^, V. cL !iiiilFil, Pr. VI. cl. ^[^ 
(H. C. 4, 239),^. 

73 fq^ melt = Skr. ^^' or fir-^, I. cl. ^ifirJltjffir, Pr. fqi i iiif, 
H. fq^^ ? See my Comp. Gramm. § 131. 

74 ft d^inh « Skr. in, I. cl. fxRfir, Pr. Pt^T (H. C. 4, 10), 

75 ft^ tread down = Skr. f^T'T , Future ^^|l5r, (with meaning of pre- 
sent), Pr. H^^i, or f«ni^, H. ft^ (with disaspiration, as in #^, 
see introductory remarks, p. 40). 

76 ft^^ be pained = Skr. ft^s;, I. cl. ft^, Pr. ^\, H. ftf . 

77 ft^ grind = Skr. fin^, VII. cl. ftirft. Pr. X. cl. ftf%T or f1:$i: 
(cf . Ls. p. 347) or VI. cl. fq^ or ft^T (H. C. 4, 185), H. ft§. 

78 ^X^^ filly threads Ski, xj, Causal ^T^lfir, Pr. ^n^T or VI. cL 
iTO^, H. ^Kl^ (or W. H. also ftPH^ in the sense of threading, 

79 ^^ ask = Skr. ^, VI. cl. ^s^fir, Pr. ^^i; (H. C. 4, 97), H. w. 

80 4W or m\ wipe =z Skr. ^.^, I. or VI^ cl. §T«i|fir, Pr. 5tWT or 
"yn; (H. C. 4, 105), H ^tt or ^. 

81 ^ worship = Skr. TO, X. cl., but also I. cl. TOtTT, Pr. tWT, 

82 HT\ or qT swim = Skr. q + H, I. cl. sin^fii or VL cl. ^iftrcftr, 

Pr. irrn:, e. h. in;^ or w. h. t^. 

83 iTT^^ or q^^ enter = Skr. ^-ftf^, VI. cl. ^ifinrftr, Pr. ^f^^ (H. C. 
4, 183) or Ti:^x H. in:§ or qt. 

84 5^ squeeze out, shove = Skr. f^^, I. cl. ftvff, Pr. ^Wl^ (H. C. 
4, 143), H. q§. See No. 42, ii# from root ifhr,. Perhaps a 
denominative of fro = ^ = ^^ = ^W. 

85 ^TO nourish = Skr. ^\, I. cl. ^nf?r, Pr. ^mT, H. ^^. 

1890.] A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Oollection of Hindi Boots. 53 

186 ^ or tjT^ hvrst = Skr. ^i» , Passive ^7p), Pr. "qrn:, H. ^i 


187 Ti^ hear fruit = ^\t, vn, I. cl. -^rafif, Pr. ''reT (Spt. 17), H, 

T9, Connected with roots m^and ir: ; see No. 189. 

188 "^ or ''ff^ f^'^A;, J« ensnared = Skr. ^nw, VI. cl. W>cfVr, Pr. . "qj^ 

or i^rrer (H. C. 4, 182, probably denom. of "qj^ or tvt^ = ^51^ 
of. Vr. 4, 15. H. C. 2, 92), H. T*t or tiT§. This root is also used 
transitively, in the sense of "ensnare", "deceive", see H. C. 4, 
129, where ^H\, is said to be a substitute of f^^^fTf. 

189 ^ITV cleave^ split = Skr. ^lp5 , X. cl. ^ST^^ftr, Pr. ^1^ or VI. cl. 

qrrvi^, (H. C. 1, 198. 232), H. 7H|. Hemachandra refers it to root 

inr, X cl. ^n^i?r?r. 

190 TIPJ jump == Skr. ^f^ shahe^ Causal ^pr^^fWi Pr. "qf^T^ or VI. cL 

^^%^ H. T^. Observe the same transition of meaning as in No. 
191. It xs also used transitively, in the sense of " ensnare", " im- 
prison", corresponding to the intransitive root "qf^, see secondary 
roots, n. C. 4, 127 gives ^qft^ in its original sense of " shaking", 
" quivering" = Skr. flTi^; its synonym V<i^^^l, which H. C. also 
^ves, still exists in H. ^JW^^ or ^^^$ or ^^^ or ^^^^rnr, 
Ac., " he is fidgety." 

191 'imjump = Skr. ^K^ shahe. Causal OT^^P^fir, Pr. tftl^f, or VI. cl. 

"Vnai^ , H. "qiTQ. Probably connected with root No. 189 ; H. 0. 
4, J98. 232 give "qn"^ as an other form 'RTT^. 

192 fqfiT he paid off^ he discharged = Skr. ftli^, X. cl. ftvpif^, Pr. fqff^ 

(H. C. 4, 177, said to be = ^K J* cease", " decline"), H. frt; 
cf . B. ^17 and tQi^ . 

193 "^7 or "qnr^ eapand, increase, he hroJcen, he dispersed = Skr. tQi^, 

Passive ^»TPf, Pr. -^JX^ (Vr. 8, 53. H. C. 4, 177, where it is said 
to be a substitute of ^?C in the sense of *' being broken"), H. y^ 
or "qrar. See No. 194. 

194 "TO or "qr^ hlossom = Skr. ^», VI. cl. ^J7f?r, Pr. "^nx or •qnr^ 

"* (Vr. 8, 53) or -^iui: (H. C. 4, 387 whence Skr. R. "^ adopted), 
H. -qr^ or -qi^. See No. 193. 

195 ^'f or f^tum, move round = Skr. qfpc + \, II. cl. ^qfir, Pr. "'J^ 

or "^^ (with change of if to qr and of ^^* to ^, as in $lf$T for 
vmi)y H. ■^. 

196 w^spread, he dispersed sss Skr. ftl», X. cl. ^^ijffT, Pr. '^^ or VI. 

d. -qwi; (H. 0. 4, 358 ; in H. C. 4, 177 the simple form fqfvi: is 
given as a substitute of ^vr) or "qhm^ (whence Skr. B. '$^), 
H. ^ See Nos. 189, 192, 193 ; the original meaning " split", 
hence " expand", may change either to " increase" or to '' decrease", 
to growth or to decay. 

54 A. F. E. lioernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

197 -^ un/Swftwt = Skr. ^r-^^, VI. cl. sr^iffir, Pr. ^79^ (cf. H. C. 4, 

91), H."qtrt (for ^9R=:ir^)/ 

198 ^^ h-eak =» Skr. ^7, Causal f$lWir, Pr. "irti; (H. 0. 4, 850) or 

VI. cL -^T^, H. -^1^. 

199 1^ ffo away, escape = Skr. nw , I. cl. infif, Pr. ^^ (Vr. 8, 47), 

H. 1^. More likely from root ^, or from Pass. Vc^S of Skr. 

200 iror or mm sound «> Skr. w^, Causal Passive ^rnat, Pr. inaR; (H. C. 

4, 406), H. 1$ or ^m. 

201 ^ he ensnared ^ Qkt. i(ir , Passive Ytq?f, Pr. W&mn (H. C. 2, 26. 

4,247), H.W. 

202 i|7 tr. and intr. ttoist, divide «» Skr. ^[7 ^ Passive X^Hf Pr. "^TTy 

H. IV. 

203 i|^^ or B. H. WT^ ffrow « Skr. t^, I. cl. iTC^, Pr. ^fT ( Vr. 8, 

44), H. W9 or E. H. WIT . 

204 mWT^^ enlarge, complete ^=^ Skr. IN^, Causal ^ilfir* Pr. ^T^T^ or 

Vi. cl. WfTn:, H. ivrt. (T. v. 3, l. 132 has ^yrfW = 


205 Wirrw «A(?tt7, re/a#0=s Skr. ^, Causal ^f^^fir, Pr. ^w5ij or VI. cL 

206 W kill= Skr. IN (or ^ni , I. cl. 'IWf), Pr. NWTi H. ^. 

207 W^ he made «=» Skr. ^, Passive irs^B, Pr. iRn;> H. ^^. In SindM it 

means ''^o, come^'* cf. the M^adhi ^f^ (H. C. 4, 294) which the 
Prdkrit Grammarians derive from the Skr. B. HW ^o or hecome. 

208 1^ mart^ = Skr. i, V. cl. v:^hfif , hut also I. cl. ii^fif, Pr. "nri; (Vr, 

8,12), H.ift. 

209 ific^ or IT^ rain = Skr. CT, I. cl. iRftr, Pr. ^ft^ (Vr. 8, 11. ; 

perhaps denom. of ^), E. H. irft^ or W. H. i|^. 

210 mm hwm= Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^lirfir, Pr. ^KT (H. C. 4, 416 mwlfn\ 

H. i|%. 

211 ^ dtoell =a Skr. ^, I. cl. "^^fir, Pr. "WiiT, H. l§. 

212 in[>i^= Skr. iri; I. cl. ^^fir, Pr. ^^ (H. C. 1, 38), H. n^. The 

root m%%glide happily, he diverted is a passive or intrans. of a 
causal ^^^^ formed like fii^R from ft^ drink. 

213 iinv recite, read; see secondary roots. 

214 Mi{ wish = Skr. "^j I. cl. UPsllfiT, Pr. ^tn; (T. V. 8, 1. 133), H. ^nw- 

215 Him hind ^ Ski. i<w, IX. cl. ^irfir, Pr. VI. cL mm^ (H. C. 1, 187), 

216 ilT^or i|T\ kindle, light = Skr. ^^, Causal •^TW^fif, Pr. WT%^ or 

mWXj W. H. mm or E. H. ii^. See No. 210. 

217 mt% perfume = Skr. ^n^, X cl. nr^^fir, Pr. ^T or VI. cl. NTOl^ 

H. int. 

1890.] A. F. R. Hoerale— -4 Coliectian of Hindi Boots. 55 

218 ft* he TO/J=Skr. ft-lft sell, Passive ftlftui?, Pr. f^^ or ft^iT, 

H. ft* (see Vr, 8, 31. H. C. 4, 240, where however the form 
f^^X is given as act. trans ; in the moderns it is intrans. or pass., 
and the trans, root is i^, of. No 242. 

219 fVT^ or E. H. ftanc^ he at variance, he spoiled = Skr. "P^-W^, I. cl. 

fk^, Pr. firroV (cf. H. C. 4, 112), H. f^ (for ftii|). See 
No. 46. 

220 f^pmr make discord, spoil ea Skr. f«r-^, Causal f^^T^^f^i Pr. F^Jildl 

or VI. cl. f^Jlitff,, H. Pnil^ (for f'Rir?). See No. 54. 

221 ft^TT reflect = Skr. f^-^, Causal ft^r^r^rfif, Pr. ft^TTTT or VL 

cl. ffTKT, H. h^T. 

222 fkwK scatter '^ 8kT. f%-^, IX. cl. ft^^ft, Pr. I. cl. fk^KX (cf. No. 

102), H.ft*T. ^ 

223 fWT\ drive away = Skr. ft^, Causal fil^i r tf r ir, Pr. ftVT^ or VI. 

cl. frrKT, H Ptott. See No. 102. 

224 fwv\ grant = Skr. f^-^, I. cl. PnKftr, Pr. Pnr^T, H. fVTC 

225 ftwnc tr. spread ^%\t. fV^, Causal f^T^ff, Pr. fkmj^ or VI. 

cl. ftwnx H. ft«n^. 

226 ^m\ mock ; see secondary roots. 

227 Pnj* or fiRJ^ see, he confused '^ Skr. fk'Jt% X. cl. Pw^irfTr, 

Pr. f^*[*ti: or VI. cl. ft^^WC, H. f^frlr or (corrupt) f^. 

228 ft*« intr. separate = Skr. fir-^ir, Passive P^^nra (with active sense), 

Pr. f^WT (cf. Vr. 8, 52), H. ft^. 

229 ft*J» Mc«iJ= Skr. ft.^, L cl. ft^fl^r, Pr. ftr^^T, H. fir^t (for 

230 ft*^ Jcj>/<?a«tfi = Skr. ft-*^, I. cl. f«T^Rfw, Pr. U^Hl^ i H. f^t. 

231 r^vlq tr. and intr. disperse, vanish «: Skr. ft-^. Causal ft^T^irfir, 

Pr. ftlffT^T or VI. cl. fn^T^T, H. fkm^. 

232 ftr^ cfi/oy one's-seIf= Skr. ft^ , I. cl. ftrrfir, Pr. P^^T (H. C. 4, 

259 where it is said to be a substitute of Skr. Tft^rcr), H. f^^. 

233 fiRTO or fk%\ leave, spend = Skr. f^-^, III. cl. t^«J^Tf?r, Pr. I. 

cl. ftmrmr or fk%T^^ or (contr.) ftp^n:, H. ftrit or ft^^; 
cf. Vr. 8, 26. 

234 f^HX forgets: Skr. f^^, 1, cl. fwcfif, Pr. f^KT (cf. H. C. 4, 74), 

H. fk^v. 

235 fhl ^wr, hreak t^— Skr. fi?^ Passive ftiq^ (used actively), Pr. 

W^l^, H. i^ (for ^?tir, with aspiration transferred ; see my 
Comp. Gramm. § 132), or perhaps Skr. WW, IV. cl. frsifff, 
Pr. Umn, H. ^. 

236 Wtn pass; see secondary roots. 

237 fN^orpR chooser Skr. St, IX. cl. ^ffr or fii^fif, Pr. VI. cl. 

^tWTorft^, H. iV^orftiJ. 

66 A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 GoUection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

238 iTO[ he extinguished = Skr. f%-^W-^, I. cl. iV^^qf^r, Pr. ^TWVT <w 
^ ^TBWn: (or f •), H. 5^. See Weber Spt p. 32.* 

239 ir¥ or ^V dive, sink = Skr. liv, VI. cl. irvfir Pr. 3^^ (H. C. 

4, 101), H. WT or wv or W. H. transposed vw or ^^, 

240 5f[ Je extinguished =1 Skr. frUT-TO cont^ ^0 an end, I. cl. ^^Tl$, 

Pr. 11 .^mr or "in!^ or yin;, H. w?T. Compare H. ^^ = ^ifM^T 
light, lit. f(7tcAr. 

241 ^^^FTK gather, sweep = Sl^r. fw-'ipc-^, Causal ^^TT^fif, Pr. ^r^F^T 

or VI. cl. "inrT^Tt H. W^TT. 

242 TO understand = Skr. JV, IV. cl. wujt, Pr. ^SHrT (Vr. 8, 48), 

243 ^ sell = Skr. ig^ cheat, VI. cl. ft'^, Pass, ^nrii (used actively), 

Pr. Ht (H. C. 4, 419, T. V. 3, 3. 4, transl. ^q^fir ?), E. H. W^; 
or perhaps Skr. ft-^nfir + T ^end, II. cl. ^mf^, Pr. iii: or 

244 li «r^ surround ; see secondary roots. 

245 w^ or TTJ^J «iV=rSkr. ^q-ftnc, VI. cl. ^irr^ncfif, Pr. ^?f^^^ 

H. ^%^ or w^ (with loss of initial ^, see my Comp. Gramm. 
. § 1^3). 

246 ifT sow «= Skr. '^, I. cl. ^fir, Pr. "ir^ or ^T^ (formed like ^i^r 

of ^qr^, H. C. 1, 64), H. ^K. 

247 ^TV immerse = Skr. !!▼, Causal wrff«lffT, Pr. iii^ or VI. cl. 5|€|^ 

H. wrt. 

248 WWR. or ^J\ or ^WT^^ call = Skr. n^, Causal ^T^^, Pr. ir^lC 

or VI. cl. wnn^, H. nim^y &c. See No. 249. 

249 in? wheedle = Skr. W , Causal ^^irfir, Pr. ^TOi; or VI. cl. ^r, 

. WTV. 

250 m^ speak = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^ftr, Pr. iiTW: (H. C. 4, 2.) or Si^f^ 

(Cw. 99), H. ^m. (cf. No. 245 ^ = ^T^^, so ^^ = ^T^J.f 

• The simple root ^ would form Pr. WWr and contracted HR"!^, after the 
analogy of ^I^Tf;, Hli; from ^HT, MITWn: or i|nT from tH (Vr. 8, 26) ; this is bom 
out by PaU W^lfir, and by Pr. ft^JHST?; (H. 0. 2, 28 = Star. fr^«lftr) ; but in 
compounds the Pr. form might be ©^^ or •IJITi just like ••ax or ©^T" in ^5^* ^5T 
form ^3tr+^5rr (H. C. 4, 17) ; thus we should have regularly "^i^ml or (as is short 
before a conjunct) ^''^ » S^HTT • 

t This root is usually connected with Skr. W^ by Prikrit Grammarians, see Cw. 
p. 99, where "^l^or "^l^T, of root^^^, is mentioned as an analogous formation. Now 
the latter is derived from the passive *3^<r (^^TO), in an active sense, as appears 
from H. C. 4, 161. Similarly, I am inclined to derive "^T^ from the passive *^nMfI (for 
T^m of root 11), used actively. The conjunct ^ becomes V, as in ^cWl^^M^i^, 
^l^liHR s ^IJWtS (Vr. 3, 21). 

1880.] A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ OoUectim ofRindi BooU. ^7 

251 n^ eat, devour ^^Skr, inj, I. cl. iP^fir, Pr. «V^T> BL* *^' 

252 irar woTMhip = Skr. i?9[, I. cL «l9rfir, Fr. «T9)i; , H. Mm* 

253 nw or ill«r^«« = Skr. «iw ^eaA;, Passive iT«II$ (used actively), 

Pr. vnsrc, H. wornilr. 
2W inr ftr«iifc = Skr. ifw, VII. cl. nwrfll, Pr. VI. cl. Wi: (H. C. 4, 106), 

255 HH «pe»* = Skr. ?ffw, I. cl. i?^ftr, Pr. *f^ (H. C. 4, 239), H. im. 

256 in;^Z^ = Skr. iff, III. cl. ftiiffl and I. cl. «^, Pr. «nci: (ct Spfc. 

288irtfir), H. inc. 

257 IR or w revolve =r Skr. Wl , I. cL W?fiT, Pr. *»iTT (^- C. 4, 

161) or iiiiT (cf. H. C. 4, 401), H. Ǥ or MT^. See No. 134 
W^ or ITT. 

258 iw ^a* = Skr. Vw^ I, cL iffirS, Pr. itm, H. %it. 

259 m^ M& = Skr. il^, X. cL «IT^rW, Pr. HT€t or VI. cl. ht^IT^ H. HT^. 

260 ilPi op^or = Skr. «TO, I. cl. HT^w, Pr. ^rei; (H. C. 4, 203), H. 

«n^. Pr. has also the form fil^ which is preserved in the Hindi 
root fiv^^ dazzle. 

261 5V8[ *<? afflicted = Skr. fif^ 5r«i*, Passive fil^, Pr. f«T«li:, 

H. 5tl>. See No. 234. Or from ^-^^ afflict. Pass. ^»I^, 
Pr. ^pM^I^ H. ^^ (with loss of % see my Comp. Gramm. 
§ 172)- 

262 ??^ he wet ; see secondary roots. 

263 WW «i< = Skr. w, VII. cl. ^irftl, Pr. VI. cl. iJwi: (H. C. 4, 

110), H.vw.^^ 

264 vir yry ; see secondary roots. 

265 Vl^ elosCj for ii «r with transposed aspiration, see No. 244. 

266 ^ meet, visit == Skr. ^fii-^^, I. cL ^mi^fw, Pr. %^l\y H. $7 

(with loss of initial ^ ; and with it f or ^ ; se6 my Comp. Gramm. 
§§ 148, 172). 

267 if^ ^ raised up, be made, he stirred up, he excited ^b Skr, M^ or inf^ , 

Passive H^W , Pr. iRX (H. C. 4, 230 where it is referred 
to the Skr. root li^ ), H. if^. From it are derived many 
Hindi noans, all meaning lit. " an erection", ?n^ or THTf or ^^J^ 
or ir^TlTT a large bedstead or stage, ivf^nf a small bed, stool, 
in| drowsiness; also many secondary roots, as iV^iT^ ereak 
in the joints (as a bedstead, &c.), ii^C ereak or pain in the joints, 
iniWT\ wink, inni ^' 'I^W^ be Jidgety, be perverse, feel 

268 ifn clean = Skr. WW, II. cl. irrfi and I. cl. i^^fTf, Pr. iiWf: (whence 

Skr. R. liw X. cl.),^ H. ^•§. 
HY cover = Skr. H^ ; see secondary roots. 


66 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots, [No. 2, 




238 V^le extinguished ^^kr. pr-^W-^, I. cl. iVT^qfTT, Pr. ^ Tawfti; or »;^ 
"* ^TBWn: (or f •), H. 3^. See Weber Spt p. 32.* r ^ 

239 ir^ or WT rf*»tf, «»^ = Skr. iiv, VI. cl. irvF?r Pr. gf^ (H. C. a^ 

4, 101), H. WT or wv or W. H. transposed vw or ^^, ^ 

240 ir?[ he extinguished zzz^it. frlfT-TO come to an end, I. cl. ^TT^^, 

Pr. "^.^r^or %fr^ or ytn;, H. w*f. Compare H. ir^ = ^f^TOT 
lighty lit. t(7ecAr. 

241 W%\X gather, sweep — ^Vr, fw-'ipc-^, Causal ^fTT^fir, Pr. "SrjT^ ^ . 

or VI. cl. "irfT'T^ H. W^TT. 

242 inv understand = ^]s:t. WV, IV. cl. wujt, Pr. gwiX (Vr. 8, 48), ^, 

H. wr 

243 irq; seU==^ Skr. ig^ cheat, VI. cl. ft'^, Pass. ^nrS (used actively), ***• 

Pr. ^^ (H. C. 4, 419, T. V. 3, 3. 4, transl. srq^fir ?), E. H. W^; 

or perhaps Skr. ft-'i^fir + T ^cnd, II. cl. ^«5ftr, Pr. ^i^ or '^ *^ 

244 i|«r^ surround; see secondary roots. -^ ?: 

245 W9 or irre «»V = Skr. ^q-ftnc, VI. cl. ^iTi'rjrflf, Pr. ^^f^^^^^t;. 

H. ^%^ or W9 (with loss of initial ^, see my Comp. Gramm. 
^ §173). ^ -^Ki 

246 ifT «o«7 = Skr. ^, I. cl. ^fir, Pr. ^w%^ or "iTWT (formed like %r^ : '^:|j 

of ^g^, H. C. 1, 64), H. ^K. '^ ^. n ^ 

247 ^TT immerse = Skr. W^, Causal wrff«lffr, Pr. ti^ or VI. cl. "il^T 

H. WTV. -"'Q 

248 WWR. or 5^rT^^ or %W^^ cf^H = Skr. ^, Causal ^T^^fir, Pr. WT^if ' ^ ^i p 

or VI. cl. wnrr^, H. twr^, &c. See No. 249. 

249 in? wheedle = Skr. HV , Causal ^irfir, Pr. ^T§T or VI. cl. iw -^ 

260 -^im «pea^==Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^ftr, Pr. "ii^ (H. C. 4, 2.) or %^^:; 

(Cw. 99), H. iiT#. (cf . No. 245 ^ = %^^ , so "^^ = ^'mj).\ ^ ^ J* ^ 

• The simple root ^ would form Pr. WWr and contracted Wl^, after tl 
analogy of ^I^Tf;, ^T from ^TT, ^V^ or vg^ from tq (Vr. 8, 26) ; this ia Iw '^'^^i^ , 
out by Pali 'VT'lfir, and by Pr. ftWRT (H. 0. 2, 28 = Skr. fr^«lfir) ; but ^ S. C i 
compounds the Pr. form might be «>^r«: or •^K., just like "^or o^T in ^?^, ^ 1 |^ » 
form ^yW+^OT (H. 0. 4, 17) ; thus we should have regularly "'^TWI^ or (aa o is sht^*^ *,. 

before a conjunct) ^'^^ > ^^••V • * tft* 

t This root is usually connected with Skr. W^ by Prdkrit Grammarians, see C *^J ^^* 
p. 99, where "^l^or "^l^T, of root^^^, is mentioned as an analogous formation. K /^tl *^ ' 
the latter is derived from the passive ^S^? (^^TO), in an active sense, as appe ^1^ . • 
from H. 0. 4, 161. Similarly, I am inclined to derive ^TTBT" from the passive *^|^ {s ' ' 
Wira of root U ), used actively. The conjunct ^ becomes W, as in '^l^ =^T^ >^j^ » 
^T^PTO » IiJPItS (Vr. 3, 21). ^^ 

A. F. B. Hoemle— ^ CllMUm ^HiM Bool,. 67 

'""'«'- Ski. «^. I. clwrtir, Pr.«»i, H «ft 

"■ ^w^, H. war or wi*. ■ 

.>^_Sk,. «,, Til. „L WH» P,. VI. d. .•„ (H. C. 4, luc.), 

I J«i_Sb. wr, I. d. «.%, Pr. irei (a C 4. -.W H ^ 
^f^ Sk, «1J. 1 oL TOW^ P,. ,^ (H. c. 4, 2U.3), H. 

llftfr^^- '^ *""*• '^" f*^' ^- fi-^. 

SmT^ **" '""■ '"">''•■«» "jC<»p. Gnu„^ 

V fo «d; see aecondary roots. 

not" K^.^' "•• "■ '^- ^ "' ■■• H-^ (H. c. 4, 

^/•y; see seconiUrf rootsL 

J tJx, for i^ with Imiposed Mpimtion, lee No. 244. 

IM^',' .^''■'*'-'^. I-«l- «Bfil, Pr. „re H Si 

snJT^'."""'" "'"* 'fo'T/"e«j^p. gL: 

E »w = Sk,. ,^ , „ BcconcUij root,. 

58 A. F. B. Hoemle— ^ Oolleetion of Hindi BooU. [No. 2, 

270 ^n^ he propitiated = Skr. wp^ , Causal Passive M}iHHf Pr. iTH^, 

H. lA. See No. 277. 

271 iT\ die = Skr. ir, VI. cl. ftniW, but Vedic also I. cL Wf^, Pr. "iTCi: 

(Vr. 8, 12), H.i?T. 

272 iret ruft = Skr. li^, IX. cl. H^crflT Pr. VI. cl. im%. (Vr. 8, 50), 

H. in9* 

273 ii^ chum = Skr. if^, I. cl, i^nfir, Pr. ir^i; (cf. Dl. 53), HL H^. 

274 ThT^l o*^for = Skr. «T5n*, X. cl. ^Wi^fir and I. cl. nWifir, Pr. wmxi 

(Spt. 71), H. uSt, Cp. Skr. R. iTJl., IV. cl. linrfif, which would 
give the Pr. iran; equally well ; but the denom. R. liT^ is the 
more probable source, as Pr. and Gauijt. have a preference for 
denominative verbs. 

275 <T«t^ scour = Skr. «iTaf , X. cl. iiTafirfiT (or R. w^, X. cl. ^TT^fJr, see 

remarks on No. 274), Pr. limx. or VI. cl. Wi;, H. iiTw. 

276 <T^ or inr rub = Skr. if^, IX. cl. ^i5jfff or I. cl. iV^, Pr. ^nn 

(H. 0. 4, 126), H. iiit or «Tt. 

277 W\ honor, heed = Skr. ifi^, Causal UTT^fir, Pr. irr^T or VI. cU 

inTi;, H. i!T^, See No. 270. 

278 m\ or iTTX ^»«««w^ = B. m, Causal Passive ^IU|<) (used actively), 

Pr. iTTTanc, H. ifT?. The form J(m is either a mere corruption of 
I7T^ , or it may be similarly derived from the Causal Passive UTOnt 
(of root trr), Pr. ^vnxi, H. iTT^. 

279 nr^ heat, kill = Skr. ^, Causal in^fir, Pr. fTT^i; (H. C. 4, 337) 

or VI. cl. WKX (H. C. 3, 153), H. nV^. 

280 fti^ meet = Skr. ftnj^, VI. cl. fin^rfir, Pr. ft^gni; (H. C. 4, 832), 

H. fro. 

281 ftro he pulverised =: Skr. in^, VI. cl. incfH, Pr. ftreT» H- ^'''^. 

282 $ti^ or ^^ wink =^ Skr, ^^, future ^^fif (used in sense of 

present), Pr. ^^^ or fir^^T, H. ^ftw or (corrupt) #t^. See 
introductory remarks pp. 37 — 40, and No. 175. 

283 fftV or 5^ ruh = Skr. mr, II. cl. wfk or I. cl. ITWfH'y Pr. fti^l^ 

H. ^^ or ^a. 

284 !?▼ «Aape = Skr. *▼ , I. cl. ^^fif, Pr. li^ (H. C. 4, 115), H. ^i. 

285 ^^ steal = Skr. ^,1. cl. ^^fff, Pr. i^i; (T. V. 2, 4. 69), H. ^. 

286 «T^ allure =:^ Ski, w^, Causal ^«lf<r, Pr. ^TTi: w VI. cL %r^ 

H. «i^. 

287 T^ keep, place = Skr. x:^, I. cl. K^n, Pr. KWf (BL C. 4, 439), 

288 t^ intr. he made or tr. make = Skr. t^ make. Passive t^ (used 

actively), Pr. Tn; (cf. H. C. 4, 422, 23 ^^if^. Spt. 363 ^f^ 
= ^f^)f H. ^^. 

18S0.] A. P. R. Hoernle— ^ Oolleetian of Hindi Boots. 59 

289 ^^ roam, enjoy = Skr. ^. I. cl. K^, Pr. T^ (H. C. 4, 168), 

H. ^5. 

290 TT ^<^P^ remain = Skr. K^, Passive K^W Pr. TWi;, H. t^ 

(for ^)* ^ 

291 tin be adomed= Skr. rm or T«l, IV. cl. K^fw, Pr. t«n:, H. x^ar 

292 TTH or ff « cook = Skr. t^, Causal K?^\n, Pr. t5t or VI. cl t^, 

H. tl^ or (corr.) ^*§. ^ ^ 

298 ft% he vexed = Skr, fK\, IV. cl. (or Pass.) fK^% Pr. ft^i;, H. ft^. 

294 ^he agreeable = Skr. ^, Passive ^^^, Pr. ^^ (H. C. 4, 341), 

295 ^ intr. be^xed, efop = Skr. ^, Causal Passive TTO?r, Pr. T1^ 

or T^H^, H. Tq. 
296x^^0T^^be angry == Skr. ^, IV. cl. ^C^rfir, Pr. ^^T or 'W^ (Vr. 

8, 46), H. ^ or ^; cf. No. 302. 
2»7 ^ or ^ or t!^ or ^^ trample on, probably a corrupt spelling 

of the following. No. 298. 

298 ^or <:ii or Tt^ or ^tx enelose, restrain = Skr. ^, VII. cl. ^^^, 

Pr. ^^V (Vr. 8, 49), H. ^t or *v or f !§ or rft. 

299 hi creep = Skr. fK?i, I. cl. ftinfil, Pr. fcilT or ft«ri: (H. C. 4, 269), 

H. ^^. 

800 TF weep = Skr. ^. II. cl. rrfi^fir, Vedic also VI. cl. ^^, Pr. ^n: 

(H. C. 4, 226. 238) or ^Wi; (Spt. 311) or I. cl. TWT (H- C. 4, 
226. 238) or TT^n: (K. I. 4, 69), H. ^it or TK.^ 

801 ^T^ roll, plan = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^HJlfir, Pr. %«T» H. ^m.f 

See Nos. 313, 314. 

802 ^ be angry = Skr. ^, Vedic I. cl. ^rrfif, Pr. TTOi:, H. •^; 

cf . No. 296. 

803 ^n see = Skr. fT^, I. cl. ^pjil , Pr. ^fH^C, H. W#. 

d(^ %^be applied =^ Skr. ^, Passive W^y Pr- Wi\ (Vr. 8, 62), 

806 ^^0TW(f\jump over= Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^^, Pr. ^\, H. ^ 

or ^rfn. 
806 ^,or E. H. ly^ dispute, Jight = Skr. WW, X. cl. ^V^, Pr. t^rti; 

* The derivation is somewhat obscure ; but it can hardly be referred (as Bs. 

m, 40) to the Skr. root K^ which has a very different meaning ** desert". The 

derivation from ^^ is supported by the Mari^hi form TT^^^s ^.^. On the change of 

W to % see my Comp. Ghnunm. { 116. 

t There is a large number of Skr. roots, all closely connected in moaning ; v»c. 

^,,W, ^, \T¥; WSy ^. ^^, ^TV, &c. 

60 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Booti. [No. 2, 

or VI. cl. ^WT, W. H. ?9f or E. H. ^. 

307 ^r^ or isTfl shine, he fit = Skr. ff^, I. cL 99^ or X. cl. ^rP7^fir> 

Pr. MT^X or W^T, H. ^ or ^ITT^. 

308 ^^/nJ, avail, get on well = Skr. ijiil, I. cL vrif, Pr. fivi: (H. C. 4, 

335), H.^. 

309 ^rm /tftfZ ashamed = Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^^fw, Pr. ^tor; (H. C. 4, 

103), H. ^ 

310 fijT^^ MTj^tf = Skr. fan, VI. cl. f^wfir, Pr. figWC, H. f%t The 

ordinary Pr. root f^^ (H C. 1, 187 fia^) does not exist in 

311 fwm^he smeared = Skr. f%q. Passive f^PiiT, Pr. fm^- H. %^ 

312 ^or ^ smear = Skr. f^, VI. cl. fiai^fir, Pr. f^qi; (H. C. 4, 

149), H. ^q or %q. As to the change of ^ to ^, see my 
Comp. Gramm. § 148. 

313 1^^ roll = Skr. ^rar , VI. cL ^f^r, Pr. ^Vi;, H. ^. See Nos. 

^ 301, 314, 317/ ^ 

314 ^TB roll = Skr. ^^, VI. cl. ffl^R f, Pr. ^^, H. ^n?. 

316 ^jT or «^ roh = Skr. ?5^ or ^^ I. cl. ^^nr or iST^^nf , Pr. "^Zti or 
^3^, H. w<r or ^[«. 

316 % take = Skr. ^, I. cl. ^liif , Pr. ^j^ or % (H. C. 4, 238), 

H. ^fj^ or 1$. The sjllahle T^m is contracted into % ; similarly IHT 
speak is sometimes pronounced $, and ^^ hear, $. 

317 %w^roll about = Skr. ^, VI. cl. ^^2% Pr. %m: (H. C. 4, 146 

in the sense "rolling about in sleep"), H. ^T7. 

318 %rH he enamoured = Skr. ^H, IV. cl. ^urfTT, Pr. ^WT (H. C. 

4, 153), H. %T^. As to the change of ^ to ^, see my Comp. 
Granmi. § 148. 
819 inr surround = Skr. «, Causal ^TCirfiT, Pr. ^fTTi; or VI. cl. Wl^, 
H. ^T^. 

320 ^ can = Skr. "HV, Passive IW^ (used actively), Pr. ^g^i; (Vr. 8 

62), H. iwr. 

321 'iNk or ^R (or ^imx) destroy ^=sz SIlt. nw%. Causal ^H T ^^fi r, 

Pr. ^T\T or ^WfXX: (cf- H. C. 1, 264)" or VI. cl. ^'^HTT or 
^^^TTT, H. ^^x or ^TTK (or ^TOTT). Or a denominative of 

322 ^ collect = Skr. ^-f%, Passive ^ ^ ^H (used actively), Pr. ^^ 
(cf. H. C. 4, 241^^1:) or VI. cl. ^^T (as ^K for ^xh H, 


323 ^ or ^7 he combined « Skr. ^r^-^OTT, Passive Wisft^^ (used 
actively), Pr. TOT or V I. cl. ^JT^ (like ^^ and ^iT), H. ^ 
or (corr.) ^ir. 

1850.] A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection ofBindt Boots'. 61 

S2I ij^ or ^ roi = Skr. ^ (or n^ ), I. cl. ^t^^fir, but Vedic also 
ir^%, Pr. ^▼i^ (H. C. 4, 219 ; in Vr. 8, 51 it is ascribed to 
IC^), W. H. ^ or E. H. ^. 

325 '^JfG\ persecute, torment c=s Skr. ^ri?;?f^, Causal ^^iMilDl, Pr. ^?rw; 

or VI. cl. ^m^, H. ^WT'. 

326 ^ leak == Skr. ^^, I. cl. m^, Pr. ^^^, H. ^$. As to elision 

of the nasal, see my Com p. Gramm. § § 143, 146. See No. 853. 

327 WfdWf or ^TTO or "^i^fT^ sustain = Skr. ^^-iff, Causal ^^MK^Hf, Pr. 

"■ ^ * ^^ ** 

WTKT oi* ^I- cl. WT^ H. ^«1IM, &c. Or demon, root of ^^TK- 
828 ^ilPl^ he contained «=> Skr. ^iT-^nf , V. cl. ^wrRTfif, Pr. X. cl. ^irr^T 
H^ C. 4, 142) or VI. cl. ^imn;, H. -^mt See No. 172. 

329 ^Wf or ^ws§i understand => Skr. ^H-T^T, IV. cl. ^^UHf, Pr. ^WH^, 

E. H. w^4r or W. H. ^^4?. See No. 242. 

330 ^ issue, be ended «= Skr. %, I. cl. ^tfir, Pr. ^^ ( Vr. 8, 12), 

H. ^C 

331 UTT^ commend s= Skr. TgTT^, I. cl. ^5T9^, Pr. ^?srT^T, (H. C. 2, 101 

has ^^^T ?). H. ^TT^. 

332 ^m pierce = Skr. in^ or ^i^, I. cl. iRrfif or ^isfpf, Pr. ^^, H ^r§. 
833 WT or ^^HT or ^ifT^ prepare = Skr. ^^^-«, Causal ^>l4.<|f>ri Pr. 

W\l\ or VI. cl. ^'^rPCT, H. ^?i|TT, &c. 

334 ^ endure ^^Vr. ^, I. cl. ^'^j Pr. ^^ (H. C. 1, 6), H, ^. 

335 ^^ arrange = Skr. ^ + ^, I. cl. ^tftr, Pr. ^TT (H. C. 4, 

259 = Skr. ^iMlT, in H. C. 4, 82 also ^T^T^), E. H. ^^^. 

336 ^W settle^ Skr. ^T«f, Causal ^T^^, Pr. ^5^ (of. Spt. 188 ?5T^^) 

or VI. cl. ^p^ (cf. Spt. 260 ^HJlOf H. ^T$. The form ^T^does 
not occur in Hindi. 

337 ^rnj accomplish = Skr. W, Causal '^TCTfir, Pr. ^TTi; or VI. cl. ^n:i; 

H. iji^.» 

338 ^T^ pierce ^=^}sT. -jy. Causal ITTC^, Pr. btti; or VI. cl. ^l^^; 

H. ^m. Or from Causal of in? , see No. 832. 

339 ^rt^ threaten, distress = Skr. ?iH, Causal ^^^fif, Pr. ^1[ or VI. cl. 

^^ (H. C. 4, 197 where however ib is = ^^), H. ^§. 

340 €Y «w= Skr. f«^^, IV. cl. fl^qfir, Pr. VI. cl. f^^x or P9^T, H. ^?. 

H. C. 4, 230 gives f^^VIT which would be #t^ in H., but it does 
not exist ; there is, however, another reading f%^, H. ?ft^ 
which does exist, see No. 842. 

341 5Nr learn =* Skr. fw^, I. cl. fn^. Pr. f^Wf (cf . Spt. 353), H ^^. 

342 €h[ or ^*^ or ff ^ irrigate =« Skr. f^, VI. cl. f^j^qflT, Pr. 

** The root means also ^* polish *' (by nibbing, striking) ; perhaps this is the 
WT^T mentioned by H. C. 4, 84 as equivalent to the Skr. ^I'^^mi, 

62 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Oollwiion ^ Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

(H. C. 4, 239) or ftr^ (H. C. 4, 230), H. ^*^ or fl^ or (corr.) 

ff^ (cf. Vr. 2, 41 Wil* ^Wfi; Ls. 199.) 
843 €Vw exude, stoeat = Skr. fm%, IV. cl. ftr^fir, Pr. ft[«n:(H. C. 4, 

224), H. €t^- See also No. 344. 
344 €\«r seethe J hail, exude, sweat =z Skr. ^ (or ^), Passiye ^t^J, Pr. 

f%^Bii^ H. 5W. 

845 ^^tW he received (as money) he liquidated (as debt) = Skr. fv, Pas- 

sive ^irir, Pr. f%58nc, BL. ^«r. 

846 ^^T^ adorn = Skr. ^-if. Causal UNK^Pl f, Pr. VflXi; or VI. cL 

^f^X,. H. ^5HT^. 

347 ni *««^ « Skr. ^, V. cL lyWir, Pr. VI. cl. ^in; (Vr. 8, 56), 

348 !rff\ retnemher — Skr. ^, I. cl W^, Pr. Vi^T (Vr. 8, 18), H. ^|ii^. 

849 V^rv he agreeable = Skr. ^^ X. cL ^Virf^ Pr. ^^^n^^ (Spt. 169) or 

VI. cl. H^PH; , H. ^^T'i. 

850 43^ smell at = Skr. ^it^-TTT, I. cl. TWrftnrftr or II. cl. ^HlKiO l , 

Pr. ^^i: or VI. cl. ^«n^, H. ^.* 

851 it^T swell = Skr. f^. Passive If^, Pr. ^«n;, H. ?B$. 

852 9]iV a^^ear = Skr. 15V , IV. cl IJHifif, Pr. f[«*n;, (cf. H. C. 4, 

217), H. ^. 

853 ^^ irrigate »= Skr. ^, Causal ^T^irf^, Pr. f^X or VI. cl. fH^X, 

H. «^t cf . No. 326. 

854 ^T^ or ^\serve, worship =1 Skr. %^, I. cl. ^i^, Pr. $^ (H. C. 4, 

896), H. ^ or ^T (with euphonic"^, see my Comp. Gramm. 

^ § 69). 

855 %T^ regret, meditate ss= Skr, IQ^, Passive U^ii (used actively) 

Pr. ^^, H. $T^. 

856 m\shine, he Jit = Skr. ijif , I. cl. iN^, Pr. $T^ (H, C. 1, 187), 

H. %T^. 

857 §t^ deliver = Skr. ^-% Causal ^H^^rf^Ty Pr. ^iK5^ or VI. cL 

iTTPHi;, H. $t^. See No. 349, footnote. 
868 T^t ^11 = Skr. Y^, II. cl. ^f^, but Vedic also I. cl. "^irfir, Pr. ^^. 

(H. C. 4, 418), H. ^. 
359 ^ take away » Skr. ^, I. cl. T^fir, Pr. ^Ki; (H. C. 4, 234), H. T^. 

• •ITT wotdd form •'^ or i^ in Pr., just as ©IT or ©FT of •^ITT j and ^H 
would contract to ^ in Hindi, just as in ^^^ for Fr. ^**'M<, see Ko. 367; the 
intennediate form being ^^^9% (cf. H. 0. 4, 397)« The root, however, might be 
derived from Skr. ftiw, I. cL f^^, Fr. f^^; only the Hindi ought to be 4fW ; 
and the change of !l to V would be very anomalous* (Dr. B. Mitra in his vocabulary 

quotes i Jia^rgn^^ ? ). 

1880.] A. F. B. Hoernle— ^ OolUction ofRindt Boots. 63 

860 ^|ft9 or ^T^ k yfcji=Skr. ^^, I. cl. ^ftr, Pr. ^ft:^ (Vr. 8, 
11 ; perhaps denom. of ^'C^ = ^4 Vr. 3, 62), E. H. ^ftt or 
W. H. ^. See No. 209. 

361 ^W^ to99 about «i Skr. W^, (Causal Passive V^nnd) , Pr. ^re^i9i;> 
H. ^^jn. 

862 5Rr seream = 8kT. W, L cL 911%, Pr. VI. cl. ^^ri^i: or (contr.) 

y^Pm, "EL. HWT^. 

863 V? or ^ lauffh = Skr. ^, I cl. ^^fir, Pr. ^^^ (T. V. 2, 4. 69) 

or ^?Bf (Passive), H. ^^ or IfM- 
BM \\\ or ^rf^ blow = Skr. ^irr, Causal ^limifir, Pr. Vq^ or VI cL il^i; 
or IRi:, H. irtq or (corr.) ^^. 

865 YT^intr. tfA/iibtfssSkr. w^ Fa9siye Wit (used actively), Pr. milj 

H ^. See No. 68. 

866 fxm intr shake mm Skr. IJ, I. cl. mcfir, Pr. VI. cl. f%^ or f^x» 

H. f^t. 

867 ^nr sacrifice « Skr. if, V. cl. iJ^W, Pr. VI. cl. ^^ic or »^ (H, 

C. 4, 241 where it is referred to Skr. root v)» H. V$. 

868 9^ drive, goad «» Skr. i^ go. Causal 9Virfi|, Pr. yti; or VI. cl. 

jj^, H. 9$. 

869 %r &e — Skr. w , I. cl. inrfif, Pr. ^W; or ^Ri; or »^ or ^ (H. C. 

4,60), H. %ni 

Past II. — Secondary Boots. 

Comp. =a compound root ; den. = denominative ; der. = derivative ; 
N. = noun ; P. P. P. = past participle passive. 

The Sanskrit equivalents are not given, unless when thej actually 
exist ; what theoretically they might have been, has been explained in the 
introductory remarks ; see also my Comparative Grammar, §§ 351 — 354. 

Some of the explanations attempted in this list, are, of course, only 
tentative ; a few such have been indicated by a mark of interrogation. 

1 comp. W^m be hindered, stepped = Skr. ^I + V, Pr. ^rlti: or 

^in:, H. ^^. 

2 comp. ^^T^ be raised, rise = Skr. ^m -|- V, Pr. ^9^W1^ or ^^HflT* 

8 comp. Tji|i|[^ pomit = Skr. ^-Wii + W, Pr. ^«Hfi: or ^«l^fT> H. ^Wf. 
4 comp. "^^ or 'JTw vomit = Skr. ^IT -|- V, Pr. WiiWT or ^^(WX^ 

Ap. Pr. '^H^ H. ^ii^ or ^ (with W for ^ or Vf, see my 

Comp. Qramm. § 122). 

64 A. F. E. Hoernle— ^ Collection ofSindt RooU., [No. 2, 

6 der. ^^^ he pulled out, slip outy a passive or intransitive, derived 
from^^n^, see No. 6. 

6 den. ^in^or ^^^pull out, uproot = Skr. P. P. P. ^9isre, Pr. ^VfT 

(of. H. C, 4, 187), H. ^^1^ (for ^9^07, with transferred aspira- 
tion, see my Comp. Gramm. § 132) or ^9%^ (for ^^{f with change 
of a to e, see my Comp. Gramm. § 148). See No. 13. 

7 den. ^r^ put on, dress = Skr. ^q^iB, I. cl. ^ir5«S, Pi*. 'SrtfT* 

(cf. H?C. 4, 221), H. *^ (contracting w to ^|t). Probably 
from a P. P. P. of the root ftnj^. 

8 comp. ^JT'l crackle, thtmder = Skr. ^r?[* -|- W, Pr. ^^ni#i: or ^Tfifl^ 

H. ^^. 

9 den. Hirr\ earn = Skr. N. v^ j Pr. ^1IT5t or wmWT, (H. C. 4, 

111 has ^n^l^l^ and gives it as a substitute of the root ^^(nvor ; the 
d is shortened to a, by H. C. 8, 160), H. ^[ITT?. 

10 comp. ^r^ he painful, he pained = Skr. i|r^ + Vi Pr. ir^#r or 

^re^i:, H. 9^. 

11 der. ^ he cut, a passive or intransitive, derived from root ^ITT^ see 

primary roots. No. 27. 

12 der. ^rv he pulled out, escape, a passive or intransitive, derived from 

root ^n^. See No. 13. 

13 den. ^n? pull out =^ Ski. P. P. P. v^i Pr. Wjn (H. C. 4, 187), 

H. W\%. 


14 comg. IRC^ or ^^^ make a tremulous noise, rustle^ rattle = Skr.. 

^W + W ; Pr. *^J1R; or Winc* H. ibt:«S or m^^. There is also 
a reduplicated root V^^ or ^i^f^^ of the same meaning. They 
also occur in Mardthi and Panjabi. The primary meaning of the 
root is ; slip or fflide along with a sound ; this is preserved in the 
Mar&thi ^PC^ or 9?p[ which is used of the running of a streami, 
or the crashing of a boat, dragged over gravel, &c. The simple 
root 9^ occurs in Mar^t^ with its original meaning he shed, 
fill 9ff; also in Panjdbi, where however it has become transitive, 
carry off. The change of ^ or ^ to v or ^ is anomalous ; but it 
already took place in Prdkrit ; thus in Spt. 44, ^^^T^ for Skr. 
^IHcHdOf, Spt. 195 ^%^ for Skr. ^^nf^. Perhaps there may be 
a connection with the root ^^ ; compare also the roots WT and 
W^. See also roots Ht^ and M)<«^. 

15 der. 91^ he hollowed, he sunk, a passive or intransitive, derived from 

root 9iT^ ; see No. 16. 

16 den. m^^ hollow, hury = Skr. N. ^, Pr. iTf (Vr. 3, 25), Pr. Jifi: 

or T^T) H. iVT^. Or possibly a mere corruption of root ?ri7 , No. 
17, by disaspiration. 

1890.] A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection of Hindi Boots. 65 

17 den. srrr dig in^fix in, hury = Skr. P. P. P. tttv (of root 3rr\)» 

Pr. 3ITV^ H. airy. 

18 den. St^ mark, brand = Skr. N. *r^ ; Pr. *t^ or ^St^, H. *r^ (?) ; 

brands being made on the forehead or bosom. 

19 den. q^ltr^ he alarmed, agitated, perhaps corrupted form 9i^i|^| 4 

with the same meaning, a reduplicative or alliterative form, made 
firom 919=: Skr. N. ar^ noise, cries of alarm (?). 

20 den. l^irTW or ftfirijrw he disgusted = Skr. N. "CTT or deminutive 

'fftwrr (of root TW), Pr. f^^ (EL C. 1, 128) or fW^iw ; Pr. 
ftlWriT or ftf^TV^ or firW^T or ftf^^^PTTj H. ft^pr or frfi^jT^. 

21 der. flpc be collected, surrotmded, gather, a passive or intransitive of 

root i^. See primary roots, No. 64. 

22 eomp. ^TT^ he compressed, collapse = Skr. ^PT or ^ -f V» Pr. ^T^iil^ 

or ^TUWJf H. ^r^l^. 

23 comp. ^rw^ glitter = Skr. ^inj + W, pass. ^ 4<rri l i^ii (with active 

meaning), Pr. ^i?#f: or ^nWT, H. ^nilr. 

24 den. ^m^ iinsh, corrupted for WT^, see No. 40. 

25 der. f^rc he torn, split, a passive or intransitive, derived from root 

^iK; see No. 31. 

26 den. f^ivrr^ smooth, polish = Skr. N. fnnif (or f^fUR ', perhaps 

itself a compound word of f^ bright = f^, and IS = Pr. fiif^ $ 
lit. made clear) ; Pr. r^«^l4^ or PqUk^l^i, H. f^^RTT^. 

27 den. f^nrrv or f^Tn» abuse, vex = Skr. P. P. P. f^ir (from root f%i| 

abuse) ; Pr. fwvnPC, H. ^7ni ' (with transfer of aspiration) or 
f^^fTV (with loss of aspiration). As to the changes of aspiration, 
see No. 47 ^^ or ti^^, where it is preserved ; also primary root, 
No. 65 ^n[ (footnote, p. 45). As to the change of ir to if to v 
(or "j), compare root Wf rw from P. P. P. ij^ ; and primary roots 
Nos. 92, 93 «r7 and ^r^. 

28 den. f^HT^ make known to, warn, admonish = Skr. P. P. P. ftpff ; 

Pr. frm*c or ferwn: (cf. s. b. ii, i), h. f^rm. in Setu- 

handha 11, 1 occurs the past participle T^vil^nd (with a for a, by 
H. 0. 3, 150), which is correctly explained by the commentator 
as meaning ^firH' made knoum to, or f^rvit restrained, warned (or 
fire li), Mfi JtF««W admonished, comforted; (see S. Gdt. pp. 84, 156). 

29 den. ^hf paint = Skr. N. f^ ; Skr. f^^qfif, Pr. f^|^ or fHniT, 

30 den. ^itir or ^^ recognize = Skr. N. fiTP, Pr. f^rv (H. C. 2, 50) ; 

Skr. firir^ir, Pr. fir^^T or f^ri^i;, H. ^t5 or ^ift^. 

31 den. ^ftr tear, cleave = Skr. N. ^^ (rag), whence Skr. ift^fif, 

Pr. 'ff^ or ^kr, H. ft^. 


66 A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection of Hindi Roots. [No. 2, 

82 comp. ^^ he finished, cease = Skr. ^ 4- W ; Pr. ^nn? (H. C. 4, 

177), H. ^^. H. C. gives it as a substitute of"* the Skr. root 
^^^fall doum, decay, a synonym of ^?t; so also the commentator 
to Spt. 323, see Wb. p. 184. The correct derivation from ^w is 
given by the commentator on Setubandba 1, 9. The Skr. root ^n[ 
inflict pain, X. cl. ^W^flT, is doubtlessly reintroduced from the 
Prakrit. See No. 33.^ 

83 comp. ^ blunder, miss = Skr. ^^+ H ; Pr- ^Vf > H. ^. This 

is clearly identical with the former, as regards origin. The original 
meaning " fall," " drop," (from the truth) would easily lead to 
'* blunder." In this sense it is well-known to Pr&krit ; e, g., Spt. v, 
823, ^^E^'^T " blundered or missed meeting" ; again Spt. v. 199, 
Setubandha 1, 9, where the commentary correctly explains it iniT^ 
^^ xff{ ^f^TT , i' e., according to some it is a desi word meaning 
"blundering" (See S. Qdt., p. 157). See No. 32. 

84 den. ^KT^ steal = Skr. N. ^^ or '^rK ; Pr. ^rCfSi; or ^TT^s;, 

H. %^^. 

85 comp. ^ff^ start (from fright) = Skr. ^nnr+ V, passive ^^iffiirv^ 

(used actively), Pr. 5|?i^ or ^i?mTi Ap. Pr. ^^^i^, H. ^tir. 

86 der. W^ he strained^ filter, a passive or intransitive derived from W[m% 

No. 38. 

87 den. WH[ deceive, cheat = Skr. N. iw ; Skr. w^^fn, Pr. w% or 

^Wl> H. wll. 

88 den. WW strain, search = Skr. P. P. P. ^ni (of root ^), Pr. •^^ 

or wiT V^ 199) or WW:, H. WTW (?). 

89 den. WT^ stamp, print ; an active or transitive derived from root WV ; 

perhaps merely another form of root ^nr ) see Appendix Nos. 4 
and 13. 

40 den. WT^ or ^^T^ wish = Skr. N. ^I9T^ i Pr. ^^»T^ (cf . H. C. 2, 

22) or ^^I'^IL* H WT^ or (disaspirated) ^i^ ; or from Skr. N, 
T^T, Pr. T^T^1[ or TWT^IT, H. in^ (with transferred aspira- 
tion) or ^T^. As to the elision of initial ^ or T, see my Comp. 
Gramm. § 173 (cf. Addenda) ; and as to the change of aspiration, 
ibidem § 132. 

41 comp. fw^iv be dispersed, he scattered = Skr. fmi -|- V ; Pr. fin%^ 

or fWFiT> H. fw79. See No. 46. 

42 den. fW9^ he vexed, take ojfence, a passive or intransitive, derived 

from B. ^It^^ or 9^, No. 46« 

43 comp. ^T^^ sprinkle = Skr. ^« + W ; Pr. ^nrWT or fwvui:, 

H. f^Y^. As to the derivation of f^ from Skr. ^, see No. 45 
#t7 ; and as to the softening of the final, lft< is to fi(7, a^ onr to 
W^, q. V. 

18S0.] A. F. R. Hoernle— .4 Collection of Hindi Boots, 67 

4i den. ^iw m^ee^ = 8kr. N. ftniT ; Skr. fiV^far, Pr. ftfti; or ftfUi;, 
H. iPrt. The word flnr, however, ie itself a compound from fw?r 
sneezing and « ; and the word finr is probably another form of 
^ sneezing^ from Skr. root ^ sneeze. 

45 deiL fhr or ^ff» or #» sprinkle =* Skr. P. P. P. ^ sprinkled, 

Pr. ^ (with ftr for ^, as in fl^^ or ftm or fim:, H. C. 4, 182. 
257; see also primary roots Nos. 78, 80); Pr. flft or fwfi:, 
H. #^ or #)y* or W7 (on disaspiration see my Comp. Qramm. 
§ 145, Exc. 2 ; on the anun^ika, § 149 ; and on the change of 
T to ^, § 148). Or from Skr. N. #|| (of root fV^), see primary root 
No. 342. 

46 den. 9^ or tf abuse, vex = Skr. P. P. P. f^n abused ; Pr. w^T 

or infT. H. Wf or #^^. See Nos. 27, 42. Probably from f^n 
was derived a root fw7, just as Skr. root wrs from ti^ ; the causal 
of f^ would be #f7, just as causal Wlfs of 017 1 whence we should 
have Pr. wir* just as Pr. lirviC, and H. W^ just as H. STT^. 
The root f^ which would correspond to 917 does not exist in 
Hindi, except in the compound Pf^V, see No. 41. A similar series 
of roots are w^ or R and JHV'* Possibly also Nos. 48 and 45, 
may be derived from fYTV. 

47 den. ^tw take ouwjf, snatch ^B}a. P. P. P. fwH (of root ff\), 

Pr. ftnn: or f^HT, H. ft$. 

48 den. W^ or w^ be let off, be released = Skr. P. P. P. fwip, Pr. Wit 

(H." C. 2,*" 138) or WT (S. C. 1, 8, 142 ijjr ?); Pr. wtt or WIT, 
H. WV or W7. See Nos. 46 and 50. The root W7 or '%'^ has not 
been adopted into Sanskrit, except in its causal or transitive form 

* There would he the following series of forms : 
Skr. WW, Pr. •TW or Tf ; Roots Skr. «Iir, Pr. fW or •f ▼» H. *»• or W^ , Caiw. •TTW 

» fw, „ wn ,f fwf ; ,, ,t fti^, „ w „ fww, „ fiRT „ fff J „ wf . 

The Pr. roots in f^ would seem to be the original derivativea from the Skr. 
P. P. P. ; they were reintroduced into Sanskrit with one final 7, and afterwards gave 
rise to the alternative Pr. root in W > by the ordinary phonetic change of 7 to W. 
The two alternative Pr. roots in f and ▼» reappear in H. as roots in W and 7^* 
At to the Skr. root W^, see footnote to No. 48. The root fWF appears to have been 
Ettle used ; it is not mentioned among Skr. roots, nor does it survive in Hind^ 
except in (V«^, see No. 41. 

f The root WW does exist in Skr., but it has assumed a somewhat different, 
though wnnected meaning " cw< *' (whence H. W^T hniff). The same transition of 


68 A. F. R. Hoernle— -i Collection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

49 den. w^ perforate = Skr. N. fipf (of R. ftf^) ; whence Skr. ffij^ilflly 

Pr. ftf^ or fw^, H. W^. 

50 der. IRY release, an active or transitive, derived from R. W? No. 48. 

Compare Skr. root '^QT7. 

51 den. vraiT^ ^atV off labor (i. e., aMM/ another with labor, in eapeeta- 

tion of similar assistance being returned hereafter) =s Skr. N. ^'R, 
Pr. anar (H. C. 2, 78) ; Pr. 9n3}T$T or QTun^, H. arurt. The 
root comes to mean generally : be pi^ovident, be careful of 

52 den. «nrnr make known, warn = Skr. P. P. P. VTi (of caus. of R. 

trr) J Pr. «nfT^ or anipn;, H. snn^. 

53 den. «ni germinate «=^ Skr. N. «PII, Pr. m^ix or «wn; (H. C. 4, 136), 

H. mm 

54 den. ?^W overpower, win = Skr. P. P. P. ^hf (of R. ^T) ; Pr. 

f«i^l or fiiTii;, H. ^?r. 

55 der. VTV be joined, a passive or intransitive, derived from root ^T^ 

see No. 57. 

56 den. «r^ unite = Skr. P. P. P. rm, Pr. «nf (H. C. 1, 42) or Wf, 

(see Nos. 46, 48), Pr. 9f"fT or 9TIT, H. «r^. Compare Skr. root ar^. 

57 der. 9n^ ^c^tV^, an active or transitive, derived from root 9|7, see 

No. 56.^ 

58 den. ^c[yoA« = Skr. N. ^tWi Skr. ^TfUqftr, Pr. ^Hk or mvnt, 

H. aiT^. 

59 den. ^r^ or ^r^ or an see = Skr. N. ^ifif^ eye, sight ; Pr. »rr^ 

(H. C. 4, 422, 6) or ^^T (cf. H. C. 4, 332 W^fir^), H. *r^ 
or wh"^ or ^nr (with euphonic ^ and ^ , see my Comp. Gramm. 
§ 69). 

60 comp. «V7^ tr. twitch, intr. shake = Skr. IV^ -\- is ; Pr. «vnT or 

«inEltl[, H. MR^. As to the derivation of vgz, see primary root 
Mh^ No. 96. 

61 comp. vff^ intr. spring ; tr. throw on, move to and fro, snatch = Skr. 

•inr + 15 ; Pr. »ipri or iRTj*^, H. if q$. Hemachandra 4, 161 
notices the corresponding uncompounded verb H^» but only as an 
intransitive " move to and fro *' (said to be = Skr. ^?rfif). £Qndi 
and MarathI have the same uncompounded verb m!^, but as a 
transitive, " cover with a thatch " (lit., throw on, i. e., bundles of 

meaning may be observed in another series of Skr. roots, which, also are derived from 
f%ll. The latter becomes in Pr. f^^ (H. C. 2, 127) or ^T! (Spt. v. 278) or ^I ; 

whence Pr. den. roots ^C or ^^ (H. C. 4, 116 ^W and ^^T he hreakt), H. 

(9^ does not exist). This root WT as well as the corresponding causal or transitive 
forms W\€^ or W^ have been adopted into Sanskiit. See primary root No. 41, 

1880.] A. P. R. Hoernle— -i Collection of Hindi Boots, 69 

grass.)* As to the derivation of vn^ see Appendix No. 6. Hindi 
has an adverb vv^ quickly ; it has also another kind of compound 
root Hi^T7 with the same meaning as «S^|^ On these obscure com- 
pound in 7 roots, see my Comp. Gramm. § 354i, 2. 

62 comp. ira^ shine, glare = Skr. H^ + 15 ; Pr« irtc or Hnrifi:, 

H. «ral^. As to the derivation of H^t see primary root No. 98. 

63 den. nhr peep, spy = Skr. N. ^H|^ ; Pr. V5»WgT, H. ^m (with 

loss of initial % and disaspiration) ? 

64 comp. ^^ sigh, lament = Skr. T?lTf + IS ; Passive i^'d^<<<i (used 

actively), Pr. fm^K. or fwWT> H. ^*^. 

65 comp. vnr^or ^\stagger, nod, bend = Skr. ^«r^ (ace. sg. neut. ^!r^^)+ 

V ; Pr. ijn:, H. «il( or «itt. 

66 comp. hIm or iSffur throw, east = Skr, ^ (or ^^) + 15 ; Pr. 

li^r^SC, H. lifv or ^ihv. As to ^T = W, see my Comp. Gramm. 
§ 122? 

67 der. ft^J)e propped, stay, a passive or intransitive, derived from No. 68. 

68 comp. i^ proPi support = Skr. ^rni (of root ^ ) + 15 ; Pr. ^^in^, 

69 den. OT ^, arrange = Skr. P. P. P. ^af (of root ^H ) ; Pr. ^fi; 

or 7y^ H. 77. The hardening of 7 to 7 is probably caused by 
the influence of the initial 7. In old Hindi tI occurs in the sense 
of " stopping short", '' standing amazed*'. When the past parti- 
ciple is used as such (not as an element of a denominative verb), 
the original 7 is still preserved in Hindi ; thus old Hindi 7T7y 
modem Hindi 77T " standing". 

70 comp. 77V or f77V stop short, stand amazed = Skr. i^af + 15 ; 

Pr. 7fl[^, H 77<ir or f77V. As to the derivation of 77, see No. 
69 ; as to X for "%, see my Comp. Gramm § 35. 

71 comp. 77^ jingle, tinkle, Sfe, = Skr. ^7 sounding + W ; Pr. 77lif^ 

or 7791^, H. 7inir. Compare Skr. i%\X clang, twang, Ac. from 
<f + 15 J 7 or 7 means any " sound." 

72 comp. 77H[ strut = Skr. ^rm + 15 ; Pr. ^^O^iX or TS^^i^, H. TtI^. 

Skr. ^7^ becomes Pr. iji? or 7'« (H. C. 2, 9, whence H. 'WjJi^prop, 
pillar and "^J^place^ residence. The change of i|f to «f to 7 may 
be observed in the primary roots Nos. 117, 118. 

78 comp. 777 knock, chip = Skr. 7^ + W, see root 7f7 No. 10. in 
Appendix. Hindi has an interjection 77, imitating the sound of 
knocking or hammering ; also 77^ rammer (an instrument). 

74 den. '9%\he fixed, remain, another form of No. 75 ; possibly arisen by 

• PanjiM has *lf7, with ^ for \', and H\\ thatch, with "^ for H: The former 
might be referred to the Skr. root 

70 A. F. R. Hoernle— -i Chllection of Hindi RooU, [No. 2, 

a mere transposition, VY ihajrh =: V^f^ ihafah = <rf^ thahaf 
= 9T^ thahar. Or the element ic maj be the same as T or ^ in 
v^ or ¥^(1^, <&c. (see my Comp. Gramm. § 354, 2), and Vf = Pr. 
W^ = Skr. ^9^* Hindi has the noun vniT place. 

75 den. VTV^ or 7F|^ ^^ ./^tf<^, && ^ree^, stand ss Skr. P. P. P. ^nf, 

Pr. ^^ (H. C. 2, 39) ; Pr. ^fi; or ^yi;, H. ¥T^ or ^if . 

76 den. VT /car = Skr. N. ^, Pr. IT (H. C. 8, 217) ; Pr. ITKT (H. 

C. 4, 198), H. W^. 

77 den. VT^ *« ^ot, bum = Skr. N. ^PT, Pr. WTT (H. C. 1, 217) ; 

Pr. vrn or vniT, H. 1fT%. 

78 comp. v^ cover = Skr. N. ^Q74 (aco. sing. neut. ^^ eovering) -f V ; 

Pr. vlfT (H. C. 4, 21), H. T»w See primary root No. 105.* 

79 der. V^ or vr^io, a passive or intransitive of root VTI^orvr^, 

see Appendix No. 11. 

80 comp. '^^ or i|T^ he wearied^ he fatigued = Skr. ^pi^ (aco. sing. nenb. 

^1^ ) + W ; Pr. ^«: (H. C. 4, 370) or VI. d. fWi: (H. C. 4, 87. 
259 ; where it is said to be a substitute of Skr. "^irfir move elowly 
from fatigue) , H. H^ or ^r4{. In H. C. 4, 16 the root is given 
as an equivalent of ^ORT stand; the Bangdli has mrv (pronounced 
thah) stag, remain. The original meaning of the Hindi is to come 
to a stop (from fatigue). The Skr. passive ^HT^ ( = ^r^4-*lft^ ) 
means ^* to he made firm or rigid, he paralysed, he stopped. The 
original meaning of ** rigidity" is preserved in the Hindi ^^ or irw 
a congealed lump, a clot. The stoppage may be owing to fatigue 
or to wonder ; hence Hindi irftn^ stopped or wearied or astonished. 
Other derivatives of the Hindi root are WtRV unwearied, ^%r«l( 
weariness, miHiikl perpleaed.f 

81 comp. inrir strike, slap, tap from IHT 4- V ; as to the derivation of ^^y 

see root ITR in the Appendix No. 13. 

• It might be also derived, as a primary root, from Skr. fl^, I. cL If^fif, 
Pr. IfWT = ^^ (^th transfer of aspiration) = "^Wf. (softening and cerebraliaing 
H). Compare the roots Ht^, ^V, ^T^, SW in the Appendix, which show that the 
Skr. roots TT^ and "9^^ had a tendency in Pr&krit to transfer the aspiration (^) 
and cerebralise the initial (H")* The Skr. root W^ means chipping off (by striking) 
and covering ; a similar change of meaning appears in the Hindi root ^^^cover from 
Bkr. IK rub, strike, 

t S. GoldBchmidt, Pr&kfitiea, No. 7, p. 5 dexives it, as a denominatiye root^ 
from P. P. P. V^ of a root ^^9 which he identifies with the root ^9^, and assumes a 
change of '^ to IK> This theory is based on three hypothetical steps : the identity of ^Q 
and ^h|, the existence of a P. P. P. IV^* the change of '^ to K- Pischel in Bet* 
zenberger't Beitrage HI, 235 derives it simply from a hypothetical Skr. root ^% 

1880.] A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Golleciion of Hindi Boots. 71 

82 comp. "^^RS. or WTir tremile^ flutter ; probably a mere varioas pronun- 

ciation of ^IT^ or "V^, q. T. ; the interchange of "^ and ir is shown 
bj the Pr. ifH^ and w^ (H. G. 4, 87), and that of 9 and n by ^T 
and li^T (H. C. 2, 8). There is also a reduplicated root i|fr^R( or 
"WTiT^ corresponding to H^W\ and "RnCfT. 

83 comp. fw^ he set^ be settled, well postured (e. g., in dancing) = 

Skr. f«^ + w ; Pr. fn^ or f^ll^ri;, H f^tt. 

84 den. f^V^Pl intr. settle (as liquor) = Skr. N. f^f^ ; Skr. ftpfTT^fir 

Pr. ftro^i; or fW'CT^ H. ftl^TW. 

85 comp. ^ spit = Skr. %^ (or ^ ) + H ; Pr. ^Wi: or ^ui;, 

H. Wf . As to the contraction of ^^ to ^ or «, see mj Comp. 
Gramm. § 122. 

86 deo. <^or ^T^ run = Skr. N. W, Pr. diminutive ^«Rr ; Pr. i^^lVf 

or icqii:, E. H. IT^ or W. H. trf. In Cha^^a's Prdkrit 
Lakshai^a CD, II, 27Jk, there is noticed a root v^VW run about 
foUh lowering face (^^KMM\\ M^^mm X^'9^ ^^ ^H'^^); MariLfhi 
has both w^[W^ and w^W in the same sense ; it has also ^[IT run ; 
these two roots are probably identical, the change of initial ^ to V 
being not uncommon ; see H. C. 1, 217. 

87 comp* ^r^ intr. tplit=^ Skr. ^ + Wi ; Pr. ?[^t#C or V^» 

H. ^^. 

88 comp. ^^ intr. bum = Skr. i{¥ -H W ; Pr. ^[t€i; or ^^;t^> 

H. ^^.' 

89 den. "5^ intr. pain = Skr. N. "5?^ ; Skr. 'S:«^fir, Pr. -^J^ or 

4W5» H. •^. 

90 comp. ^V^ blaze, be hot (from any passion), be distressed, tremble 

(from fear), == Skr. i^^ + m, Pr, ^f^CT* H. t^^t (for ^Wr, 
with transfer of aspiration). There is also reduplicated root 

91 den. inr pour = Skr. N. 'JJTC ; Pr. irr^ or tiT^. H. vi^. 

92 comp. ^fv^ or ^TV^ blow, breathe upon = Skr. TRl -4" V ; Pr. Wi?#i; 

or Ap. Pr. irtin:, H. $f4f. 

93 den. iRt donee = Skr. N. inS ; Skr. ml ^, Pr. iff i: or VI, cl. irw; 

(H. C. 4, 230. 2,30), H. nt. The Skr. root ifw (I. cl. irrfif 
or X cl. irTiSi|%) is adopted from the Prikrit. 

94 der. W^Jhto, a passive or intransitive, derived from primary root irtfr 

No. 136. 
96 den. w%r^^ flee = Skr. P. P. P. ^rt (of R. ^^ efect) ; Pr. ^%i^, 
E. H. WW^. Compare Pr. J^mtX (H. C. 4, 200) from Skr. ^^. 

• Hindi has a word t|W Mif, and H^ JIrm, strong, sound. This is probably 
deriTed from Skr. ITV^- Pr. ^ = H. ^W. 

72 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Rindt Boots, [No. 2, 

96 der. finv^ or fi^r^ he pulled out, come out ; a passive or intransitive, 

derived from root Dl^l^. See No. 98. 

97 der. f^4^. he eapelled, come out ; a passive or intransitive, derived 

from root f^WTTiJ. See primary root No, 139. 

98 den. ftrVT^ or fil*l\ pull out, eject = Skr. P. P. P. f^TB^ ; Pali 

and Pr. ftraJYT, Pr. fif^^fi; or P^ilil^l, W. H. f«niT^ or E. H. 
finrr^. As to the change of V to ^ see my Comp. Gramm. 

§ 115.* 

99 den. fiTOTf^ or V^m\ peel, extract = Skr. P. P. P. fmwf^ ; Pr. 

fiT^Tfr: (with for w, by H. C. 1, 116) or Hhimi^I (with transfer 
of aspiration, as in ^V^ITi; H. C. 4, 188 = ^rjfTf ^, a denominative 
of ^nins extracted), 

100 den f^T^T^ grin = Skr. N. f^fT^if (from root f «r + f? + f%l) ; 

Skr. f^ff^^, Pr. fiTO^ or VI. el. fifti^T (cf. H. C. 1, 116), 
H. fir^T%. See my Comp. Gramm. § 148. 

101 den. fiTJt^ swallow = Skr. N. ftiJl^ ; Pr. DiJ l ^^ or VI. cl. finr^rT, 

H. ftnngr. It might, however, be a primitive root == Skr. ftr + JZ, 
VI. cl. f^finirllf , with change of X to ^. 

102 den. r«me terminate = Skr. N. fir«irf% (from root fif^ + j^ ; Pr. 

f'I''"ltT or VI. cl. fir>TFC> H. fWMid (?). As to the change of 
dental m to cerebral \, compare Pr ^p^ for Skr. fHR, Vr. 3, 23 ; 
cf. also Pr. im: for Skr. iqirf?r Vr. 8, 51. 

103 der. fini^ or firv he accomplished^ succeed, a passive or intransitive 

root, derived from the primary root finiTT, No. 146. 

104 den. itt^ or $ir^ enter = Skr. P. P. P. v(fk% Pr. x^J (H. C. 4, 

340) ; Pr. mjv or VI. cl. J^iX^, E. H. m$ or W. H. ^. 

105 den. iwr. rt^en = Skr. P. P. P. ^niT, Pr. ^m (H. C. 2, 79) ; Pr.^^or 

ir«T, H. iw. 

106 den. ^^^ seize =^ Skr. P. P. P siwg ; Pr. xf^ifx (cf. H. C. 4, 187), 

H. xr^^ (for q^^, with lost aspiration, as in root Kj^^ No. 16, 
^^•TT.No. 6, ^T^ No. 75, and others). 

107 den. xn^?rr» repent = Skr. N. TUn^HT; Pr. iT^irT^T or VL cl. 

M^^Ml, H. ^HRT^* 

108 den. q^ he paid, he roofed, he watered = Skr. "N. ^^ or Wi or ^z ; 

Pr. ^T or VI. cl. tm;, H. ^rr. Skr. ^^ is any " vessel", used 
for irrigating ; "n is the table or leaf on which the accounts of 
payments are kept ; ^ means a " roof." 

• So also Bs. I, 364. Ill, 68. The Hindi root fiT*!^ is, of course, referable 
to the Skr. root f%^ + ^^; but the latter is most probably itself adopted from the 

Prakrit; Skr. f^f^HWlftr = Pr. f*l*l$V The Pr, form r^^l^Pc, quoted by 

Bs. Ill, 68, is misspelt for fsTlfWf^. 

1880.] A. P. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Hindi Boots. 73 

109 den. ^ir^ expand, grow, prosper ^s^Skr. N. .ITT^ (of root 3T-M^ ), 

Skr. 3nra^, Pr. ^rwy: or ^RWY! (cf . Pr. ^^\m = Skr. ^^ini:. 
H. C. 2, 42), H. ^^^ (transposed from ^^sf, see my Oomp. Gramm. 
§ 133, see also primary roots Nos. 165, 166). 

110 den. ^rfw^TR^ irrigate = Skr. N. m9t^, Pr. mf^ (H. C. 1, 101), 

Pr. Mir^ill^i; or Mir^€||4ll^ H. ^f^<iT^ (see my Ck)mp. 
Grunm. § 25). 

111 den. i|ft^ or xr^ touch = Skr. N. w, Pr. Tiff^ (Vr. 3, 62> ; Pr. 

"^Vft^ (H. C. 4, 182), H. iffK^ or iiT^ (with lost aspiration, and 
change of » to a ; see my Comp. Gramm. §§ 53 note, 130). 

112 den. q^gv or V[^9m intr. turn over = Skr. P. P. P. ^VM, Pr. inTf 

or W9m (Vr. 3, 21. H. C. 2, 47^ Pr. mnfi or ^m^^ (H. C. 4, 
200), H. iT^ or q^ In H. C. 4» 200. 258 JfV^m and x(^?qi( 
are spelled so ; see my Comp. Gramm. § 161. 

113 den. Mf^^l^ or VJ^T^ recognise = Skr. N. i?Pc^r?jar ; Pr. ^f^^mwi; 

or Mfi^^fli, H. qfHwr^ or ^^^[m (for ini^rT ; with elided T 
and inserted euphonic ^^, see my Comp. Gramm. §§ 69, 124) (P). 
Ui der. fq^ir or irf%^ intr. dress, put on, a passive or intransitive, 
derived from the primary root ft'f^TT^^or Mtt^nin^, No. 165.* See 
also primary root iffx^ No. 166. 

115 comp. fq^qn be squeezed, he shrivelled = Skr. ft^ + Wi; Pr. f^r^l%l^ 

or fqinno H. fk^nn Compare Skr. f^rf^ squeezed; and 
as regards the derivation of fq^ or fq^» see primary root qt^ 
No. 175. The word has been adopted into Skr. from the Prdkrit.f 

116 den. f^W^ or fqre^ *Ztp==Skr. N. PrP^Rff or fq^^n? slippery ; 

Pr. fq^(%l^ or fq^t^T* H. fkwm or f^VW^. (transferring the 
aspiration to q* and changing W to 9 ; see my Comp. Grammar § 
11). See No. 125. 

117 der. fxpr be beaten,, a passive or intransitive^ derived from root ^v 

No. 119. 

118 der. fq9 be beaten, bruised, a passive or intransitive, derived from root 

q^^, No. 121. See also No. I, 184. 

119 den. qtir beat = Skr. P. P. P. fq« ; Pr. fqf f; (Spt. 173) or fqi^ 

(with I for 5, as in irWiT for inm; (H. C. 4, 200), H. ^S. 
See No. 121. 

120 den. ^^»T^ca«, shout = Skr. N. ^IP^^ or ijTHr'C or ^i^ff^ ; Pr. "^^IT^ 

• In Bengali the root is frPTX » which is a denominative of the Skr. P. P. P, 
nrWiT dretted. Possibly the Hindi root may be explained in the same way by a 
ferther change of ^ to T. 

t In the 8kr. word l^r*^ pressed down a metathesis of q and ^ appears to have 
ttken place. 


74 A. F. R. Hoernle— ^ Collection of Rindi BooU* [No. 2, 

or^llTTT or ^^EntT* H. ^WT^. A similar change of -^ to ir, 
in root nft^ No. 111. An intransitive or passive form of thia 
root occurs in the old Hindi of Chand's Prithirdj Rasau : ^IV\ 
he called. 

121 den. M^ squeeze, heat = Skr. P. P. P. fqiE ; see primary root No. 184i. 

122 den. ^ revile, perhaps =s Skr. N. inn hlested ; eaphuisticallv. 

123 comp. "^^^^ tr. separate, winnow, or intr. he separated =si SYlt. ^gs + 

V ; Pr. '^VliiT or ^mT« H. "^f W. The Pr. douhles the radical 
» ; see primary root Tf^No. 186. 

124 comp. Tft^ or Ti^ tremhle = Skr. IBPC + W; Pr. "^T^ or 

■qr^lW^, H. ^ifT^ or T^fV. The reduplicated root "ftW^ or Mkl*! 
also occurs. See roots 'vr;^ No. 82 and IBT!^ No. 14. 

125 den. f^S^^^slip, slide, see No. 116. For a similar transfer of aspiration 

on su^count of change of w to ^, see root 7^^ in Appendix No. 8. 

126 comp. "qjV hlow = Skr. "^JH + W ; Pr. "'rtr or "^EW^, H. ^if . See 

H. c!^ 4, 422, a -qrftN^, and Spt. 178 ^qR*cT^. 

127 der. ira he hlown, a passive or intransitive, derived from root "V^T 


128 den. i^ or WB" sit = Skr. P. P. P. ^mPns, Pr. ^f^U (like ^Tl, 

No. 104) or %m (cf. H. C. 1, 173), H. l^ or ^S (as to change 
of % to '^, see my Comp. Gramm. § 71). The initial w f or ^ is 
somewhat anomalous, as such an '* expansion" ^ does not ordinarily 
harden to ^. Another way of explaining the Hindi ^T^ is ^o 
assume that the initial ^ of Pr. ^R^ has been dropped (so in my 
Comp. Gramm § 173, and Bs. 1, 179. Ill, 38) ; but this does no 
more obviate the anomaly ; for a Pr. 7, softened from Skr. Tr> does 
not, as a rule, harden in Hindi. 

129 comp. ^ talk, chatter ^=^ Skr, W[^-\-Wi; Pr. H^JX. H. ^. Or 

possibly a mere corruption for ^, Pr, ^115^ or 'JIJIX (H- C. 4, 98), 
Skr. ^fcT or l^(^f^ a comp. of 9 + V. Hindi does not possess 
the form w^, but it has a derivative of it, 44f0l^; Mard^hi has 
both ^s|^ and "^W^. 

130 den. ^ ^^ read, recite = Skr, N. ^f^ ; Pr. ^^, H. ^W. 

131 comp. iW?(^ ffo beyond hounds, stray = Skr. ^fir^ + W ; Pr. i|f%^ 

or ^rf^nST) H. %'%^, 

132 der. f^i^ he spread, a passive or intransitive, derived from the pri- 

mary root fTOTT^ No. 225. 

133 den. ftrr^ mock, jeer =^Bikt, N. ft^PI sound, noise; Pr. f^TjSi; or 

134 den. fil^r^ hecome had, perhaps connected with P. P. P. f^f^lf 

(^"f^K?) toasted. 

135 den. ^ scatter, spill = Skr. P. P. P. n^ ; Pr. ftn (for ftf , as 

Hn for x^i, see No. 112 ) ; Pr. f^T or ft^li H. *tt. 

1880.] A. F. R. Hoernle— J Collection of Hindi Boots, 75 

186 den. ^^|ifl«f = Skr. P. P. P. fhr, Pr. f^ Qjke Tn?T^ for Skr. 
ftrf^ir, H. C. 2, 99 ; otherwise the preservation of if is not expli- 
cable) ; Pr. WNj or finiT, H. ^tlf. 

137 den. m[9 enclose^ surround = Skr. "J^, Causal '^^^fH or I, cl. "TO^, 

Pr. ifi: (H. C. 4, 51) or tyi; (R^G, 4, 221), H. %% The root 
is probably a denominative of an anomalous P. P. P. or some other 
derivative of the root f^ or f^. The so-ealled Causal shows its 
denominative form. 

138 den. ij^KT^ or ^\Kl\go ma J = Skr. N. ^Tjpj; Pr. iti vi ^iif i ; or 

4l^^l<ll, H. ira^nr or ^T^T^. See my Comp. Qramm. § 25. 

139 den. W3i/iw«=Skr. P. P. P. inr, Pr. WJf (cf. H. C. 4, 354), 

Pr. i?iK or nun:, H^« '»^- 

140 den. 9T\ or ^^ hewet*=s Skr. ^^Wf ; Pr. ^rfsijii^, or ^rfJ^fJli:, H. 

#t V or ^t^ (?). As to the loss of initial ^, see my Comp. Gramm. 
172. Compare the primary root ^t^in the Appendix No. 21. 

141 der. xrs[^be fried^ he cooked, a passive or intransitive, derived from 

mi No. 148. 

142 den. lan^or 9t^ or MT^ forget, blunder = Skr. P. P. P. ^W ; Pr. iJWf: 

(H. C. 4, 177), W. H. %(m or «T$, E. H. iHT or *t^. Skr. ^ =. 
Pr. ny sa vi^ as= nf^ - the change of a to u caused by the labial 
hh. As to the change of u to o, see my Comp. Gramm. § 148.* 
148 den. im /ty, cook = Skr. P. P. P. M^ (Pan 8, 2. 44) ; Pr. ^WT or 

144 den. «iv covcTj gilt (i, e, encase by rubbing on) = Skr. P. P. P. WC^ 

Pr. iiy or (disaspirated) «rf ; Pr. iTfi: or HMK, (H. C. 4, 126), 
H. 117. The Skr. root «|V cover is adopted from the primitive 
Prakrit or Pali iTf (= i?^), whence ii3 a covering, hut, H. iwr or 
nvr. Similarly are formed the roots ^^, $7^, 4&c. 

145 den. i?^ cwwi*^^ = Skr. N. J{^ ; Pr. ij^T or ^ifi; (cf . H. C. 4, 260 

iifH^T), H. inr (with elided nasal, see my Comp. Gramm. § 143). 

146 der. f^ii: he effaced, cease to exist, a passive or intransitive, derived 

from the root %7, No. 153. 

147 der. ijl^ he shaved, a passive or intransitive, derived from the primary 

root « V, No. 284. 

148 der. tr^ he closed, a passive or intransitive, derived from the root 

i\ No. 151. 

• This derivation I owe to 8. (Joldflchmidt, PrdJcritiea, No. 8, p. 9. Formerly, 

lookmg upon Hl^ or ^TT as the more primitive form, I was inclined to coxusider it 

** **■ 

a denominative of Skr. ^ViT^, whence comes Hindi ^T^T or VT^T a simpleton. 

76 A. F. R. Hocrnle— u^ Colleetion of Hindi BooU. [No. 2, 

149 den. a dte=^ Skr. P. P. P. V?r, Pr. K^ (H. C. 4, 442) ; Pr. HWC, 

150 den. iiw discharge urine = Skr. N. mr ; Skr. li^^fif , Pr. n^ or 

nwi;, H. ^. 

151 den. if ^ <?/Me (lit. with a seal ring) «= Skr. N. Hl|r ; Skr. lil^irfir 

Pr. i?^ or ^JJ^ H. if^. See H. C. 4, 401 f^^ w^BeaUd. 

152 den. Jm he silent = Skr. P. P. P. Wff (of root n ) ; Pr. ii%; or iJfTf 

H. M^i (or from N. iu^r)- 

153 den. W efface = Skr. P. P. P. ^re, Pr. firiT or f^svSX (disaspirated for 

firff;, of. Pili irf or itf = ire), H. ^«, (with e for », see my 
Gomp. Gramm. § 148). 

154 den. ^T^ or ^T\ blossom = Skr. N. HT^ ; whence HTlTirfir, Pr. ^r$C 

or ^T^TTi W. H. iiT§ or E. H. iJTK. 

156 den. ^ifTTW or UTTT^ blossom = Skr. N. *T^ ; Pr. ^TVTir <^^ ^TWW^ 

w. H. ^njT^ or E. H. troS. 

166 den. l?!^ be attached = Skr. P. P. P. m, Pr. x^ (H. C. 2, 10) ; 

Pr. i:5hr or KPdi, H. T3I. 

157 den. t^dt/eBsa Skr. N. TT ; Skr. TiRlfir, Pr. t^t: or -^JfX, H. -^w. 

158 der. ^^ be hindered, a passive or intransitive, derived from root xT^^' 

No. 162. 

159 der. ^ or ^ be restrained, a passive or intransitive, derived from 

the primary root 4^ No. 298. 

160 den. ^W or IFV be angry = Skr. P. P. P. ^«, Pr. Tf (H. C. 4, 414) 

or ^, Pr. ^IT or ^fi:, H. ^ or ^% 

161 comp. tV bray = Skr. T^ (ace. sg. neut. "f^) + U; Pr. TJri^ or 

162 comp. TW hinder = Skr. ^ (ace. sg. neut. ^1^) + W ; Pr. ^^ or 

^ITi:, H. XW. 

163 der. Tn(. stop, plant ; a transitive or active, derived from primary 

root ^, No. 296. 

164 den. ^Jl^ limp = Skr. N. ^f, Pr. diminutive fjiTl* ; Pr. ^j^i^ or 

^▼i;, H. ^Jif^. 

165 den. ^^ or $T reap = Skr. N. ^^ ; Skr. ^wirfH, Pr. ^^ or infT» 

H. ^ff^ or w^- 

166 comp. ^CT[ disappear, conceal oneself =^ ^+ ^ 5 ^^' ^T (H. 0. 

4,55), H. ^$. The word ^i^^ properly means "dropping out", 
" elision" ; it is derived from the Skr root ^i(^ break. This ori- 
ginal meaning of the root is still preserved hy the Pr. ^npi^ which 
means both breaks cut of (H. C. 4, 116, where it is said to be = 

1B80.] A. F. E. Hoernle— -4 Collect ion of Hindi RooU. 77 

8kr. U^) and disappear ^ conceal oneself (H. C. 4, 56, where it is 
giYcn as an equivalent of the Skr. fipft) * 

167 den. WKT\ or ^TJT^ covetf he enamoured with = Skr. N. %n? ; 

Pr. %ifmif: or ^m^T> H. WiT^ or i^rv, (with u for o, see my 
Comp. Gramm. § 25). 

168 der. w^ he adorned^ he prepared, a passive or intransitive, derived 

from root ^T9r, see Appendix No. 24. 

169 comp. ^7^ or ^[^^ y«^ atroy, disappear, conceal oneself = Skr. 

^n or^ + ^J ^^' ^^WT or ^^riT, H. ^^^ or ^$. The 
word ^m means covering, concealment. The root w^ becomes ^nr 
in Pr. ; see Vr. 8, 51. H. 0. 4, 219. 

170 der. 19^ he settled, a passive or intransitive, derived from the primary 

root ^ No. 836. 

171 den. ^il^r» he in presence of=^ Skr. N. ^iT^; Pr. ^*44^l$l, or 

^iTflVl^, H. OT^TW. 

172 comp. ^^^ he moved, move = Skr. WT + IB ; Pr. ^TftC or '^TIT* 

H. ^^CV. Possibly it is a mere variety of the root ^^r^. 

173 den. w^n^ curse, denom. made from the Hindi ^K[^ a corruption 

of the Skr. KJ^ ; see my Comp. Gramm. § 135. 

174 der. WT7 or ^t? or wt? comhine, a transitive or active, derived from 

the primary root ^, No. 323. 

175 den. 4Y^ moisten = Skr. N. ^KW ; Pr. ^^jf, or €NirT) H ^t^. 

on the absorption of a after t, see my Comp. Gramm. § 97. 

176 der. ^Jif\ he correct, mend, a passive or intransitive, derived from 

the primary root ^^^, see No. 346. 

177 den. ^TT^ he pleased or give pleasure = Skr. N. ^ ; Pr. ^TF^ or 

!1TT^ H. U^TT^- 

178 den. f|Tr» he heautiful or maJee heautiful = Skr. N. ^TK ; Skr. 

itrnirffr, Pr. ^T^T^T or %l^T^i;, H. ^Tlt. This might, how- 
ever, be a primary root, from the causal of root ^qm. 

179 den. ^^Q or ^ he dry = Skr. N. j^m, Pr. ^v^r; or ^^^ H. ^ 


180 den. ^nt. ^leep = Skr. P. P. P. ^ ; Pr. ^^ or ^n^, H. 55^. 

181 den. ^n or ^\ adjust = Skr. P. P. P. ^mTfT?r, Pr. iTOTf%iT (cf. H. 

C. 2, 99 ftrf^^ « Skr. fiffnr), Ap. '^tfr^ or ^9^rfi:iT, H. (con- 
tracted) ^ If ; whence Pr. ^infnn:, H. §V or %*§. 

182 comp. ^ evacuate = Skr. T^ + « ; Pr. VfT, H. ^51 (for ^ ) ? 

♦ The root ^^^ might also be derived from ^^ +flr, from the root lj^ which 
(like ^) means both cut of asid disappear. Or it might be derived from ^^ + V ; 
the root l|^^ meaning become invisible. 

78 A. F. R. Hoerale— A Collection of Hindi Boots. [No. 2, 

183 comp. \mm^ or ^ITT^ hawly drive away or keep o^(with shouts) = 

Skr. T^^ + « ; Pr. TIST^T or Tm^, H. ^r^ or ^#^. This 
is a pleonastic form of No. 187. 

184 den. ^^fTT hawl^ drive away or keep qff (with shouts) = Skr. T^TtT ; 

Skr. TffK'rfir, Pr. T^JT^ or TITIT^, H. ^*^TT. Connected 
with roots Nos. 183 and 187. 

185 T^ %lay = Skr. P. P. P. x^, Pr. T^f Qike firf^ H. C. 2, 99) ; 

Pr. ^%x or ^yfXi, H. ^cf. 

186 comp. ^^l[ move = Skr. WW + W ; Pr. ^W^ or TfT^, H. ^^r$. 

187 comp. xiw^ bawl, drive (with shouts) = Skr. "T^ + IB ; Pr. ^|^ or 

T«T (H. C. 4, 134), H. t!^. See Nos. 183,^184. Probably con- 
nected with root w^or Mm or W¥ talk -f V. 

188 den. ^jr^ losSy be beaten^ be unsi^cessful = Skr. N. XT^, Pr. TTTH^ 

or TITT, H. TT^. H. C. 4, 81 has f IT^i; (for ^^^t: by H. C. 
8, 150), said to be = ^frfiT ; it is merely a pleonastic form of ^rr. 
Hindi has TCT^ or fra^. 

189 comp. ^i^ blow = Skr. iHT + W ; Pr. tn#r; or iWrtRi;, Ap. ffS^^ 

H. ^$(for^f$). See No. 92. 

Appeitdix. — Primary Boots,* 

1 ^ V or ^ff^pull, attract = Skr. ^T + W^^, future ^T^r^fir (used in the 

sense of the present), Pr. irrtw^ or ^HTWI^ (H. C. 4, 187), H. $*^ 
or ^ (with loss of aspiration). See introductory remarks, 
pp. 39, 40. This root occurs in the shortened form ^^ both in Pr. 
(H. C. 4, 187 ^m) and in old Hindi (Prithiraj Rasau 27, 38 
^j^) : see No. 2. 

2 ^\ or ^^ or ^^ or ^, pull = Skr. ini, future "wmf^ (used in 

the sense of the present) ; Pr. ^IT^Fi; or ^fwi^, H. w% %^ or w V , 
^^ (with transfer of aspiration, see my Comp. Gramm. 132). 
On the inserted nasal, see ibidem §§ 149, 158, H. C. 1, 26, 28. On 
the change of a to at or 0, see my Comp. Gramm. § 148 ; here it 
occurred by assimilation to root if^ or ^ No. 1. See introductory 
remarks pp. 39, 40. In old Hindi this root occurs in the form li^, 
which is much nearer the original Prakrit form ^rw^; and corre- 
sponding to it, the old Hindi has a root-form ^i^ which has 
evidently been modified from the original form $V (see No. 1), 
in order to assimilate it to 4^ ; just as the original form 4^ has 

* Theae are roots which 1 was at first inclined to consider to belong to the se* 
condary dass. 

1880.] A. P. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection of Hindi Boots. 79 

been modified to wV in order to assimilate it to $\ . Thus the 
two forms fTQ and ^ occor in the Prithirij Rasau 27, 88. 

^ WTO iwft it^ *^ 'l^ 'l^ ' 
^tJft ^^^m inr ^rft ^jtt ^ ^'^ » ». e., 

"The Mangol Khan Lalari draws twenty daggers, and the four- 
sworded Sabbdj polls out the enemy's life with his arrows." 

3 it^^ vomitf let go^ release = Skr. ir^, I. el. W^ftli Pr. W^ (H. 0. 

4 91), H. l(T^. The root is also spelled ifT7 ; and it might be 
derived from jn^, VII. cl. T^FiT, Pr ^^f or ^Zf^ H. wt¥ or utt 
(as Pr. M9tX. for Skr. in^f^). It might also be derived from the 
Skr. denominative root ip^. X. cl. w^^vnr ; as it seems to have 
been done in H. C. 2, 36 (WKT ^^om wf^. 

4 wv be pressed doum, he stamped, be printed = Skr. "^ , I. cl. ''^^flf, 

Pr. ihx, H. W§. Or perhaps from W^^, IV. cl. ^R^fif.* 

5 ifhi or «n or tnr sighy chatter (wildly), lament^ be sorry for = Skr. 

lilhi, ^•^^^- «*^, Pr. «rtT (H. C. 4, 140), H. irfl, HWl or 
(disaspirated) inr. As to the change of «9 to «i, compare Pr. i|E^ 
for Skr. 6^: (H. C. 2, 27). As to the meaning, compare the 
English « croak.''t 

6 ilTH^ throw on, cover = Skr. ^ throw, Passive Wtf^ (used actively), 

Pr. iwr, H. «fW. The H for n is as in fvK^Bii; for ^^i| H. C. 
2, 3, and the inserted anusvdra, as in ?v^ (H. 0. 4, 2. 1, 26, for 
otm^). Or it might be derived from Skr. ^fvf + m. Causal 
^iflqirfir, Pr. ittx or HUX (for ^SH'Ml) with loss of initial ^ 
see my Comp. Gramm. § 172). 

7 ZV knock, hammer = Skr. 71^, I. cl. TT^rfif, Pr, 7^^ (with "S for 

ir as in *nKl H. C. 1, 205), H. TV (for "SW with transfer of aspi- 
ration). Compare Skr. 7^. See No. 9. 

8 Bf^ ram, hammer = Skr. HW, I. cl. THirfif, Pr. T^^ff^ (as to ^ for If, 

see H. C. 1, 205), H. t!^ (for 7-W, with transfer of aspiration 
from W to 7, and change of w to ^, see my Comp. Gramm. §§11, 
132). See No. 10, also Nos. 7 and 9. 

9 $r^ or 9f^ ram, hammer, drive in, (nail, &c.) = Skr. nr^, I. cl. 

9nHlT, Pr. Z^^ (as to 7 for IT, see H. C. 1, 205), H. 7r$ or 
€tv (for 7TV, with transferred aspiration). See No. 7. 
10 5t^^ or 3f ^ ram, hammer = Skr. Htf, I. cl. iwfif, Pr. 7^;i^ (cf. H. 
C. 1, 205), H. tft or ^ (for Stw). See No. 8. 

* The root ^^V also might produce a Pr. passive (used actively) w^\, analogous 

to f^^ (H. C. 4, 257). 

t This verb is noted by Hemachandra not loss than five timee ; in 4, 140 as « 

*ni repetU, in 4, 148 =f^^^ lament or prattle, in 4, 166 « ^^H^*!, itcold, in 4, 201 

« fW:^ eiffk, and in 4, 2d9 » ^X^^ tM, 

80 A. F. R. Hoernle— -4 Collection of Hindi BooU. [No. % 

11 vn9 or VTC Bend forth, pour out, cent, a modification of VPf^, No. 14 

q. V,, cerebralisation transferred to the initial i| from ^. 

12 V:^,fix, tettle ^=aSkr. VS.; Passive ^m^ (used actively), Pr. inqij 

(formed similarly to fw^m from ^Sgm^ H. C. 4, 267), H. ^. 
See footnote on p. 46 ; ^ = i| = cif = tr. 

13 irnr or Tq. «2ap, strike, pat = Skr. «^, Passive ^TVP^ (used actively), 

Pr. inin< or ^«qi^, H. iim or ^m. See footnote on p. 46 ; m = ^q 
= ^ = sf = m. 

14 t^lV ^fiTk? forth, pour out, cast = Skr. in¥, I. cL XHTT, Pr. vmx 

(H. C. 4, 79), H. i^T^. See No. 11. The Skr. irT¥ is adopted 
from the Pr., and is probably a denominative of ifiBf P. P. P. of 
'^m^ glide, flow, Pr. i|y = Tf = ^TV. 

15 W9\ l^P = Skr. 5r+^^, I. cl. 3T^fwfir, Pr. ^T^NT, H. "VW^ (with 

transfer of aspiration). 

16 ■qT't or ■'fT't hurl, fling, throw away = Skr. '^-X^^ Future itSfrfTT 

(used in sense of present), Pr. ^^if^ or ^T^, H. "^ V or '^'m 
(with transfer of aspiration). 

17 fw weave = Skr. «, IX. cl. %%\fn, Pr. f^i:, H. f^ ; see No. 19 ; 

also No. I, 237. The Skr. root for weave is 5, I. cl. W^ or IV. 
cl. ^^ii ; it seems impossible to derive the H. root f^ from it ; 
but the roots V and ^ are probably connected ; both mean cover, 

18 ftw he spread = Skr. fir-^, Passive f^f%^5 (for f^#t^^ ; like 

riR*i*J, firsrif), Pr. f^^i: or ft''^, H. ftw. Compare Pr. fVf^^ 
in Chanda 2, 21 for Skr. f^^w . 

19 nr weave = Skr. %, V. cl. ^^fir, Pr. w^, H. W^, formed like 
^ ^ No. I, 347. See No. 17. 

20 ^n« load = Skr. ^T, Passive ^8^it (used actively) or Causal Passive 

^T^, Pr. "2^ (cf . H. C. 4, 246 ^5^), H- W. 

21 ^t«f or ^m^be wet = Skr. ^«f + ^, Passive ^TO^^, Pr. 

^faj^l, H. ^«r or ^m (with loss of initial ^ ; see secondary 
root ^^ No. 140). 

22 «*nr or S!^ or H^it talk foolishly, bark = Skr. H^, Future H^fir. 
"^^Pr. v^ST (H. C. 4^ 186, with disaspiration for ^WT), H. rf^$, Ac. 

The original aspirate form 5tw occurs in Hindi. There is an 
identically spelled root, meaning thrust, drive, which probably has 
a different origin and may be a compound root. 

23 Mm send = Skr. ^ft? + ^fw , Passive ^TUn^^ (used actively), Pr. 

^•^391^, H. ^9r (with loss of initial ^ and change of i to e, see 
my Comp. Gramm. §§ 172, 148. As to the change of ga to i, see 
ibidem, § 121. 

24 ^Ta^ adorn, prepare = Skr. #«[, Passive ^^"S (used actively), Pr. 

^^ix, H. ^xm* The Skr. root ^^has been adopted from the Prakrit. 




^ a. 

VBi; abM — 80. 
/^ »bhi— 80. 
y^i2 ; abhi--67. 

K.abhyaiifpa 75. 

/ttdl »hhi— 57. 

V^ip;|irB— 35, 41, 
BBm— 61. 

K.iclichhi46, 66. 
v^iah;pra— 80. 
\/i ; pari— 53. 

_ *^ 

v^acEh;pari— 51. 

^ a. 
K. nchcha 63. 
P. nlkpsh\A 64. 
N. Qtfliha 45, 66. 
K. odyam 63. 
P. upaTuhta 37, 74. 

W n. 

v/p ; adhi— 79. 



v^kamp 43. 


IN PAGES 83—80. 

N. kaima 64. 

V^kal ; nifi — 72. 


N. kasha 87, 64. 

V^kas ; nifl — 50. 

'v/kZd (cauflal) 86 bis. 

vkunch ; ni — 50. 

\/k^ 43 ; aya~43. 

\/kutt 43. 

v^kup 35, 43. 

\/k^ 35, 37, 43, 47, 48. 


\/kriBh 35, 39, 43, 78 ; 

ut— 42. 

<^40, 78. 
P. kpahta 64. 

\/kri 43 ; vi— 35, 36, 55. 


-v/kshap 43, 79. 

'v/ksham 79. 

'V^kshamp 79. 

/^ksbar 64 ; ni— 50. 


V'ki^ 43, 46. 

^kship 44, 66. 

P. kBhipta 65, 66, 67 bis, 

V^kahn 67. 
K. kahut 67. 
N. kshnbh 69. 

V kshur 44. 
N. kahepa 69. 

V^kshai 56 ; vi — ava — 56. 
'/kflM 44 ^i^i 67) 68. 

i/khid 84, 36, 43. 
\/khu4 44 tris. 
V^kliu^^ 44. 
\/kho4 44. 
-v/khor 44. 

\/gachh 40 ; <^34, 41. 
V^gan 44. 

V gam 44. 
N. garta 64. 
N. garda 65. 

V garh 44. 
\/gal 44 ; api— 52. 

V^galh 44. 
P. g&41ia 65. 

\/gaph 44. 

\/gri 44. 
N. gorda 65. 

v/gai 44. 

V granth 44. 

V grab 44, 45. 
V^gluncb 44. 


V^gbat 44 bis ; ud — 42. 

vi — 55 bis, 

^gba^t 44, 45. 

V^gbu^ 45. 


V ghur^ 45 bis» 

\/gh|i^ 66. 
N. ghrini 65. 
N. ghpnikd 65. 

V^ghfifih 46. 

^ghol 45. 

\/ghr6 ; sam — a — 62. 

V chap 45. 
N. chapa 65. 

N. chamat 65, 66. 

V char 45 ; vi — 66, 
N. charpa 65. 

V charv 45. 

V^chal 45. 

-v/chi 45 ; pari — 51. 
Bam — 60. 
N. chikka^a 65. 
N. chikki^a 65. 
P. chitta 66. 
N. chitra 65 bis. 

^chint 45. 
N. chipit^ 78. 
N. chihna 65. 
N. chfra65. 

V^chukk 66. 

-v/chumb 46. 
P. chetita 65. 
N. chora 66. 
N. chaixra 66. 

V chyu 45. 

V^chyut 36, 46, 66. 
N. chyut 37, 66 bis, 


\/chhad 46. 
N. chharda 79. 
N. chhala 66. 
K. chhikk& 67. 

^/chhiX 67. 

-v/chhid 46, 68. 

N. chhidra 68. 
P. chhinna 69. 

^/chhu% 46. 

V chhup 46 bis. 

v/chhrid 79. 

_ ^^' 
'v/jan 36, 46. 

N. janma 36, 68. 


V^jdgri 46. 
P. jita 68. 


V'jut 47 bU, 67, 68 bis. 

v^jfil 35 bisj 46, 58. 
P. jfi£pta 68. 
N. jyotis 68. 

v^jvar 46. 

V^jvai46, 47, 64W»; 
lld— 42. 

v/jha^ 47 bis. 
N. jhata 68. 
N. jhampa 68. 
N.jhalU47, 69. 
N. jhallaki 47. . 


V^tank 47. 
N. tank&ra 69. 

-/dl;ud— 42. 

\/dhundh 48. 
<v/dhaiik 48. 

if t. 

v/taksh 70, 79 di>. 
N. taksha 69. 

v^tap 48; aam-^1, 79. 
-/talk 48. 
v^tui 48 tris, 
-v/tp ; ava— 42. 

v^tri48*M/ut— 42. 

pra — 52. 

vi — 65. 
N. tr&ya 69. 

V^troti (canaal) 85, 36. 

\/Sa^35, 47, 48. 

•tvakah 70, 79 5m. 

N. dagdha 71. 

V dam 48. 

N. dara 70, 7U 


V dam? 47. 

v^das 47. 

N. daha 71. 

\/dI 35 ^M, 49. 
N. dShsL 90. 


V' 3^147. 
N. du^kha 71. 
N. dyi^ha 71. 

\/dY^34, 35, 38) 49 3t>y 
ava — 49. 
pra — 49. 

-/dff 47, 48 ; vi— 65. 
N. drava 71. 

N. dhama 71, 78. 

^/dh&; pari — 51 bis, 
N. dhiura 71. 


^/^m 49, 63. 

v/dhfi 49 bis; sa— 62. 



V^dhraj 80. 
P. dhrashta 80. 


^/dhTa^B 49. 

V^dliTiiikah 79. 

vnm 50 (i«. 
N. narta 71. 

v^sai 35, 39, 78. 

V nah; api — 61. 
K. nikuamaya 72. 
K.Bigala, 72. 
P. nivrita, 66. 
P. niahknahta 72. 
P. mahkTishla 72. 

^npt 35^ 50. 

P. pakra 72. 


V^panch; pra — 73.|a72. 



%/p5 35, 51, 52 ; a1r--45. 

N. patra 72. 

V^pad; ut — i2. 
K.parichayana 73. 
P. poritoflhita 65. 
P. paryasta 71, 78. 

^pal&y 61. 

v/pB9 84,49. 

N. pa^chiitUpa 72. 


V'pf 62 fdrinkj. 



N. pichchita 73. 
N. pichchhala 73. 
N. pichchhila 78. 
N. pinaddfaa 73. 

-v/pish 37, 62 W». 
P. pishta 37, 73, 74. 

-/pid 62 bis. 
N. pn^ya 74. 

\/pu8h 52. 

N. piitldura 73. 


VpS 62. 

P. prakiish^ 72. 

\/prachli 52. 

N. prapancha 73. 

P. prayishta 34, 37, 72. 

v^preksh 84, 38. 


V^phal 63. 
N. phiit 74. 
N. pMtkiLra 73. 

v^phel 53. 



V bandh 54 bit, 

y Udh 54. 

-v/budh 83, 35, 36 bis ; 
sam — 61. 

-i/brfi 66, 74. 

«T bb. 

v/bhaksh 57. 
P. bhagna 76. 

\/bhaj 67. 

%/bhaiij 35 bis, 57 ^m. 

\/bha9 67. 


^/bhaah 80. 

V'bhi8 57. 
\/Etid 55, 57. 

V^bhS 35, 40, 63 ; 

ud — 43. 

pra— 62. 
P. bhdnja 76. 

V^^H57;ud— 42. 

sam— 61. 
\/bIifinj9 67. 

V bhram 67. 

\/bhra®9 63 5w, 66. 
P. bhraahta 76. 

IT m. 

V mach 67. 

\/manch 67. 

\/inath 68. 

-v/man 68 *w. 
N. mantra. 


v^mirg 36, 36, 68. 

\/m&rj 68. 

\/mil 68. 

^mish 68. 

^/much ; pra— 54. 

v/mun^ 68. 
N. mudr& 76. 

'v/miih 58. 

\/md 76. 
N. mdtara 76. 
P. mima 76. 

v/mliBh 68. 

V mfi 68 bis, 

\/mpj 67. 5£. 
P. mfita 7o. 

v/mj-id 68 3i*. 

v/mji? 57, 68, 70. 


p. mrishta 75, 76. 
N. mauna 76. 
N. maula 76 bis, 

-l/yi*!, 46;A— 34, 41. 
P. yakiA 65, 67, 68. 
N. yngma 68. 

v/yudh 46. 
N. yoktra 68. 

^ r. 
P. rakta 76. 

\/rak8h 68, 59. 
N. ranga 76. 

\/rach 68. 

\/t&j 69. 

v/ranj 59. 

V^ram 69. 

-v/radh 69. 

V ring 69. 

V rish 59. 

V ruch 69. 

\/tv^ 69. 

-v/ruid 69. 


^/ruSh 59. 
N. radh 37, 76. 

/\/rush 69 bis, 
P. rushta 76. 

N. resh 76. 

V^ro4 59. 

V^raud 69. 

\/ laksh 69 ; vi— 66 

\/lag33, 36, 69; vi— 66. 
N. langa 76. 

v/langh 69 ; pra — 80. 
vi— 65. 

V'lajj 60. 

-v/iaj 69. 

^lap ; vi — 79. 

\/^heO bis; ud— 42. 
upa — 4—79. 
N. lava 76. 

v^las 60 ; vi — 66. 


V^Up 60 bis, 

^M\ vi — 66, 
ni— 77. 
V^limch 77. 
V'iut 69,60. 
v^iunt 60. 
-v/luth 60. 
->/lu9th 60. 
-v/iud 69, 60. 

-^/lup 76. 
N. lup 76. 

V lumb 77. 



V^lok ; pra — vi — 49. 

N. lobha 77. 

-v^ vach 66. 

V vanch 64. 

\/vat 54 ; nir — 50 bis. 
^YB.i^^\ nir — 60. 

V van 64. 

V vad 54, 66 bis, 

V^vap 56. 
N. vama 63. 

\/va8 64 ; apar-43. 

\/vS 64, 80; nir— 60. 
N. vahifl 74. 
N. vik^h 74. 

N. v&chya 74. 

V vancbh 64. 
N. vdtnla 76. 

\/v4b 64. 
N. viWlva 74. 
P. vilambita 74. 

V^viJ 75 ; pra— 34ii 37, 62. 
npa — 37, 66. 

v^viflh 76 ; pari — 36, 61. 
P. vfta 75. 

-v/vlfi64, 60, 88*w; 
ud— 42. 
ni— 60. 
8am— 61. 

V vjit 64 ; vi — 48. 

vi— i--66. 

-\/vyidli 64. 

V vfifih 64. 
V've 80. 

v^vesht 76 ; npa, — 64. 

V vyach 66. 

-v/vyadh 66. 
P. vyasta 74. 

-v/vraj 54 bis. 

^vri 66, 

V^vru4 66 his. 

V^iak 36, 60. 

V^iad 47 tri$y 61 ; nd— 46. 

V 9amb 69. 

v^^61M«;ut— 42. 
N. ^pa 77. 

V fikflh 61. 

N. «ft 69. 
N. 9itala 77. 

^9uch 62. 

V^fudh 62. 

-v/iu]^ 62, 77. 

K. soshka 77. 

^/^fchjut 45. 

\/fra 35, 62. 

t/yraa ; mif — 79. 


^ B. 


/■id 61, 77. 
K. nda 77. 
P. samlhita 77. 
K. nmmakba 77. 
N. Bua 77. 

-v/sfi 61 W*; nifl — 60. 

pra — 51 bis, 
N. sektnr 67. 


\/akand 43, 64. 




•/^ 35, 61. 

/o? 61 ; pra — 51. 

•/b^ 36, 62. 
F. sapta 77. 

v^Bkund 43. 

\/skbal; £—64. 

N. skhala 64. 

N. stana 69. 

P. stabdha 69 bii, 70 bi*. 

v^stabh 80. 
N. Btabh 70. 

^/stambh 48 M«, 69. 
N. stambba 69. 

V^stup 48. 

^/stiri » ▼! — 55i 80. 
v/strib 80. 
K. Bthag 70. 

V^Bthal ; ni — 60. 

-/sthT; ut— 41, 42, 56. 

pra — 51. 

Bam — 60. 
N. Bthira 71 ^•. 
P. snasta 71. 

\/aai 36, 50. 

V^spand 53. 
N. spai^a 73. 

^Bpri? 46 big, 53,79. 
P. spriBbta 66, 67. 

^eph&x 53 bis, 
N. Bpba^, 74 
N. Bpbaia 74. 

V sphal 53. 

>v/spbi( 53. 
%/8pbitt 53. 

/sphu^ 53, 54. 
N. sphiitUunt 73. 

V^smi ; ni — ku — ^72, 

v/Bmri 62 ; vi— 55. 

V^Bjand 61, 63, 66. 
N. Byanna 66. 

y/er&mB 61. 

V Bvid 62 ; pra — 61. 

N. hak 78 bis. 
N. hakUunt 78. 
P. bata 78. 
N. had 77. 


^/ha8 63. 

V hi; vi — 55. 
N. hiLra 78. 


\/b54 63. 

\/hii 62 ; fi— 42. 
pari — 51. 
▼i — 65. 
vi — ava — 56. 
Bam — 60, 61. 

\/hrish 63. 

s/hvS. 68 bis. 
K. bvala 78. 




Page 83, 

line 22, read budhya 

for htnlhga. 

„ 36, 




Skr. fak 


Skr. $ak. 

,, 4*, 







» H 







» 47, 







» *5» 







,. 67, 






» 57, 







„ 69, 







„ 69, 






„ 66, 









„ 76, 







„ 76, 




Skr.N. ^ 



,, 77, 







,, 77, 







» 78, 








ftge 1, fw Trichinopoli, read Trichinopoly. 

,» %for fltnbi fpanimj, read st6bi. 

n 2, line 19, fir pui&aa, read punma. 

n 2, „ 20, (fint word) for n read iiu 

f, 2, n ^t ^™ hoi^fir a high, read high. 

n if ff 12, from bot., add the following note :— 
*The projecting beam ends are perhaps carved to represent Tali (? Griffins') 
beads, and the spirallumps noticed may be the Y^i's trunk coiled up above.' 
hge 4, line 6, from bot., fir Nachaiy^r, read N^haiy^. 

» 5» n 1*1 after metal add, somewhat like the Sabha (halls) at Chidambaram. 

„ 6y „ 8, from bot., insert an asterisk (*) with foot note : 

On a 2nd visit the former (upper) head appeared to be that of a ram with very 
cnTYed hozna, and its leg and foot cut oflf and put in its mouth as they still often do at 
Tillage sacrificial feasts. The buffido's head below has its tongue hanging out of its 

hige 6, line 1, after Gr&m-munsif, ineert or village officer. 

„ 6, „ 17, after new, imert Jaina. 

„ 7, „ 12, fir Kasi read E&si. 

n 7, „ 10, from bot., after or, ineert Coleroon. 

2nd paper p, 8. 
Page 8, line 12, /or flat silled read flat-silled. 
„ 8, „ 6, from bot., for shutter stone read shutter-stone. 
r, 9, „ 13, fir nehropolis read necropolis. 
„ 9, „ 19, /or similar rM^^^om. 
» 9, „ 13, horn bot., fir ehadud read ehatkut, 
y) 9, last line, /or Neilipatla read Nellipatla. 
» 10, line 7) for three or four read six or seven. 


1880.] C. J. Rodgers — Coim supplementary of the Pathan "kings, 81 


Bs-sBeames' Comparative Grammar . 
Cw.aGowell's edition of the Ttdkrita 

DL^DeHuB' £adice$ FraertUca, 
£. M.B=E. Hiiller's Beitrdge zur Gramma' 

tit dei Jainaprdkrit, 
H.C.sHeina Chandra's Frdkrit Gram* 

matik (ed. Piachel). 
K. I. — Kramad I^vaza's Prdkrit Grammar, 
B.]C.«Dr. Bajendialala Mitra's iV<j^Y 


8. B.sSetubandha (ed. 8. Goldschmidt). 
8. C. ssSubha Chandra's Prdkrit Gh'ammar, 
8. Gdt. » 8. Goldschmidt's edition of the 

8pt. » Sapta9ataka des H&la (ed. A.Weber). 
T. V.=Tiivikrama*s Prdkrit Grammar, 
Vr. ts Vararuchi's Prdkrit Grammar, 
Wb. s Weber's edition of the Saptofotaka* 

G. = Giuar&tL 8. 
M. B Mara^hl. 


Qnni tupplementary to Thomas' Chronicles of the Pathan kings, — By 


(With two Plates.) 

The " Chronicles of the Pathan kings" is a very full work. But it is 
an enlargement of a smaller previous work. Further search brought more 
coins to light, and the description of these coins has swollen the original 
treatise to its present size. But large though the work he, it is not 
exhaustive. Finality in our knowledge of the coins of the Pathans has 
not yet been attained. Continued search will bring out still further coins 
vhich from time to time will have to be described. Owing to the nature 
of my duties I have few opportunities of obtaining fresh coins, but as 
I have during the past year come across about forty unpublished ones, 
I thought I might venture to put them forward as a small contribution 
to a further knowledge of the coins of India. 

The word a'dl figures largely on the coins of the Gazni rulers. In 
some modem coins this word occurs together with the sword on several 
coins of towns in Afghanistan. It must have been for the reason, that 
might is right, that the early conquerors of India stuck this word on their 
coins. In Plate V, Nos. 1 and 2 have d'dl on the obverse and mumalliki 
on the reverse. I am inclined to ascribe this coin to Muhamniad Sam 
or his general JEibek, The word I have transliterated as mwnallikt may 
be nmmlakat. No. 6 I regard as a coin of Muizz-ud-din Muhammad 
S&m. The word Muizz on this coin is written more like the same word 
on the coins of Eldoz and of Muhammad S^m, than that on the coins of 
Moizz-ud-din Kaikubad or Muizz-ud-din Bahram Shah. There is a coin 
in the " Ariana Antiqua,'' PI. XX. fig. 14 which is not mentioned by 
Thomas. Now I got a good specimen oE this same coin from Neshdptir 
with a lot of the coins of A'la-ud-din Ehw&rizmi. A glauce at No. 16 

82 C. J. Rodgers — Coins supplementaiy of the Pathan hingt, [No. 2, 

of Plate V, will show that this very king A'la-ud-din strack coins of 
the very same type, using the square area for his name and titles and 
divi^ng the latter similarly to Muizz-ud-din. No. 7, PL Y, I claim' also 
for Muhammad S4nL It has Muizzi on ohverse and on reverse in Hindi, 
8ri Samanta Deva. 

Nos. 8 and 4, PI. V, are undouhtedly new types of Shams-ud-din 
Altamsh. No. 3 has ohv. a' J/, rev. Shamst, No. 4 has the same with a 
star underneath each word. Neither has any ornament. 

No. 9 is, I believe, also 8hams-ud-din's. The star seems to indicate 
this. A^dl i Sultan ul Muazzim, the inscription on the obverse is found 
also on a large quantity of coins of size similar to this one of which 
Thomas takes no notice. But the SSarh ha Lahore with star above it 
is not on them. They have always SSarh ha hazrat Dehii, No. 9 is to 
me unique. But the other kind I mention are very common indeed. In 
my own small collection I have no less than 12 duplicates. One of them 
has A^dl i Sultan i Muazzim ; the aZ»y and lam are altogether missing. 

No. 10 is undoubtedly Shams-ud-din's coin. Ohverse : A^dl us Sultdn 
(ul A*zim) ; Beverse : {Sha)ms ud Dunya {wa) ud din. This is a very 
4M>arse coin. 

Nos. 11, 12 and 13 are I think Shams-ud-din's. The obverse and 
reverse are simple A^dl and Dehli, No. 11 has these words in square 
areas ; No. 12 in round ones with ornaments ; No. 18 in a hexagonal star, 
with dots in the angles. 

No. 6 is a very rare coin weighing only the same as No. 109 in 
Thomas, and half the weight of his No. 52, the inscriptions of which 
latter coin it possesses. So we may regard this coin as the smallest hither- 
to discovered of Shams-ud-din's. It is exceedingly rare as is the one 
double its size. Thus in all I have had the pleasure of unearthing no 
less than 10 new types of coins of Shams-ud-din. 

No. 8 I ascribe to Seziah» In the rayed circle is the name ReziaK 
On the reverse is the hull with Samanta Deva above it in Hindi. The 
whole coin is fdmilar to No. 7 of the same plate. 

No. 14, Plate Y is evidently a coin of the same king the No. 15 
belongs to. And No. 15 is obv. A^la ud Dunya^ rev. Wa ud din. This 
is a coin of A'la ud din £[hwarizmi. No. 14 has similar inscriptions to 
those on No. 6 ; but the fortunate discovery of No. 15 settles the ascrip* 

No. 16 is a new coin of the same king. In the central area is the word 
Sultdn and on the margin Ul A'zim A^la ud Dunya toa ud din Muham- 
mad {Jnn us Suljtdn, Beverse : the Kalimah. The whole is in Kufio 

Not one of these three coins is in the British Museum or is noticed 
by Thomas. 

1880.] C. J. Rodgers — Chim supplemetUaty of the Paihan Jeingi. 83 

Na 17 is a coin of Mroz Sh^h Zafar, son of Firo^ Sh4h, The obrers^ 
has on it in sqoare area Firos Shdh. The margin reads Zafar ibn Ftrox 
Shak Sultdny the reverse has ndib i amir ul Mominin 791. No. 18 is 
eoactlj the same in date and inscriptions, but the latter are arranged 
differently on the obverse. Zafar beginning above the area and not on the 
left hand side as in No. 17. They are both of silver and copper. Thia 
Za&r Khan, son of Firoz ShiLh, died in GujriLt in 775, A. H. But he had 
a son also named Zafar Khan, and this coin may have been struck in his 
honour after the death of Firoz Sh4h. 

No. 19 ie a coin of Muhammad Shah, son of Firoz Sh&h. It is not 
in Thomas in this size. This coin is very light. In reading the margin of 
the large coin of this type, Thomas omits the word Sultan which is always 
on the best preserved specimens. The centre area is Muhammad Shah* 
Tbe margin reads from the outside and is Sultdny zarb hahazrat i Dehli. 
The reverse of this coin is Naib i Amir ul Mominin 792. 

No. 19a is a coin of similar type without any date on the reverse. 
Inismach as the margin of this coin reads from the inside, I am inclined 
to ascribe this to Muhammad bin Farid Sh4h, whose coins,, when similar 
in type to the coins of the son of Firoz, have always some difference in the 
arraDgement of the words. 

No. 20 is a coin of Muhammad ShSh son of Farid Shdh. The in- 
ieriptions are, obverse Sultdn Muhammad Shdh, Fartd Shdh zarb Dehli. 
Beverse Khaltfah Amir ul Mominin Khallad Khildfotahu. There is 
DO date. There is some uncertainty as to the date of the death of this 
king. Thomas, quoting BadaonCy gives his death as 847. I got a coin of 
this king's during the time this plate was being prepared, dated 848. But 
this does not prove much ; for from the time of Firoz Sh£h, the mints kept 
on coining in the names of kings vrho had been long dead ; e. y., Mubdrak 
8h£h died in 837. And I have coins bearing the date of 840 and 854. 
A whole series of posthumous coins of these kings might easily be made. 

No. 21 is a coin of Bahlol Sh^. The inscriptions are, substituting 
Baklol Shdh for Muhammad Sh£h, similar to those on the last coin. Coins 
hearing these inscriptions are somewhat rare in the smaller size. This 
large-sized coin is to me unique, and it has not as yet been published. 
This is the third new type of BohloFs that I have brought to light. 

No. 22 has no business in this plate. It was put in to fiH up a gap, 
aod because I saw that the coin is new to numismatists, as it is not in 
the British Museum Catalogue or in Thomas' work on the Oazni coins. 
It is a binominal coin, struck evidently by Bahrdm Shdh. Obverse : — A^dl 
«i Suitdn ul Azim Bahrdm Shdh. Reverse : — A^zd us Sultan ul Muazzim 
8(mfar, Here Bahrdm seems to arrogate to himself the title of A^zim " the 
greatest" and to give his ally (A'zd) Sanjar who had helped him to retain 

84 C. J. Rodgers — Coins mpplementary of the Pathan kings. [No. 2, 

his throne only the title Muazzim " the great," or " great," simply. Gram- 
matically there is an apparent slight, but conventionally the title of San jar 
is as honorable as that of Bahr&m. There is a difference, we know, for 
Muizz ud din Muhammad bin Sdm during the lifetime of his elder brother 
Qjis ud din Muhammad bin S4m always used in his coins Muazzim for 
himself, until his brother's death when he took the title ul A^zim. But as 
I have shown above, Shams ud din used the title Muazzim^ as did also 
A* laud din Masaud ; for I have two unedited small coins of his. Some two 
months ago I came across a find of Gazni coins in the Umritsur bazaar. 
There were about 500 in all. They contained several new types of 
Masaud III, Malik ArsUn and Bahrdm Shah. The present war should 
cause some thousands to be unearthed and we may expect novelties for 
some time to come. 

I now proceed to examine the coins in Plate YI. The first one is a 
small Kashmiri coin with the date (8)74 . on it. It is a coin of BLaider 
Sh&h and confirms my statement in my paper on the Kashmir Sultans, 
that this king was reigning at that time, although his accession is usually 
marked in 878. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are very pretty little novelties, of Muhammad Sh4h and 
Sikandar Sh&h. They are of copper* Obverse : — names of kings. Be- 
verse : — the title Shdh, They are much smaller than Gyas ud din's coins 
with similar inscriptions. They were evidently a revival of the small coins 
of Shams ud din and Nasir ud din Mahmtid and Muizz ud din. 

Nos. 4 and 5 are two anonymous coins of Humdydn, bearing the date 
946. No. 4 was struck at Agra. 

No. 7 a rupee, full sized, of Hum&ytin's, struck after his return in 962. 
It resembles very closely, in its get up, the rupees of Muhammad Sdr. As 
yet all the silver coins of Hum&ytin which have been described have been 
thin and light, after the fashion of the tankahs of Central Asia. The 
inscriptions are very distinct. Obverse Area : — Muhammad Humdyun. 
Bddshdh Qdzi 962. Margin i-^Us Sulidn ul Adil AH ul Muzaffar, 
Zarh (Dehli?), Ee verse Area: — the Kalimah, Margin; — names and 
titles of the four companions of Muhammad. 

No. 8 is a rupee of Muhammad Sh4h of Bengal. Obverse Area :^ 
Muhammad Shah Sultan Gdzi^ Khallad allah mulkahu wa Sultanahu ; 
margin : — Shams ud Dunya wa ud din ahu ul Muzaffar^ Zari, Satgdon. 
Be verse Area : — the Kalimah, with a star ; margin : — the names of the 
four companions and their titles together with the date 962. There is a 
difference between the titles of Umr in the above two rupees. In Hum^ 
ytin's it is Al Fdriiq, in the Bengal one al Khattdb, 

No. 9, a new type of Baber's silver coins. It is of the tankah kind, 
but of uniform thickness and well struck^ unlike most of the coins of 

1^.] C. J. Bodgers — Ooins iupplemeniaty of the Pathan kings, 85 

Baber. Obverse : — Zahtr ud dtn Muhammad Bahar^ Bddshdh Ohdzt (9)37. 
Kkallad allah mulkahu wa Sultdnahuy zarh Agrah, (The bars and knots 
are not peculiar to the Kashmir coinage. They are found on the anony- 
moos coins of both Baber and Humiydn). Beverse Area : — the Kalitnah ; 
Mai^in : — ^names and titles of the four Companions. 

Nos lOy 11, 12, are three varieties of a new type of Humdytin's anony- 
moos coinage. They were all struck at Ghampdntr. Firishtah spells this 
word j^UJl^. The coins all agree in giving it ^L*ai.. The inscriptions of 
these coins give a new feature — a title to a city. Ghampdnir is entitled the 
noble city Shahr i Mukarram. It speaks well for Humdy tin's nature that he 
could 80 style a city be had just conquered ; for the date of the coins is that 
of the conquest of the city 942. These coins too introduce a second new 
feature in Humayun's anonymous coinage. Instead of JFt ut tdrikh, they 
bave ba tarikh. Obverse : — Zarh Shahr i Mukarram. Beverse : — Oham^ 
fMr ha tdrikh 942. No. 11 belongs to Dav. Boss, Esq. 

No. 18 is another of the anonymous coins of either Baber or Humd- 
7^ I give it for two reasons: (1) It has full inscriptions. (2) The 
bar running across the Jaunpur anonymous coins resolves itself into a 
word Mutabarrak, the title of the city — the Blessed, Obverse, Ba Ddr 
«/ zarh Khitta i Jaunpur Mutabarrak, Beverse : — JEt ut tdrCkh san 937 ; 
onuunents at the top and bottom. Most of the coins of Jaunptir have a 
star on the obverse of one kind or other. But all have the bar, with the 
first letter and last one missing. All I have, have dar ul zarh on them 
too, although this is omitted by Thomas. The bars on some of the other 
anonymous coins may by the discovery of fuller specimens turn out to be 
iome words or other. 

Nos. 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 are small copper coins of the Suri family, 
forming of themselves a little set, out of which only one, No. 17, has been 
noticed by Thomas. No. 15 is the first of the set. Obverse : — KhaHfah 
uz Zamdn 947. Beverse : — Sher Shdh us Sultdn, This is a very small 
coin indeed for Sher Shdh. 

No. 16 is also Sher Shah's, but it is larger and heavier than 15 and 
has a different inscription. Obverse : — Sultdn KhaHfah uz zamdn, 
Beverse :—8her Shdh ul A'dil Sultdn. 

No. 17 is Islam ShAK's, noticed by Thomas, No. 864, p. 418. I have 
given it here to complete the set at one view. No. 18 is Muhammad 
Sbih's Stiri. Obverse i^Sultdn Muhammad A'dil Shdh : Beverse .— Kha- 
Hfah uz zamdn Ahu (ul Muzaffar). 

No. 14 is Sikundar Sdri*s. Obverse : — Khal'ffah uz zamdn962. Be- 
vene : Sikandar Shdh us Sultdn 962. Thomas does not notice any halves 
of the large copper coins of any of the five Sdri kings. Halves of Sher 
Sb4b are common, those of IsUm Sh4h are rare, those of Muhammad Adil 


86 0. J. Bodgers — Ooitu iupplemeniary of the Fathan Jcingt, [No. 2, 

8b4b are extremely rare, while I have onlj seen one of Ibrahim Sb£h and not 
one of Sikandar Sb&h*s. General Cunningham had a large copper one of 
8ikandar Sh4h. Mr. Delmerick published one of Ibrahim's. The large 
coins of the otber three are common, the greater numbers of course bein^ 
6her Sh&h's and IsUm*s. I have not as yet come across a small coin of 
Ibrahim's. This is one of the things I am looking for. The Sikandar 
Sh&h, whose coin is given in this plate No. 2, I believe to be the one who 
reigned in 795 for 46 days. A comparison of this coin with No. 275, 
p. 811 of Thomas, of which I have a most perfect specimen, leads me to 
this conclusion. Now if a king who reigned only 45 days could in that 
short time get out no less ihwo. Jive kinds of coins, I think we have a ri^ht 
to look out for the same number of varieties in the coins of kings who 
reigned longer. Scientific and systematic search with duly chronicled 
results ought to lead to much fuller knowledge respecting the coins of the 
Fath&n's and their successors, and indeed with respect to the whole of the 
coins of the Empire of India from the time of Alexander the Qreat and 
Chandra Gupta to the times of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Empress of 
India and Queen of England. 

As old coins are found, they find their way into the bazaars, where^ 
if there is no purchaser at other than bullion rates, they are ruthlessly 
melted down, the silver being good, in order to supply metal to the makera 
of jewels. In this way undoubtedly thousands of coins disappear annuall j 
of which our museums and cabinets are standing in need. Meanwhile 
inasmuch as no Indian museum has its coins catalogued, no one knows 
what any collection may contain or may be in need of. Collectors would 
undoubtedly often present coins to museums which want them, if these 
wants were known. Students cannot use our Indian museums profitably 
until they know what the museums contain : and yet the end and object 
of all museums is an educational one. Hence I cannot help briaging this 
matter forward as one of the greatest importance in making our museums 
more useful in the promotion of historical studies. 

Several other new varieties of coins including a rupee of Shams ud 
din Altamsh, a tankah of silver of the same king with rays round one side 
to represent the sun (Shams), a new variety of Beziah's and one of Kutuh 
ud din Mub&rak Sli4h's together with several others must stand over to a 
future paper, in which I hope to be able to show that No. 158, p. 190 of 
Thomas was struck in TaUng (Telingana), just the same as No. 11 of 
Plate IV of the Society's Journal of last year. 

18S0.] H. Rivett-Carnac— Cb»iw of the Swnga Dynasty. 87 

Memorandum on Coins of the Sunga Dynasty. — By H. Eivett- 
Casnac, Esq., C. S., C. I. E., R S. A. 

(With three Plates.) 

I have to offer a few remarks on some more coins of the Sunga Djnas* 
tj sabmitted for the inspection of the Society. 

Plate YII, No. 1 is a coin of quite a different type from those 
already sent. Mr. Garlleyle reads the inscription on it as Bamadaia. 

No. 2, A and B are 2 small coins with the legend Achya or Bhan^ 
jf0. (Mr, Garlleyle.) On the other side is what looks like the Buddhist 

No. 3. The legend on this coin of Bhanu Mitra corresponds with 
that on the large coins already submitted to the Society and described by 
Mr. Garlleyle. The shape of the coin is, however, different, and a figure 
iHiich Mr. Garlleyle takes for the Nirvana has been stamped in above the 
hgsoL There may, however, perhaps be some doubt whether this is 
intended for a recumbent figure of Buddha. It looks indeed more like a 
standing female figure on a low platform, a figure somewhat resembling 
that on the coin of Phaguni Mitra to be noticed later. 

No. 4i is a similar coin. The legend not being in qoite such good 

No. 5 is a coin of Agi or Agni Mitra of the same type. In this 
specimen, however, the figure would seem to be that of a female, the bosoms 
being distinctly shewn. It is not unlike the rough representation on the 
Esnanj series of coins, see Plate XXIV, Vol. I, Prinsep. 

Na 6, A, B, G are 3 small coins of the same type. The figures are 
distinct enough, but the inscription in each case is undecipherable.* 

I have already sent to the Society, in illustration of Mr. Garlleyle' s 
p^«r, specimens of each of the various coins of the Sunga Dynasty. The 
specimens sent were specially selected on account of the legend and the 
marks stamped on the obverse. The design on the reverse is hardly of so 
much importance, but it may be interesting to notice the Monogram or 
device chosen by each king. From a large number of specimens I have 
selected those now sent to illustrate as far as possible these points. XJn. 
fortunately none of the specimens are in very good preservation. The 
coins when found looked most hopeless. (See No. 7 specimen in its origin- 
al condition now sent.) But by a careful process of boiling and cleaning 
the legends and stamps on the reverse have been rendered sufficiently clear. 

* [They are probably coins of 84rya Mitra. On No. 6 B, the letters s, y^ m, and 
OQ No. 6 A, the letter < can be distingmflhed. En.] 

88 H: Rivett-Carnac— Obin* of the Sunga Bynatfy. [No. 2, 

It is a curious fact that in hardly any case has it been possible to 
preserve the design on the reverse. Under the process of cleaning, what 
I may call the back of the coin has almost invariably flaked away. And 
this will hardly be wondered at when the condition in which the coins 'vrere 
originally found is seen. 

The devices of the different monarchs may be noticed as follows : 

Bhumi Mitra. The coins of this king , besides being very numerous, are 
nearly all in fairly good preservation. The device on the reverse is distinct. 
A standing figure on a platform, between two poles or pillars of victory, 
or whatever they may be called, each staff surmounted by three cross-bars, 
and the head surrounded by rays or flames. In the specimen No. 8 the 
figure holds what looks like a snake in its hand. The snake or line is not 
so distinct in all the coins (see Nos. 9, 10). 

Ayi or Ayni Mitra. The coins numbered Nos. 11, 12 in Plate YIII bear 
nearly the same device as those of Bhumi Mitra, And of this king also it 
is to be noticed, that the coins, besides being numerous, are, comparatively 
speaking, in excellent preservation. Here also is a figure with rays or flames 
issuing from the head. This figure also stands on a platform between poles 
or staffs of victory. But in this case each staff is surmounted by what 
looks like a thistle or a ghufa, whereas in Bhumi Mitra^s coins at the 
summit of each staff are, as already noticed, three cross-bars. The 
smaller of Agni Mitra^ Nos. 13, 14, 15, exhibit a different device. The' 
standing figure has in its hand what would seem to be a snake. There are 
no square platform and no side poles. At the base are rays or flames.* In 
fact the device is nearly the same as that on the coins of Bhaguni Mitra 
now to be noticed. 

Bhaguni Mitra^ Nos. 16, 17, 18, 19. These coins also are numerous 
and fairly well preserved. The device shews a standing female figure sur- 
rounded by what look like rays or flames.* In the right hand is a club (?), 
lower down and also on the right side a device or monogram is clearly 

The coins of Bhadraghosa, Surya Mitra and Bhanu Mitra, which, 
together with Bhaguni Mitra, are, I undei*8tand, not only new coins, but 
also record the names of kings hitherto unknown, are much less numerous 
than those first noticed and are not generally in such a good state of preserva- 
tion as those of Bhumi, Agni and Bhaguni. Those of Bhadraghosa indeed 
are in most cases scarcely legible. And had it not been for the beautiful 
little specimen which came into my hands before the find in Bareiliy, there 
might have been some difficulty at first in establishing the legend on these 

* [The base rather resembles the lotus-eeat on the-reyeise of some Gupta ooins. 

1880.] H. Rivett-Caniac— Cb»fM of the Sunga Dynasty. 89 

coins. Not one single specimen shows, with any distinctness, the design 
OQ the reverse. Two of the best in this respect that I have, are marked 
Nos. 20, 21. On these a female figure, resembling that on the coins of 
FhywuMUra can jnst be made out. 

Bhmu Mitra. The device on Nos. 22, 23 is tolerably clear. The 
•un with pointed rays surmounts a semicircle which may be intended to 
represent a serpent. Below is what may be taken for a squat figure sup- 
porting the sun (?) but the device is perhaps hardly sufficiently distinct to 
admit of any very satisfactory conclusion being drawn. This may possibly 
be aided by coins of other types in the possession of the Society or figured 
in books which are not at my disposal. 

Surya Miira^ Nos. 24, 25. Here, as the name denotes, is the 
nm surmounting what would seem to be a triangular-shaped altar 
with the staff of victory on either side. Here also the staff has the 
Gross-bars as in Bhumi Mitra^s coins. 

To these I have added a coin of Indra Mitra, No. 26, similar to those 
ahesdy sent. This coin has I believe been found before. The device on 
the reverse is somewhat different from those already noticed, and shows a 
standing figure on a square platform, like that on the coins of Bhumi and 
Agni Mitra. In the right hand of the figure is a sceptre ? The Staff of 
Victory noticed in the other coins is wanting here. 

It will be seen that of the seven kings whose coins are noticed above, 
BIX of them adopted a different device. As regards the coins of Bhadra^ 
ghow, it is not possible to speak with certainty. It will be noticed too that 
these six Mitral have all included the sun, or the rays of the sun on their 
coins, suggesting possibly their Mitra or Mithraic origin. The symbols on 
the obverse of the coins have been described by Mr. Carlleyle, and in all 
eases the design is the same or nearly the same. There is little or no 
difference in the shape of the letters used. The legend is surmounted by 
three symbols which are in all cases the same, although in the coins of 
Bkadraghosa and Bhanu Mitra the central symbol appears to have been 
punched in separately. All this would seem to suggest that these seven 
kings belong to the same dynasty. Mr. Carlleyle has attributed them 
to the Sunga kings, who, according to Prinsep and other authorities, 
commenced to reign over Magadha about 172 B. C. 

I shall be glad if the Society can afford me any information regarding 
these kings — ^the succession in which they reigned and the probable dates 
of the coins. 

In Prinsep's list Agni Mitra appears next after Pushpa Mitra the 
first of the line. And this arrangement coincides with that given by 
Wilford and others in the Asiatic Researches. If the condition of the coin 
uid the quantity in which it is found are of any significance, then Ayni 

90 H. Rivett-Carnac — Chins of the Sun^a Dynasty, 

Mitra- might fairly be supposed to be one of the most recent of these 

I have no suggestions to offer regarding any of them, save Bhadra^ 
yhosa. It will be seen from Prinsep's list and also from Wilford's Essay 
in Asiatic Researches, Vol. XI, that one Ohosa Vasu preceded Vajra Mitra. 
Regarding this Vajra Mitra, Wilford in his Essay on Yikramaditya and 
Salivahana (see Asiatic Researches, Vol. IX, page 145,) writes as follows : 
"The first Yicram4ditya is mentioned in the Cumiricd-c'handa ; in 
which it is declared that after 3020 years of the Cali-yuga had elapsed, 
then would Yicramarca appear. He reigned fourteen years, and of course 
died in the year 3034, when the era of Yudhishtir ended and his own began. 
In the list of the kings, who were to appear in the Cali-yuga, to be found 
in the Bhiigavata, Brahmdnda, V^yu and Vishnu Puranas, there are two 
kings, the seventeenth and eighteenth in regular succession from Chandra- 
gupta, who reigned seven years each. The first is called Vicrama, and the 
other Mitra ; and they are supposed to have been originally meant for 
Vicrama mitra who, according to some, reigned fourteen years ; and in 
these lists, the father, or predecessor of Vicrama, is called Ohosha jRdJa or 
the king of thickets, which is another name for Gandharupa, or Gadha-raja 
in the west. This looks like an interpolation ; and the more so, as it will 
appear hereafter, that Ghosha-Raja died in the year 440 of our Era." 

The Vajra Mitra of Prinsep's list is here supposed to be Vikrama Mitra 
or Vikramaditya, whose father and predecessor is Ghosa Rdja. Wilford 
thinks that this name Ghosa looks like an interpolation. But perhaps the 
discovery of a coin belonging to this period, bearing the name of Ghosa, 
may help to establish the correctness of the entry ? 

It is perhaps also worthy of notice that Prinsep's list of the Kanwa 
Dynasty gives the name Bhumi Mitra, a contempojary of Vikramaditya. 
The coins of Bhumi Mitra and Bhadraghosa are certainly of about the 
same period, and possibly of the same dynasty. I am aware that since 
Wilford and Prinsep wrote, Mr. Thomas, General Cunningham and others 
have done much to clear up the doubts existing in respect to early Hindu 
Chronology. I am in hopes that "those who are better informed than my- 
self on the subject may be able to draw some practical conclusion from the 
coins which I have been able to collect. 

I may add that the mass of them have now been tolerably well cleaned. 
They have been carefully examined and read by Mr. Carlleyle and my self , 
but no new types save those sent to the Society have been found. They 
are entirely at the disposal of the Society if they wish to see them, and I 
hope that a complete set may be accepted for the Society's Museum. The 
only reservation I have to make is, that a complete selection of the best 
specimens should be reserved for the British Museum, which Institution 
ought, I think, to have the first choice. 

\ .V 


1 ; / 

V I" 

>-■ ^ ^ 


t ►: 


. '>! 



^^^^^^^^^■^ ^^^^^»<^ ^ 

No. III.— 1880. 

Bemrki of the Afghans found along the Boute of the Tal Chotiali Field 
Force, in the Spring of 1879. — Bg Lieut. K. C. Temple, B. S. C, 
F. R. a. S., M. R. A. S , &c. (With 3 Plates and 2 Maps.) 

Paet I. 

This is the last of a series of papers on the march of the Tal Chotiali 
Field Force in the spring of last year, and closes mj ohseryations on the 
lubject.* As the range of observations to be made along an entirely new 
and unknown route such as this is necessarily large, I found it impractica- 
ble to connect them all into one paper, and this has obliged me to repeat 
in the several papers certain remarks which were necessary to the exposition 
of the subject-matter of each, and I trust therefore to be excused for repeat- 
ing here much that is to be found elsewhere. I have also again to make 

* Journal of the march of the 2nd Column of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force com* 
nmnicated to the Quarter Master C^eral in India. 

An account of the march of the 2nd Colunm Tal Chotiali Fieid Force, to the 
K. 0. 8., with map. 

Sketch Map of the march of the Tal Chotiali Field Force, published by the Surveyor 
General of India. 

Noteeon the Formation of the Country passed through by the Tal Chotiali Field 
Foice, and Rough Notes on the Distribution of the Afgh&n Tribes about Kandahar, to 
tliii Society. 

92 R. C. Tempie—jRoute of tie Tal Ghotiali Field Force. [No. 3, 

the excuse to be found in all my papers on this subject that my notes were 
from the nature of the circumstances under which they were made necessa* 
rily of a rough and hurried kind and contain doubtless many mistakes, but 
as it seems the route is to be abandoned, it is likely to be a long while 
before it is again traversed throughout, and I hope therefore my notes will 
be found to be of value. 

The geography of the route, thanks to the exertions and reports of the 
officers of the Survey of India* who accompanied the Force, is now well 
known and needs no remark here. Suffice it to say that the Force was sent 
from the Pishin valley towards Dera Gh4zi Kh4n viH the Kdkar country 
and Ba'beho'm to open up what is known as the Tal Ghotiali Route, 
and that the present writer was attached to the 2nd or principal column of 
the Force. The route taken and referred to herein is shewn in detail in 
the map attached, which was published for me by the Surveyor General of 
India, and in its general aspect in the map attached to my paper on the 
Geology of the Route in a former number of this Journal, f 

II. The Tribes en route. 

Before proceeding to discuss what was seen of the various tribes of 
Afghans along this march, it may be as well to give a brief account of what 
is known of the vexed question of the origin of the Path&n and Afghto 

The people of the nation known in India as the Pafbdn Tribes call 
themselves Bani' IsbaVl or Ptjkhttj'n (pi. PirKHTl'KA),and the Afghans, 
as a race of these Pa^hfo Tribes, claim'descent from Ta'ltj'tJ or Sa'ru'l (the 
Saul of the Bible) as their ancestor. According to native accounts Sa^su'l 
had two posthumous sons Babaei'a (Babachiah) and Ibami^a§ (Jebe* 
kiah), both born in the same hour of different mothers of the tribe of 
La'wi' (Levi). They rose to high postitions under David, Saul's successor ; 
thus Barakia became prime minister and Iramia Commander-in-Chief. In 
SulimaVs (Solomon's) time they were succeeded in their posts each by his 
son, Barakia by Abai* and Iramia by Afoha'na, and Afghdna is said to 
have had the building of the Baitu-l-muqadbas or Temple of Jerusalem. 
Asaf left 18 and Afghdna 40 sons, and these founded important families or 
tribes. When the Baitu-l-iotqaddas was destroyed by Baxhtu-k-fasb 
(Nebuchadnezzar) the Afghana Tribe, adhering to their forefathers' religion, 
were banished from Sha^h (Palestine) and took refuge in KoHtSTA'N-i-GHOB 
and KoH-i-FiBOZA. Here their neighbours called them Afghan (or Aogh^) 

• J. A. S. B., for 1879, paper by Major Waterhouse. 
t J. A. S. B., for 1879, Vol, XLVIII, Part XL 
I Raverty. Gram, of Pushto. Introd. 1860. 
} BiBKiYA and Abmiah acjcording to Baverty. 

ISSO.] B. C. Temple— jBoi»^^ of the Tal Ohotiali Field Fbrce, 


or Bani Isr^il. From Qhob bj degrees the Afghios extended to the 
Kohista'k-i-ka'bux, Kahdaha'b and Ghazki. 

Until the advent of Muhammad the Afghans followed the religion of 
the Peotatench or Taubet Khwa'n. But in the 9th year of the announce- 
ment of Muhammad's mission thej heard of him from one of the Bani 
Israil bj name KHA'LiD-BiK-(or ibk)-Wali'i>. A deputation was sent to 
Medina under one Eais (also Kish, Kesh or Eaish) a leading Afghan, 
vho became a zealous Muhammadan and received several special marks of 
the Prophet's favour, among which the title of malik or king, originally 
conferred by the Almighty on Saul, their great ancestor, was conferred 
individually on the Afghans.* Arabic names also were given them ; thus 
Eais was called Abdu-b-bashi'd (Servant of the Wise). And to him was 
also given the title of Pihta'w (Patha'n) meaning in Syriac a rudder, signi- 
fying that he, Eais, was the pilot of his people. From this Kais are de- 
scended all the Afghan Tribes properly so called, and all Afghans are 
Patbans, the name by which the nation is most generally known in India. 
But there are many tribes who are Bani Isrdil and Pukhtun (Pukhtana) 
who are not Afgh&ns. 

The Pukhtun, erroneously known in India as the Path&n Tribes, then 
are divided into those descended from Kais and those who are not. Those 
who are so descended are generally known as Afgh&ns and the others as 
merely Fa^h^ns, though the whole nation is also known as Pa^hdivs-t 

The following is a list of the principal tribes of the present day 
generally acknowledged to be Afghans : 








Eais married a daughter of Kha'lid-bik-wali'd by whom he had three 
sons, Sababait, Batan and Gubghusht and from them descend some of 
the principal tribes above mentioned, as may be seen by the accompanying 

* At the present day the head of a Pafh&n family or tribal subsection is called 

t There are several l^ends to account for the names of Afgb£n and PatMn, that 
above given in the text is the commonest. The following are, however, worth notic- 

Tbe word Pukhttin (Pukhtana) is said variously to be of ImiA'Nf or iBBA^Hud 
(Habrew) and of Su'aiA'wf (Syrian) origin, and to signify ** delivered" or " set free." 

































94 B. G. Temple— 22oM<« of the Tal Chotiali Field Wane. [No. 3, 


, I . 

1 i I 

Saraban. Batan. Gubghttbht. 

I I I 

I I d. of KioH. I 

I 111 L I I 

SHfRJbd TABfif. Ghilzai. Ibrahim | | Eakab. PJjfTZAT.* 

joined the j Lodi. Eaohzai. Sarwani. 

Kakars. \ j [ | | 

ToRTAsiN. SpIntarIn Abdal. Si^Ri. Bangabh. 

The above genealogy which must of course be taken for what it may 
be worth, includes a good many of the ancestors of the present Afghan 
Tribes, but not by any means all. Each, however, has its own genealo- 
gical legend. It will be observed that the Durdnis, the chief or largest tribe 
are not included in the above genealogy. 

The Path&n Tribes we have to deal with in this paper are the Durdnis 
slightly, and with the Tarins, Kakars, Lunis and Zarkh^ns more fully. Of 

The common tradition about A%hiln is, that the mother of their ancestor Afgh£na gave 
him the name because of her exclamation on the fetvourable answer to her prayers in 
the panga of childbirth for a quick delivery, for she said on the birth of the child, 
"Afghana(I am free)," this being the traditional interpretation of the expression. 
Another tradition is, that she called out in her pangs " Afghan" or " Fighan" an 
oxpreasion of pain in the Persian language. According to the E14kar legends ** Pathan" 
is a corruption of Prbt KhXn, the title given to the Kais above mentioned by the Pro- 
phet. Raverty in the Introduction to his Grammar of Pnshto g^vea an extract from the 
TAZKiRXT-UL-MTTLtJK or Hifltory of the Saddozais according to which the words Pushto 
(or Purhto) and Pushtun (or PukhtiJn) are derived from Pusht or Pasht the name 
of the place Afghana first fixed on as his residence on leaving Palestine. In the same 
work a characteristically oriental derivation of the word Afgh&na is thus given. *' The 
original meaning of Afghanah is fighan, a Persian word which means complaini> 
lamentation, because he (Kais) was a cause of lamentation to the devil, the jinns and 
mankind. From the constant use of the word the vowel point Kasrah was dropped 
after which the other letters could not be sounded without the aid of a vowel and 
alif-i-wasl was placed before the ffh and thus made Afgh&nah." And the term Pa^hAn 
is further derived from bat&n or paian which in Arabic (u;lkj) signifies the keel 
(Raverty says keelson) of a vessel, " without which it cannot sail, neither can the ship 
of war sail along vrithout the keel of battle." 

* The true Afghan descent of the posterity of the 2nd son Batan is more than 
doubtful. It appears that Bibi Mito (or M4tu) the daughter of Batan formed an illicit 
connection with Sh4h Husein, (or Huss^n, called also Mast*ali) a Persian Prince of 
Gh6r and was made to marry him. The offspring resulting was named Ghalzai that is 
<* the child of the A." She, however, also bore him a son Ibrihim Ii6di &om whom the 
former Pathan rulers of Delhi sprung. This Shah Hussein was sAao by a fraud indaced 
to marry Bibi M&hi (or Mihi) daughter of the Kaoh or bard who managed his 
marriage with Bibi Mato, and from her are descended the present K&ghxai, Baogash 
and Sarw&ni Path&ns. 

1880.] R. C. Temple— ^tf^ of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force. 


tbeae the Dar^nis, Tarins and K4kars are Af gh&ns proper and so probably 
are the Ldnis, but the Zarkhdns are merely known as Pa^hdns. 

First then regarding the DuriLnis, the chief of the Afghan clans. The 
origin of this tribe is apparently unknown, but it seems to be generally 
beliered that it emigrated from the mountains of Gh6r. According to the 
Tazkdu't-vl-mulu'k above quoted, the Durani descent is as follows : 



eldest son. 



eldest son« 




chief of the Afghins, 
whence after 30O years. 


Malik Rajar Abdaxj. 







-whence the 

called also 



I I I 

PoPAL.* BXrax.^ Alako'.* 


„ I II 

MilDL HaB^B AbdIlI.* BaOU.* AlTt^B. 


Kauk Bamb Abdali.* Ismail.* Hasan.* 



Salih.« 'ALf.» Zaiyil.* Waraka.* 

Mauk Sado AbdXli,* 

Aexab Shau AbdjCli 

*nd ftfterwatds DurXni. 

The old name of the Durdnis was Abddli, till Ahmad Shdh, an Abddli 
of the Sadozai family or subsection of the P<5palzai section of Abdalis, the 
hero of Pdnipat, in 1747 took the title of dube-i-Dueba'n, the Pearl of Pearls, 
»nd named his tribe after himself Durdnis. The two great divisions of the 
Dttriinis are Zi'bak and Pab jpa'o, and of these the most honorable by de- 
scent are the Zi'baks. The Zi'baks are usually divided into 4 sections (1) 

* Those marked with an asterisk with the addition of Zai are the names of present 
Dnzibu sectionfl or subsections. 

06 B. C. Temple— Bouie of the IM Ohotiali Field Three. [^o. 8, 

FoPALZAi, (2) Alako^zai, (3) Ba.'ba.kzii, (4) AcHAKZAi and the Pahj- 
pa'os into 5 sections, thus, (5) Nu'bzai, (6) Al^zai, (7) IsHA'szai, (8) 
Khu'gia'ni, (9) Ma'ku'.* Along our present route, however, only the 
Achakzais were found in any numbers, but a few of the Pdpalzais and 
Bdrakzais were also found in the Pishin. As far as I know there is but one 
Pdpalzai village and one Barakzai village in Pishin, but there are a good 
many Bdrakzais scattered about the valley formerly concerned with the late 
government there. The P<5palzais of the valley are of the Sadozai sub- 
section, f 

The Ba'bakzais met with in the Pishin are all Mithamkadzais,^ con- 
nected in some way with the late government of the valley. Sirdar 
Khu'shdil Kha'n of the royal house seems to have been Governor of the 

« There ia also a low claas of Duranis called SXozai found in the ArohisXn val- 

t The Sadozaid were the old ruling family of the P6palzai8 and under Abad-ul- 
LAH (of the Tribe AbdXli, sec. PdpaUai, subsec. Sadosai) threw off the yoke of the 
Persian at Herat in 1716, soon after Mfa Vais, the Ghilzai, began to assert the inde- 
pendence of the AfghiUi nation. On the assassination of NXoib ShXh in 1747, Ahmad 
Khaic, a Sadozai (afterwards Ahmad Shih Dar&ni) gradually conquered for himself 
all Afghanist&n and most of the Ponjab, and at his death in 1773 he was ruling from 
the Sutlaj to the Oxus and from the Himalayas to Khorasan. Till 1793 Taimu'r Sha'h 
his son reigned, but at his death his kingdom was fought for among his children in the 
way so conunon in oriental history, mainly resulting in the loss of the Panjib to the 
Sikhs. The brothers who were ruling at the time of Taimu'b Sha'h'b death were 

Zama'n Sha^ in Kabul. 

Haxa'um Sha'h in Eandahir. 

MAHini'D Sha'h in Her&t. 

Abba's MIrza' in Pesh&wur. 

Eo'handil Mf rza' in Kashmir. • 

Of these ZamXn ShXh and MAHMtJD ShXh obtained the throne of Afghibiist&n with the 
usual bloodshed, and after them another brother, the famous ShAh SntjJAH-UL-MaLK, 
about 1809. Mahmiid ShiUi, however, ousted him and again ruled till 1818, when he 
was deposed by the Ba'kakzai brothers, sons of Paino EhXn, his Wasir, and son of 
9Ajf Jamal KhXn (a Muhammadzai BXrakzai), the Sirdar who had helped Ahmad 
ShiLh in the early days of his sovereignty. Since that date the Mohammadzai Bazak- 
sais have fought among themselves for the throne resulting in the victory and sover- 
eignty successively of the Amirs Dost Mohammad Kh&n, Sh6r All Ehanand YaSubKhto 
the late ruler. In 1839 the first Afghan war, the histor}'^ of which is of course still firoah 
in our memories, was undertaken to restore Shah Shujah-ul-mulk, the Sadozai, to his 
throne at K^bul. The Sadozais are still highly respected, and the P6palzais from which 
they sprung are the most honoured among Afgh&n Tribes. During the greater part 
of the Sadozai ascendancy, the ministers were chosen from the BXms'zax subsection of 
the P6palzais. The chief other subsections of the P6palzais as far as I could aBoertsin 
are (3j Marsinozais, (4) Kha'^zais, (o) AiyObzais, (6) Madozais, (7) No'azais. 

X The other subsection of the Barakzois as far as I could ascertain were (2) 


188a] B. C. Temple— Boute of the Tal Chotiali Field Three: 


Ptshin under Sb^r Ali, bat neyer to baye lived tbere, and I was quite 
wppriaed to find how little appeared to be known about him locally. His 
fort, called Khiishdil Khan, is in the north-east corner of the Pishin, and from 
ithisNaib or Lieutenant Nu^B MuHAHHiJ) Khl'tx (Muhammadzai 64rak- 
m) seems to have ruled and collected the revenues. This last fled at our 
adTftDoe into the Pishin in 1878, and the valley was handed over for govern- 
ment under Sir R. Sandeman, agent for Baluchistan, with the fort Khdsh- 
dil Khan, to another Nu^E Muhammad Kha.'n, Luga'bi', a Beloch in our 
Beryice as Nazim or ruler.* This Ehdshdil Khdn's descent was given me 

loallj,-thus : 

HAJr JAMi<L KHAN (temp. Ahmad ShAb Dur&ni.) 

SiBDA^B Paho) Kha'k (Muhammadzai B&rakzai ) 

MmiBDiL Kha'n. 

Khu'bhdh. Kha'it. 
Governor of 
Pishin, 1878. 

Pu'bdil Kha'w. 

Mi'b Apzu'l Kha'n. 
Governor of Kan- 
dahar, 1878. 

Dost Mtthammab Kha% 
Amir of Kdbul. 

Sheb Ali' Kha'k, 
Amir of Kabul . 


Takxt'b Kha'n, 
Amir of Kdbul.f 

* Another and perhaps tihe most trae local story is tbat Khdahdil Eh&n died about 
7 yean ago, say 1872, and in former days ABD-uii-KAnfM EhAn (Muhammadzai, 
Barakzai) was hia Naib, but on Sh4r 'AH's final accession in 1869, Khtishdil Khin lost 
liii goveromcnt and went to reside in Eandah£r, while Nu'r Muhammad Kha'n 
(Uohammadzai B&rakzai) was sent to govern the Pishin direct from Sher 'Ali himself. 
f Paind Kh&n's sons by 5 mothers were-^ 

(Fateh Kha'n Wazir of Mahmtid Shah, 
Muhammad Azim Eha'n, 
Taimu'r Kha'n. 
(T*u'bdil Kha'n, Gk)vemor of Kandahar, 
I Shbhdil Eha'n, Governor of Kandahib, 
3. \ KoHAKDiL Kha^, Governor of Kan<iah^r, 


iDo'sT Muhammad KhaN, Amir of K&bu], 
AMi'a Muhammad EhXn, 
JamXl Khan. 

ISultAn Muhammad Knlir, 
YksL Muhammad Khan, 
Pfa Muhammad KhXn, 
Satad Muhammad Khan. 

!NawXb Abad EhIn, 
NawAb Sama't Kha^, 
Kawab Jabak Kham. 

98 R. 0. Temple— Boute of the 2hl Chotiali Field Farce. [No. 3, 

The AcHAKZAl section of the Daranig is the tribe inhabiting the 
mountains known as the Khoja Amba'n Range, the Toba Plateau, and the 
PiSHiN and Kadanei valleys in part. They are said to have been divided 
off from the B4rakzais by Ahmad Sh^h, as that tribe was getting too power- 
f ul, and I have met Pathins about Kandahar, who classed the Achakzai 
as a Birakzai subdivision. The Achakzais are divided into Baha'dvszaib 
and Gajanzais. 
























I, however, came across two subsections of Achakzais not here mention- 
ed called Habi'bzais* and Abdals in the Pishin. This name Abdal may 
perhaps only be the title of the malik or chief as the present Sirdar Mi'b 
AsLAi^ Kha'n of the Achakzais is locally called Mir Aslam Kh^n Abdal or 
Abddli, as also is Mad at Kha'n, the head of an Achakzai village in the 
Pishin, called after him. AH the inhabitants of the last villao'e, however 
are called Abdals. 

The next clan we have to deal with are the Tarins. These are the 
second of the Afghdn TriJ^es in point of importance and national estima- 
tion. Their legendary descent from Kais is clearly made out. Sabab.a19^, 
Kais's eldest son, had five sons of whom the second was Tarin. Tarin had 
three sons, Tor Tarin, Spin Tarin and Abdal, and from the two eldest are 
descended the modern Tarin Tribe. According to a legend Tarin's dark son 
was called Spin Tarin or Fair Tarin, and his fair son T6r Tarin or Dark 
Tarin. The Tor Tarins inhabit the Pishin valley and the Spin Tarins the 
country about Tal and Chotidli. Lumsden subdivides this clan as follows : 

* Lumsden, however, makes out the Habi'bzais to be T6r Tarms, bat as £ur as 
I could ascertain, they are Achakzais. 

1890.] R. C. Temple— Boufe of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 


















This list agrees with that given me en route as far as the Spin Tarios 
are concerned, bat as regards the T6r Tarias mine differs considerably. 
First I would remark that the ELlbIbzais are, as far as I could make out, 
Aehakzaas and not Tarins at all. Next as regards the Karb^las, who have 
been hitherto put down as Tarins somehow connected with the Pishin 
Sajads, I have ascertained the following particulars. The Karb^las inhabit 
a village of the same name near Sayad Painb in the Pishin and call them- 
selves Sajads. They are, however, disowned by the Sayads and also by the 
Tarins, Kdkars and Dur&nis. The local legend regarding their origin is 
this. In days gone by, a little child by name Karb^la, was travelling 
through the Pishin in a kafila. He lost his party and was seen running 
along the road, erjing, by a kind-hearted Satad who took him in and 
nourished him^ but declined to admit him into his family or sect. On 
growing up, he married a Tarln woman, and from him there sprang by Tarin 
btermarriages the present race of Karbelas, now said to be 600 strong in 
men. This is the Sayad version of the story, the Tarin legend is the same 
except as regarding intermarriages with themselves. They say the mother 
of the original Karb^las came from no one knows where and disown the 
whole race. The probabilities are, they sprung from Pathdns who had 
to take refuge in the Pishin from some other distant place. The KnA^fizAis 
are divided into LdB KhjCitizais and Dab KhInizaes according to my 
information. In the list of Tdr Tarins which I collected, the following do 
not appear in Lumsden.* 


Maezais EjCbu'ns. 

^^Thile his list contains the following which are not found in mine. 


EhImzais AbbtjbbahmXkzais 

* There are a few trifling variations in some names regarding which see below on 

100 E. 0. Temple— JBow^tf of tie Tal Ohotiali Field Faree, [No. 3, 

The probabilities are that a combined list would reach nearest the true 
statement of their subsections.* 

Like the Tarins, after whom they rank, i, e., third on the list of clana, 
the E&kars claim direct descent from Ejlis. Firstly, iCais's third son was 
GuBQHUSHT who had three sons DXid, BXsf and MakdI. Of these DanI 
had four sons, EjCeab, NIghab, DLdI and Pan! .f Secondly SHfalxf the 
eldest son of SHABfF«UD-Di^i7, eldest son of Sababait Eais's eldest son, on 
account of family squabbles joined the Kdkars and called himself a Gub- 
OHiTSHTAi. Such is the common legend. The Kakars themselves vary it 
thus. Kais went to Mecca and there obtained the name of Pbet KhXk 
(elsewhere PihtXn). His eldest son ShabIf-ttb-din or SababIk had five 
sons SHfaXiff, TABfN, MTimf, BabechI J and UMAB-UD-Dfiir. The mother 
of SniBXN^f, who was a Kdkar, finding that her husband intended making 
Tab! N, his second son, his heir, left his protection and returned to her own 
tribe. Her descendants have therefore been included among Pa^hans and 
with them the whole of the Kdkars under one name. This subverts the 
other legends which make the Kakars claim descent through Gubghusht 
from Kais. 

The following clans claim relationship with or descent from the E&kars. 
The GXkabs of Kashmir along the Jhilam, the Taimuitis (Eihaks) of 
Ghob, the FiBOZKOuf HazXbas (Eimaes) of HebXt, the E^AYAias of 
SeistXn,§ and lastly the KXkabs and Ghilzais also consider themselves 
nearly related in blood. Taking into consideration the unquestionably 
mixed blood of the Ghilzais and their legendary relationship with the 
Kdkars, as also that of such pure Eimaks as the HazXbas and TAncTJNfS||| 
the Kakar descent from Kais would seem to be doubtf uL 

* Among the tribes of Tarfn descent are said to be the Zaihukhts. 

t This would make the Pa'ni'zais separate from the Kdkars, but they seem to be 
considered a section of them at the present day. 

X Whence the Babb'chi' Fath&ns of Shora'wax. 

§ Ustially called B6l6chis, but really descendants of SA2n>AB Khe'l K&kais. 

II A pure EiMAK is perhaps, however, a misnomer. The origin of the race 
being quite obscure. By features they are Ta'tabs and by language Persians. They 
are divided into Taimtt'ni's, Haza'ras, Taimu'ri's and Zu'ri's. It may help towards 
the solution of the Eimak origin to quote the following from Yule's Marco Polo, I, 94. 
*< Contemporaneously with the EIabaunahs (or Eara'winahs the celebrated robbers of 
medisdval Persia) we have frequent mention of predatory bands known as NiarfDARis 
who seem to be distinguished from the EIabaunahs, but had a like character ^or traca- 
lenco. Their head-quarters were about Suista V, and Quatrem^re seems disposed to look 
upon them as a tribe indigenous in that quarter. Hammer says they were originally 
the troops of Prince Nigu'dab, grandson of Chaoatai (Ghagatai was the ruler and 
curse of Turkist^ and a son of Chinoiz and therefore brother to Okjlodai and uncle to 
-Makgku, Kublai and Hula'ku), and that they were a rabble of sorts, Mongols, Turk* 
miLns, Kurds, Shiils and what not. We hear of their revolts and disorders down to 

1880.] R, C. Temple— JBon/tf of the Tal Ohotiali Field Foree, 101 

The Kikar Territory extends from the Pishin valley to the Borai 
Tilley and from the Zh6b valley to Quetfca, the line of the BoUn Pass and 
the Massi (Beldch) country. They are divided into two main divisions, 
the Great El^kars (Lowe' KAkas) and the Lesser Kakars (Kuchnai 
KiKAB). As regards the Great Kakars, the present writer had but little 
opportunity of learning much. They occupy the Zh6b valley and appa- 
reatly are divided into — 

EhwaibJLdzais, Aktaezais, Mehtaezais, 

MubsiInozais, Awazais, Sakqabais. 

And probably also the Jalagais, Mu'sa Khel and KabI zais belong to 
this division. 

The Lesser Kikars are divided into SulimXn Khsls ; Amaih) Khels ; 
KsffTABZAis ; VisizAJB ; BizAis ; Shamozais ; SuBGABAis ; Malagais ; 
Isl SEELS ; Saba'kgzais, of which MulXzais and TIbXns are subsections ; 
Zaihpels, subdivided into Amakais, Kaiitozais and NXozais ; Dumabb ; 
TJ'nds Khels ; and Sandab Khels, whose known subdivisions are AlU 
a^is, Shabozais, Mu'bs, Dabgais, WahIbs and Tenizais.* The Kakars 
•hout Khuhchaoai near Mt. Kaitd, variously called the SakatI a and 
SncAKTHA Kdkars, are I believe the Auajsd Khel above mentioned. They 
were formerly, under the name of TABGHiCNfs, under Hijf KhXn of infamous" 
memory during the war of 1839, and his son KXmil KhIk is now chief of 
the Amaitd Khel. 

The next clan met with en route was the Lu'in: (properly Lonai) Khel, 
ibout whom very little is known. They are generally supposed to be 
Eikars by descent, but 1 should say from what I heard from the Lu'nis 
themselves and from the Kakars, this is not the case. They call themselves 
of DurLsi descent, a claim which is allowed by their neighbours. The 
Hakzazais are the only known subdivision of this Tribe, but there are 

1319, up to which date Hibkhokd says that there had been 21 fights with them in 4 
yean. Again we hear of them in 1336 about Her&t, whibt in Biber's time they turn 
op u NuKDA&iB fEurly establiahed as tribes in the mountainous tracts of Eabnv'i) and 
Ghor to the west of K&bul, and coupled with the Hazaras who still survive both in 
Bftmo aad character. Among them, says B&ber, are some who speak the Mongol Ian. 
S^^MS^ The Hnzirsa are eminently Mongol in feature to this day, and it is very 
probably that they or some part of them are descendants of the Karaunahs or Niau^- 
Bius or of both, and that the orig^ination of the bands so called from the scum of the 
Hongol inundation is thus in a degree confirmed. It is worthy of notice that Ab-ul- 
fad who mentions the Nuxdabis among the nomad tribes of Kibul says, the Haz&raa 
tte the remains of the Chagataian aimy which Mamgku Kha'n sent to the aid of 
Hitla'kv under the command of Niou^nAn OanzA'tr. 

* Tho £fl6tfl of the Db'baja't are sometimes called E&kars but this is doubtful. 
KaV Ka'kabb are said to inhabit the Sha'l YaUey (Quetta), but I did not see any 

102 R. C. Temple— JRoiiiftf ofilie Tal Chotiali Field Foree, [No. 8, 

doubtless more, and I think it would be safe to include SabXois among^ 
tbem. They inhabit a largish extent of country, for the most part consider* 
ably deserted, and used merely as grazing-ground. Their Tillages are most- 
ly found in what is called the Lu'ni Valley to the south of the Bdrai, %. e.^ 
between it and the Tal Valley. All the country from the B<Srai Valley east of 
the Tal Valley as far as the Beldch Border and the Mu'sa Khel country 
belongs to them, except the small portion occupied by the Zabkha-'its near 

Of the Zabeha'ns nothing more is known except that they are Pa^b^ns 
and not of Kdkar, Tarin or Ltini extraction. They are to be found about 
the mountains to the east and south of Chdtiali, in the Hanokai Pass and 
Ba'IiA' DhVka'. The Mabbis have nearly wiped them out as a race by con- 
tinual raids. In Leech's time* there were three Tillages belonging to tbeni 
near Ch(5tiali, viz.. Dost Mxthammad, Fazl Khak and Aii Khait, but I do 
not know if they still exist. 

Perhaps the origin of the Ltinis and Zarkhans and eTen of some of 
the Xakars, especially the Sandar Kh61, should be sought with that of tbe 
neighbouring Beloch Tribes, if one could only ascertain what that is. In- 
deed the Katanis of Seistaw usually called Beldchis, are Sandar Kh^l 
Xakars, and there is nothing repugnant in the history of the Bel($ch Tribes 
to the idea of some of them being of the same descent as their deadly 
enemies the Pathdns. For the KaihIbis about Chattab and Puijsjt in 
KLiCHi, now acknowledged to belong to the Bel6ch Tribes, are of unques- 
tioned Pa^hdn descent.f And, although the presence of many Bel6chi 
words in their dialects may be the result of propinquity, the similarity of 
face and figure of the Lu'ins, Sandab Khels and Zabeha^ks to the neigb- 
bouring Beldch Tribes of Ba'bkho'm is quite remarkable, and they migbt 
well haTe a common origin with them, especially as the Beldchis can hardly 
be called a nation, being rather an agglomerate of heterogeneous tribes. 
Thus the Bbaho'is are probably aboriginal, the Gubcha'nis a Sindian Tribe, 
the RiKDS and Ltt'mbis probably of Hindu (B^jptit) origin and the Ga'dubs 
of Las of Arab descent^ while the tribes of Makba'In are Arabs, Sikhs, 
Sindbis, Persians, Jats and what not.{ 

* Major Leech's jonmeys were made about 1889. 

t Hughes's BelachiBtdn. 

X In connection with the probable Tnrkm&n or Mongol origin of the bulk of tbe 
B6l6ch Tribes, the words Tl'mak and Tumanda'r are intereetmg. Tuxan or Toicax 
was a Mongol division of the army, viz.^ 10,000, and hence in the Mongol dominions 
it came to mean 10,000 generally. Wassa'f describing Einsat (Eingssb' or Hangohait) 
states it had '^ 70 Tomans of soldiers and 70 Tomans of Ratats." Marco Polo states its 
revenue in Tomans of gold and Friar Odoric in Tomans of Balish (paper money). 
Tman or Tma is still used in Russia for 10,000. In Belnchist£n Tuman means a camp 
and Tumanda'r the commander of a camp and thence the chief of a tribe, but whether 

18S0.] B. a Tem^leSouie of the Tal OhoUali Field Force. 103 

While diflCTiflsing the Pathdn Tribes something should be remarked 
about the Sata3>s found in every part of Afghanistan* and in some 
numbers in the Pishin where thej own several villages. Wherever they 
maj happea to be, they are a sect apart from the surrounding in- 
habitants, are always respected and seem to be more intelligent than 
the Fathans in general* They are not considered Pathdns and claim 
to be of Arab descent as their name implies. This claim, however, 
is I think of a slender description among the Sayads in the Pishin with 
whom we have now to do. Their sympathies are all Afghdn, they are 
sabdivided in a suspiciously similar manner, and the story of their descent 
coafinns the suspicions as to their separate origin from the Pa^h&ns about 
them. The story is that Ha'bv'k, fifth in descent from Kais, had a daughter 
who married an Arab Sayad who visited him, and from her are said to be 
descended all the Pishin Sayads, notably the Sha'dizais and HAiDABZAis.f 
Hie present subdivision of the Pishin Sayads appear to be — 

Gakoaxzais. Sha'dIzais. Ya'singzais. 

Bagabzaib. Bbahamzais. Ubumzais. 

Ajabzais. Haidarzais.} 

The following table shows the subdivisions of the tribes above dis- 
cixased as far as known. 

No. Txibt. No. DMsloo. Ko. Sectiun. SabdiTidon. No. Sobsectioii. 

I. BuBA'in or 1 ZIrak. 1 Pofalzai. 1 Sadozai. 

Aboa'XJ. 2 BA'MBfZAI. 

3 Mabsingzai. 

4 Eha'nzai. 
6 Aitxj'bzai. 
6 Madozai. 


2 Alako'zai. 1 Jaluzai. 

2 Melazai. 

3 Sabka'ni. 


5 Ka'bezai. 

6 Nattsazai. 

Ouft is due to the passage of the Mongols through their country on towards Hindustan 
or to their Central Asian orig^ does not appear. Yule's Marco Pole, I, 94, 281 and II, 
169, 171.— Hughes's Beluchistim. 

* I saw one village of them in BAfaKHo'ic among the Independent Belo'ch Tribes. 

t According to one legend, the Kabb'blas are descended from a waif picked up 
by this HA'ar^. See above. 

X Among the Pishin Sayads fiices of a Si'di' type are not uncommon, and I saw 
o&e woman with purely African features near A'li^ai. This may result, however, 
froDi their wandering habits and be no indication of descent. 

104 B. C. Temple— ^»fc of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force. [No. 8, 

No. Tribe. No. Diviflion. 

I. DuHA'in or 1 ZfsAK. 

No. Section. Babdiviaion. No. Subsection. 


2 achalzai. 

3 Sttlima'nzai. 

4 Khu'itsezai. 





2 EIa'kgzai* 


4 Fa'mzai. 

5 Ba'eabzai. 

6 ishdakizai. 

7 Abbal. 

8 Ahmadzai. 


10 bubhaiczai. 

11 Shamakzai. 

12 Ma'lizai. 

13 Ka'milzai. 

14 Adazai. 
L5 Adbakzai. 

16 Ha'zuzai. 

17 Ma'ltkzai. 

18 La'lizai. 

19 Ma'fizai. 

20 husekzai. 

21 Sulima'kzai. 

22 Ab'dulazai. 

23 Ba'zamzax. 

24 Alozai. 

25 TuLizAi. 

26 MnsnEizAi. 

27 Ba'dizai. 

28 Shakabzai. 

29 Usma'kzai. 
^30 Habi'bzai. 

I. Duba'ni or 

2 Panjpa'o. 6 Nu'bzai. 

1 Cha'lakzai. 

2 Ba'dizai. 

6 A'lizai. 

1 Hassakzai. 

2 Alaezai. 


7 Isha'ezai. 

1 Hawazai. 

2 Tebozai. 

3 Makbabzai. 

4 Tbzai. 

1880.] E. C. Temple— ^«#<f of the Tal Ohoiiali Field Force. 106 

No, Section. SuMivision. No. Subsection. 

No. Tribe* No. Diraion. 

I DvnAfm or 2 Paitjpa'o. 


8 Khu'oia'iti. m g 


1 Ra^ni Ehel. 

2 Nawi. 

3 Aga'm. 

4 Pi'ba Ehel. 

5 Ahmad. 

6 Khozeh. 


g f 7 Naji'bi. 
^ (8 Khabai. 

3 f 9 Panjpai. 
I 1 10 DoPAi. 

n. TABl'lf. 

n. Taf 5. 

9 Ma'ktt. 
10 Sa'gzai. 

1 ToB TABfiff. 1 Batazai or 

2 Eha'itizai. 
8 A'li'zai. 

4 NlT^BZAI. 


6 Mtj'sizai. 

7 Segai. 

8 Ma'likta'b. 

9 Maezai. 

10 Haixalzai. 

11 Manzakai. 

12 Ma'lixai. 

13 Ha'btt'k. 

14 Eama'lzai. 

15 Eadazai. 

16 Eha'mezai. 

17 Naozai. 

18 Abdubbah- 


19 Hamba'nzai 

2 Spi'st Tabi'n. 20 Sha'dizai. 

21 Mabpa'^ni. 

22 Lasba'iti. 
28 Adwa'ni. 

11 EhidabEhel. 

1 Lu'b Eha'nizai. 

2 Dab Eha'nizai. 


106 R. C. Temple— IZoNfo ofihe Tal Gkotidli Field Force. [No. 3, 

No. Tribe. 

III. Ea'kab. 

No. Dirisioii. 

1 Lowe' KV 



No. SecUon. SabdivisiocL No. Subsection. 

1 Khwaida'd- 


2 Mubsia'kgza.1. 

3 Aktabzai. 


5 Mehtabzai. 

6 suboabai. 

7 Jalagai. 

8 Mr'SA Khsl 

9 Eabi'zai. 

10 Ba'bakzai. 

11 Sulima'n 


12 AliAND 


THA or Saitati'a. 

13 Mehtabzai. 

14 Pa'nizai. 

15 Ba'zai. 

16 Shahozai. 

17 SUBaABAl. 

18 Malaoai. 

19 FflA' Khel. 

20 Saha'jeiqzai. 

21 Zakhpe'l. 

22 DuiCAB. 
28 Utma'k 

24 Sandab 


IV. TiiJfm Khel. 1 Hamzazai. 

2 Saba'«i. 
Y. Zabeha'n. 

1 Tbagabai. 

1 Adizai. 

1 Mfla'zai. 

2 Ta'ba'n. 

1 Ahabaj* 

2 E^AirozAi. 

3 Naozai. 

1 A'li'zai. 

2 Shabozai. 
8 MiJb. 

4 Dabqai. 

5 Waha'b. 

6 Tekizai. 

7 KAYAfilt 

1880.] G. Thibaut— 0» the S&rynprajnapti. 107 

Tribes ofdouhtful AfgMn descent. 

L SiTAD. 1 Ganoalzai. 

2 Baoabzai. 

3 Ajabzai. 

4 Sha'dizai. 

5 Bbahamzai. 

6 Hatdabzai. 

7 Ya'singzai. 

II. Kasbeu. 

8 Ubumzai. 

(To be continued). 

OntheSutyaprajtiapti. — Bt/ De. G. Thibaut, Ftincipal^BenareB College, 

Paet I. 

Until recent times our knowledge of the cosmological and astronomi- 
cal system of the Jainas was very limited and founded not on [an indepen- 
dent investigation of the original Jaina literature, but only on the occasional 
references made to Jaina doctrines by the orthodox Hindu writers on 
astronomy. For a long time the short account of the subject given by 
Colebrooke in his " Observations on the sect of the Jainas" (Asiatic Re- 
searches, 1807 ; Essays, Vol. II), remained the only one, and although 
accurate as far as it goes, it is very insufficient since it chiefly refers to the 
one doctrine of the Jainas only, which has at all times struck outsiders as 
peculiarly strange and absurd, viz.^ the assertion that there exist two suns, 
two moons and a double set of constellations. This is indeed the doctrine 
by which the system of the Jainas could most easily be distinguished from 
similar old Indian systems, and it is consequently referred to and contro- 
verted with preference in the Siddhantas. The best known passage from 
the latter is the one quoted by Colebrooke from Bhaskara's Siddhanta- 
STiromani. *' The naked sectaries and the rest affirm that two suns, two 
moons and two sets of stars appear alternately ; against them I allege this 
wasoning. How absurd is the notion which you have formed of duplicate 
Buns, moons and stars, when you see the revolution of the polar flsh.'* 

This passage of Bhdskara's is manifestly founded on a passage found 
in Brahmagupta's Sphu^a-Siddhanta where we read in the so-called Dusha- 

108 G Tbibaut — On the Suryaprajnapti. [No. 3, 

" Tbere are fi£tj«four naksbatras, two risings of tbe sua ; this which 
has been taught by Jina is untrue, since the revolution of the polar fish 
takes place within one day." 

And a passage to the same effect occurs in the 13th adhydja of Varaha 
Mihira's Panchasiddhantik^. 

In 1868 Professor A. Weber, to whom we are indebted for our first 
acquaintance with so many works of Indian literature, published in the 
tenth Tolume of the ^' Indische Studien" a paper on the Suryaprajnapti , 
being apparently the most important astronomical book whose authority the 
Jainas acknowledge, and it then appeared that the doctrine of the existence 
of two suns, moons, etc. constitutes only one feature of a comprehensive 
system which on the whole is much less fantastical than might have been 
expected and which, fantastical or not, shows intimate relations to the 
astronomical and cosmological views which appear to have prevailed all 
over India before Greek science began to influence the East. Especially 
it appeared — as pointed out by Professor Weber — that the doctrine pro- 
pounded in the Suryaprajnapti shows in many points an unmistakable 
resemblance with that contained in the Jyotisha-Vedanga the presumably 
oldest specimen of Indian astronomical literature, and it thus became mani- 
fest that the astronomical books of the Jainas do not only furnish informa- 
tion about the opinions held by a limited religious sect, but may, if rightly 
interrogated, yield valuable material for the general history of Indian ideas. 
The writer of the present paper has therefore thought it worth while to 
submit the Stiryaprajnapti to a renewed detailed investigation, whereby we 
should be enabled rightly to esteem its position in the astronomical litera- 
ture of India, clearly to conceive the peculiar features distinguishing the 
astronomical system of the Jainas from other systems, and on the other 
hand to point out what the Jaina system has in common with other systems, 
and in what way therefore it may be employed for the elucidation of the 
latter. Professor Weber's paper gives in the main only a short summarj 
of the contents of each chapter of the Suryaprajnapti, following the order 
of the chapters as found in the work itself and omitting none of them. 
Tliis was of course the right plan to adopt in a paper giving the first 
account of a hitherto unknown book. In' the present paper it has on the 
other hand been preferred to give a connected saccount of the chief doctrines 
only which are found in the Suryaprajnapti, to combine hints found in the 
various parts of the work wherever this appeared necessary for the sake 
of greater clearness, and again altogether to omit relatively unimportant 
matter. It must be stated at the outset that this paper — like that of Pro- 
fessor Weber — is based more on Malayagiri's commentary on the Surya- 
prajnapti than on the text of the latter work itself ; which apparently 
anomalous proceeding finds its explanation in the fact of the Manuscripts 

1880.] . Q, ThiUni^On the S&ryapra/^aptL 109 

of the Surjaprajnapti, commonly met with, containing the commentary only 

t» extenso, while as a rule only the first words of the passages commented 

on are given. As it, however, appears that the commentary faithfully 

follows the text, and as on the other hand the latter, devoid of a commentary, 

would be hardly intelligible, the absence of a complete text of the Surya- 

prajnapti is less inconvenient that might at first be assumed. At any rate 

we may obtain at present a sufficiently full and accurate knowledge of the 

contents of the book ; and in works of the class to which it belongs the 

interest attaching to the form is a comparatively small one. As already 

stated, the present paper is by no means intended as an exhaustive review 

of the contents of the Suryaprajnapti ; it is rather meant as an introduction 

to a complete edition of the work itself which, on account of the various old 

materials it contains, well deserves to be publislied in extenso. And an 

introduction of this kind could not well be missed, even if we possessed a 

complete edition or translation of the book, as the reader of the text of 

the work or of a literal translation of the text would find it by no means 

an easy task unaided to reconstrue the leading features of the system. 

The Stiryaprajnapti is written in Jaina-pr4kfit, and divided into twenty 
books called prabhritas, some of these again into chapters, called prabhrita- 
pribhritas. The arrangement of the matter treated of is by no means 
systematical, and the text, still more the commentary are full of tedions 
reitexations. Malayagiri, the commentator, has done his work most con- 
scientiously ; too conscientiously, the reader afflicted by his extraordinary 
diffuseness often feels tempted to say. Especially he delights in illustrat- 
ing the numerical rules given in the text by at least half a dozen examples, 
where one would have sufficed, dwelling with evident complacency on each 
step even of the simplest calculation. But his comments are very per- 
spicuous and certainly deserve to be extracted, although not to be repro- 
duced in exteruo. 

Proceeding now to our proposed task, let us dispose at the outset of the 
distinctive doctrine of the Jainas according to which there are two different 
«ms, two moons and two sets of constellations. When inquiring into the ori- 
gin of this certainly peculiar notion, we are led to a very simple reason, an im- 
partial consideration of which makes the Jaina system appear much less 
fantastical and arbitrary than we at first are inclined to think. This reason 
has already been pointed out by Colebrooke, Asiatic Researches, Vol. IX, 
p. 321, where he says " They (the Jainas) conceive the setting and rising of 
stars and planets to be caused by the Mountain Sumeru and suppose three 
times the period of a planet's appearance to be requisite for it to pass 
round Sumeru and return to the place where it emerges. Accordingly they 
allot two suns, as many moons, and an equal number of each planet, star 
uid constellation to Jambudvipa ; and imagine that these appear on alter- 

110 Q. Tliibaut — On the Suryaprajanaptu [No. 8, 

nate days south and north of Meru." These words scarcely require anything 
added to be to them in the way of comment. The Jainas hold (as will be 
seen in detail further on) the old Indian idea of sun, moon and stars 
revolving round Mount Meru. To anybody holding this opinion, the ques- 
tion must have suggested itself *^ In what time is one such complete rcYO- 
lution performed ?" The prevailing opinion, represented for instance by 
the Pur anas, was that the whole revolution is performed in twenty-four 
hours, so that the sun describes during the time when it is day in Bharata- 
varsha the southern half of his circle, and during the time when it is nigh^ 
to the south of Mount Meru, and day in the countries north of it, the northern 
half. The Jainas, however, took a different view of the matter. To them it 
seems to have appeared more appropriate that as there are four directions — 
south, west, north and east — the sun's circle should be divided into four 
quarters corresponding to the four directions, and that he should bring day 
in succession to the countries to the south, west, north and east of Mera 
But then, as it must be supposed that his passing through each of the four 
quarters occupies the same time, how can it come about that he again 
appears to rise to the Bharatavarsha after the lapse of a period only suf- 
ficient to advance his place by one quarter of the circle ? Out of this 
difficulty the Jainas extricated themselves by simply assuming that the 
sun rising on a certain morning is not the same sun which had set on the 
preceding evening, but a second sun similar in every way to the first one. 
The whole circle is thus described by two suns separated from each other 
by half the circumference, each of which appears in the Bharatavarsha on 
alternate days. The same reasoning lead to the assumption of two moons 
and two sets of stars. 

Great as appears to be the difference produced by this hypothesis 
between the system of the Jainas and the commonly received opinions, it 
practically is of very small importance and may — as will be done in the 
following — as a rule be left altogether out of account whenever we have 
to consider the motions of sun and moon. When for instance the sun having 
started from Asvini has passed through the twenty-eight nakshatras, he 
enters, according to the generally received opinion, again into the same 
nakshatra Asvini, according to the Jaina opinion into a second nakshatra 
called Asvini too ; but as this second nakshatra has the same name, the 
same extent, and the same relative position as its namesake, as like the 
latter it is preceded by Eevati and followed by Bharani, and as at the same 
time when the sun has entered into the second Asvini, another sun the 
exact and indistinguishable counterpart of the former one has entered into 
the former Asvini, it is clear that we may, when speaking of the motion 
of the heavenly bodies, save ourselves the trouble of continually referring 
to two suns, two moons and two sets of nakshatras and, remembering 

1^0.] G. Thibaui— On the Suryaprajnapti. Ill 

that there are two of each kind, express ourselves as if there were 
only one. To proceed. 

The astronomic-chronological period on which the system of the 
Suryaprajnapti is based, is the well-known quinquennial yuga or cycle 
with which we have long been acquainted from the Jyotisha Vedaiiga. 
The same cycle is described in the Garga Samhitd as we see from 
the extant fragments of the latter work, and we learn from Varaha 
Mihira's Panchasiddhdntikd that it likewise formed the fundamental 
doctrine of a Paitamaha Siddhanta which, according to Yaraha Mihira's 
judgment, was one of the more important Siddhantas known at his 
time. It is alluded to and rejected in a few words by Brahmagupta 
in the dushanadhyaya of the Sphuta Brahma-siddhanta. Eeferences 
to this cycle are met with in the early history of Buddhism. Whether 
the so-called Yedic literature is acquainted with a cycle of this nature 
ii doubtful.* It will not be. necessary to dwell in this place at length 
on the constitution of the yuga; it will suffice to state that it is based 
on the assumption of five sidereal revolutions of the sun being exactly equal 
in duration to sixty-seven periodical revolutions of the moon and to sixty- 
two synodical months, while one complete revolution of the sun is supposed 
to be performed in three hundred and sixty-six days. That a cycle of this 
nature based as it is on an utterly wrong assumption could maintain itself 
for a considerable time as it manifestly has done is a matter for legitimate 
wonder, and does not find a parallel in the history of chronological systems 
among any other civilized nation. At the end of one yuga already the 
quantity of the error induced by the mistaken estimation of the length of 
the solar year amounts to nearly 5 x f = 3f days, the accumulation , of 
which quantity after the lapse of a few yugas could not escape the atten- 
tion, we should think, of even the most careless observers. The matter 
voold indeed lie altogether differently if a conjecture (or as it stands we 
might almost say, an assertion) of Colebrooke referring to this point had 
been verified. He — after having given an account of the manner in which 
the Jyotisha-Yedanga manages to maintain harmony between civil and 
Innar time — continues '^ and thus the cycle of five years consists of 1860 
lonar days or 1830 nycthemera, subject to a further correction, for the 
excess of nearly four days above the true sidereal year : but the exact 
quantity of this correction and the method of making it, according to this 
calendar, have not yet been sufficiently investigated to be here stated." 
The fact is that of this correction which Colebrooke considered so indis- 
pensable, that he speaks of it as being actually found in the Yeddnga, no 

* The question referred to in the text cannot be discussed here. The writer 
hopes shortly to find an occasion folly to treat it elsewhere. 

112 G. Thibaufc— Ort the SuryaprajnapH. [No. 3, 

traces are to be found either in the Veddnga itself or — and this is of great 
importance as the Vedanga is still partially unexplained — in the Suryapraj- 
napti which illustrates the constitution of the quinquennial yuga in the 
most difEuse manner, but has nothing to say about a correction of the kind 
mentioned. — The subdivisions of the yuga are in the Sdryaprajnapti de- 
scribed with great fulness ; what is really essential admits, however, of being 
stated in a few words. Each solar year is divided into two ayanas of one 
hundred and eighty-three days each. Each ayana in its turn comprises 
six solar months, each of which lasts 30^ days. Two of these solar months 
constitute a solar season ; the reckoning of the seasons starts, however, not 
from the beginning of the yuga, but the latter is made to mark the middle 
of a season, so that the rainy season which counts as the first begins a 
month before the beginning of the yuga. Again the yuga comprises five 
years of 360 days each, each year in its turn being divided into twelve 
months of 30 days each ; in the Sdryaprajnapti this kind of year— com- 
monly known as the savana year — is called the karma-year or ritu-year 
which latter name would more properly be given to the solar year. 
The six days by which this year is shorter than the solar year are called 
atirdtras. Again the yuga comprises sixty-two synodical months, the first 
of whom begins with the moon being full in the first point of Abhijit. 
Each of these months is divided into a light and a dark half ; each half 
comprises fifteen tithis or lunar days of equal duration. Sixty-two of these 
months being equal in duration to sixty-one karma-months of 80 days 
each, it follows that sixty-two tithis are equal to sixty-one natural 
days ; in order therefore to maintain harmony between the numbers 
of the natural days and those of the tithis, a break in the count- 
ing of the tithis is made whenever two tithis terminate during one 
natural day, i. e,, according to the Sdryaprajnapti on the occurrence 
of each sixty-second tithi. The details of this process are not stated 
in the Sdryaprajnapti, but there can be no doubt that mutatis mutandis it 
was managed as it has been managed in India ever since. To give an 
example, the sixtieth natural day, counting from the beginning of the 
yuga, during which the sixtieth tithi terminated was counted as pancha- 
da^i (fifteenth tithi), the next following day as pratipad (first day of th® 
new lunar half month) and then the day after that not as dvitiya, second 
lunar day, but as ^ritiya third lunar day, the second lunar day having 
already terminated together with the preceding sixty-first natural day. 
These sixty-two lunar months are divided among five lunar years, the first, 
second and fourth of which comprise twelve lunations each, while the third 
and fifth count thirteen each. The technical name of years of the latter 
kind is abhivardhita-sainvatsara, the increased year. The method accord- 
ing to which the two thirteenth months are intercalated in the yuga is 

1880.] G. Thibaut— 0» tie SuryaprajnaptL 113 

not described in detail ; it is however clear enough how it proceeded. 
The thirtj-first lunation and again the sixty-second one were not counted, 
bat formed together with the month immediately following a kind of 
double month taking its name from the second constituting member. Thus 
there is nominally no thirteenth month, and a proper name for the latter is 
therefore not required. 

Again the juga consists of sixty-seven periodical lunar months, the 
moon during it returning sixty-seven times to the place from which she 
had started at the beginning. No attempt is made in the Sdryaprajnapti 
to group these months into years nor are they subdivided into days of 
equal duration ; they are simply said to comprise 27 |^ days each. They 
are, however, subdivided into two ayanas each, analogously to the division 
of the solar year into ayanas. This division is indeed legitimate enough 
as it is based on the alternate progress of the moon towards the north and 
Booth, about which details will be given later on. Less comprehensible is 
on the other hand the division of each periodical month into six lunar 
seasons, whose names answer to those of the solar seasons beginning with 
the rainy season ; a division of this kind is of course utterly gratuitous 
and purposeless, and to us interesting only as a specimen of the Indian's 
excessive tendency to systematize. 

If we now proceed to an examination of the account given in the 
SuTjaprajnapti of the revolutions of sun and moon, we find at the outset 
that it differs from the statements made by Garga and in the Vedanga in 
one important point. According to the latter authorities (see Jyotisha- 
Vedanga, v. 6 ; this Journal for 1877, p. 415 ; Weber, Nakshatras II, pp. 28, 
33), the yuga begins with the winter solstice, at the moment when it is new- 
moon, sun and moon being in conjunction in the beginning of the nakshatra 
Dhanishthd ; according to the Suryaprajnapti the yuga begins with the 
summer solstice, at the moment when the moon is full in the beginning 
of Abhijit and the sun consequently stands in Pushya. The coincidence of 
the winter solstice with new moon marking, according to the Vedanga, the 
beginning of the yuga may of course actually have taken place at the time 
when the doctrine of the quinquennial yuga was first established and will 
have recurred later on from time to time ; but it is evident that it could 
not regularly recur every fifth year. To this fact, however, as well as to 
the change which in consequence of the precession of the equinoxes gra- 
dually took place in the position of the sun at the time of the winter 
solstice, the eyes of the Hindus seem to have remained shut during a 
considerable period. Now it is curious to see that in this one point at 
least the author of the Sdryaprajnapti who, on the whole, faithfully adheres 
to the old system and does not hesitate to take over the quinquennial yuga 
itself with all its glaring imperfections, considered himself entitled or 

114 G. Thibaut — On the Suryaprajnapti. [No. 3, 

obliged to deviate from the received tradition. For once the testimony of 
the eyes was placed above old authorities. In the first place, the winter 
solstice had so far receded from the beginning of Dhanishtha that the 
change could not be ignored ; in the second place, it must have so happened 
that at the time of the author of the Suryaprajnapti no new moon took 
place together with the winter solstice, while — as we may presume — ^some 
full moon happened to coincide or nearly to coincide with some summer 
solstice. Accordingly the beginning of the yuga was changed. Faute do 
mieux the summer solstice coinciding with full moon was taken as the 
new starting-point, and the sun*s place at the time was removed from the 
middle of Asleshd which it had occupied in the old system to a point in 
Pushya. The moon's place at the time of the summer solstice, being sepa- 
rated from the sun's place by half the circumference, is then at the begin- 
ning of Abhijit ; the latter point marks at the same time the sun's place 
at the time of the winter solstice. 

The account given in the Suryaprajnapti of the position of the sun at 
the two solstices enables us to enter into a consideration of the approximate 
time at which either the work itself or some older work on which it may have 
been based was composed. The expression "approximate" is used on purpose 
as the general diffi^culties besetting an estimation of this kind referring to 
Indian astronomical works are well known, and as in our case special difficul- 
ties arise in addition to them. As will be seen later on, the Suryaprajnapti 
throughout employs twenty-eight nakshatras of unequal extent, while the 
Yedanga as well as the bulk of the later astronomical literature make use of 
twenty-seven nakshatras of equal extent. The relation of these two systems 
to each other necessitates a short excursus, for the starfcing-point of which 
we take a passage in Bhaskara's Siddhanta Siromani (Grahaganita, Spash- 
tadhikara, 71-74, p. 93 of Bdpu Deva's edition) and a parallel passage from 
Brahmagupta's Sphufa- siddhanta. The former of the two, translated, runs 
as follows : 

" This method of finding the Nakshatras which has thus been taught 
in a rough manner by the astronomers for the purposes of common life, I 
shall now teach in an accurate form as it has been proclaimed by the rishis 
for the purpose of processions, marriages, etc. The experts have declared 
six (nakshatras) to have one portion and a half, viz,, Visakha, Punarvasu 
and the (four) nakshatras called dhruva ; six to have half a portion, viz,^ 
the constellations presided over by the Sarpas, Rudra, Vayu, Yama^ Indra, 
Varuna ; the remaining fifteen to have one portion each. The portion of 
one nakshatra is called the mean motion of the moon (during one ahoratra). 
The minutes of the circle lessened by the portions of all (the 27 mentioned) 
nakshatras are the portion of Abhijit, lying beyond the nakshatra of the 
YiiSve DevaS; etc." These statements are repeated in Bh4skara*s own 

1880.] G. Tbibaut— a« the Suryaprajnapti, 115 

eommeDtarj, the Yasana, where the common names of the nakshatras 
(Yiiakha, Panarvasu, Bohini, the three Uttaras; — Aileshd, Ardrd, Sv^ti, 
Bbara^i, Jjesh^ha, S^atabhishaj) are given and where Puli^, Vasishtha, 
Garga and others are said to be the Rishis alluded to in the text. The 
rough mode of computation referred to in the beginning of the above quo- 
tation IB the one contained in v. 67 of the same chapter and agrees with 
the rule given in the Surja Siddhdnta, II, 6Jt. According to it, when 
we wish to find the place of sun or moon or one of the planets in the circle 
of the nakshatras, we have to divide the longitude of the heavenlj body ex- 
pressed in minutes by 800 ; the quotient then shows the number of naksha- 
tras through which the planet has already passed, and the remainder the 
tnrersed part of the nakshatra in which it is at the time. This rule there- 
fore bases on the assumption of twenty-seven nakshatras each of which 
extends over one twenty-seventh part of the circle. Now, according to 
Bhibkara, the Rishis taught that whenever greater accuracy is required, the 
nakshatras have to be considered as being of unequal extent. In the first 
place only fifteen of them are to be regarded as having the average extent, 
while six exceed that amount by one half and six others remain below it 
by one half ; and in the second place the twenty-seven nakshatras are no 
longer to occupy the whole circle, but only that part of it which corresponds 
to twenty-seven times the mean daily motion of the moon, while the 
remaining part of the circle is assigned to a twenty-eighth nakshatra Abhi jit. 
Bhaskara's statements are manifestly founded on a passage met with in 
the 14th chapter of the Sphufa Brahmasiddhdnta which gives the same 
details regarding the different extent of the nakshatras, and is introduced 
by the following verse — 

^ The calculation of the nakshatras, which has been taught in the Pauliia, 
Komaka, ydsish^ha, Saura, Paitamaha Siddh4ntas, is not mentioned by 
Aryabhata ; I therefore proceed to explain it." 
And later on — 

^w^ ^fir irwiTT winj «r^mirir« n 

The explicit statement about number and extent of the nakshatras in 
the older period of Indian astronomy, which is contained in the two pas- 
sages quoted from Brahmagupta and Bhdskara, is of considerable interest. 
If the account given by these two writers is correct and there is no reason 
to doubt of that, it appears in the first place that the mere circumstance 
of only twenty-seven nakshatras being mentioned in some detached frag- 
ment of an astronomical work which we do not possess in its entirety, 

lie G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajnapil [No. 8, 

would not justify the conclusion of the author of the work having been 
acquainted with twenty-seven nakshatras only. Nay, even the author of a 
treatise like the Ved4nga who throughout speaks of 27 nakshatras only 
may have done this simply because he meant his work to be an elementary 
one, unencumbered by the assumption of 28 nakshatras of unequal extent. 
In the second place the distinct statement that the old writers on astronomy 
made use of Abhijit solely when greater accuracy was aimed at, and that 
they then made its extent to correspond to the excess of a sidereal month 
above twenty-seven days, certainly seems to point to the conclusion that 
the introduction of Abhijit into the circle of the nakshatras was an after- 
thought, consequent on the improved knowledge of the length of the moon's 
periodical revolution. With regard to the books in which, according to 
Bhaskara and Brahmagupta, the division of the sphere into 28 nakshatras 
of unequal extent was taught in addition to the simpler division into 27 
equal nakshatras, we have to remark that the Surya-siddh&nta known to us 
contains no such statement ; the Saura-siddh^nta of Brahmagupta may 
have been a different work. We are unable to control the statement with 
regard to the Romaka, Pauli^, Y^ishtha-Siddhdntas. Of Garga, how- 
ever, we know from quotations several passages bearing on the point in 
question: in the first place, the passage quoted by Bhaftotpala (in his com- 
mentary an Yaraha Mihira's Bfihatsamhiti, lY, 7 ; see Weber, Nakshatras^ 
I, p. 809), which corroborates Bhaskara*s statement regarding the different 
extent of the Nakshatras, is, however, silent about Abhijit. As the passage 
stands, it would lead us to infer that Garga divided the whole circle into 
twenty-seven parts, the extent of fifteen of which is equal to one, of six to 
one half and of six to one and a half. The quotation may, however, be 
incomplete, and at any rate we have Brahmagupta*s and Bh&kara*s word 
for Abhijit having been acknowledged by Garga too. However this may 
be, that Garga, as a rule, introduced into his calculations neither Abhijit 
nor the inequality of the extent of the twenty-seven nakshatras^ appears 
from the places which he assigns to the sun at the two solstices, viz.^ at 
the beginning of Dhanishthd and the middle of Aslesha ; for if we calculate 
the place of the summer solstice by starting from the beginning of Dha- 
nishfhd and making use of the unequal extent of the nakshatras, we obtain 
as place of the summer solstice not the middle of AiSlesh^ but rather the 
end of it or the beginning of Magbd. 

To return. The special difficulty by which we are met when attempting 
to compare the places assigned to the solstices in the Suryaprajnapti with 
the places which they occupy according to Garga and the Yed&nga on one 
hand and the Siddhantas on the other hand, lies in the circumstance of our 
not knowing exactly how the two divisions of the sphere— the one into 27 
nakshatras of equal extent, the other into 28 of unequal extent — were made 

1830.] G. Thibaufc— 0/t the Suryaprajnapti, 117 

to correspond with each other. If we suppose — and this seems the most like- 
\j sappofiition — that each of the 27 nakshatras was curtailed by the twenty- 
seventh part of the small portion assigned to Abhijit and that the reckon- 
ing started from the beginning of Abhijit, (which according to the system 
of the Suryaprajnapti is the first of the series, as at the beginning of the 
yoga it is in conjunction with the moon), we may hazard an hypothesis 
with regard to the time lying between the Yedanga and the Sdryaprajnapti, 
or rather between the observations of the solstices recorded in the two 
works. According to the Yedanga the winter solstice takes place in the 
beginning of Dhanishtha, according to the Sdryaprajnapti in the beginning 
of Abhijit (which is the place of the full moon on the day of the summer 
solstiee at the beginning of the yuga, and consequently the place of the 
son, on the day of the winter solstice) ; the two places are there- 
fore separated by the whole of ?ravana and Abhijit. Having, according to 
tiie hypothesis stated above, reduced the extent of S'ravana ( = 13°33) 
by the 27th part of the extent of Abhijit, which extent is equal to about 
4-»12, we obtain for ffravana IS-'^IS ; to this we add Abhijit = 4*'12 ; the 
ram rix, 17-*^ indicates the extent of the displacement of the solstice 
during the intervening period. Allowing seventy-two years for 1** of pre- 
eessiofiy the length of this period would be about 1246 years. If we there- 
fore knew the absolute date of the Yeddnga we might state the approxi- 
mate absolute date of the observation recorded in the Suryaprajnapti, on 
fche supposition always of the manner in which the two divisions of the 
sphere have been adjusted to each other being the right one. But, as 
Professor Whitney has shown, it is scarcely possible to form any satisfactory 
eonelnsion with regard to the date of the Yedanga, and we therefore abstain 
from giving a positive opinion about the date of the Suryaprajnapti. 

We now proceed to a detailed consideration of the hypothesis by which 
the author of the Sdryaprajnapti tries to account for the appearances pre- 
sented by the various motions of the heavenly bodies, beginning with the 

The three different motions of the sun which he endeavours to explain 

are firstly, the daily motion in consequence of which the sun seems to 

approach us from the East, passes through our field of vision and finally 

disappears in the West ; secondly, the annual motion in consequence 

of which the sun seems to pass in the course of a year through the circle 

of the nakshatras, proceeding from the West towards the East ; and thirdly 

the motion in declension according to which the sun ascends towards the 

north during one half of the year and descends towards the south during 

the other half. As in all systems which consider the daily motion of the 

sun to be real (not an appearance produced by the revolution of the earth 

118 G. Tbibaut — On the Suryaprajnapti. [No. 3, 

round its axis), the annual motion of the sun through the circle of the 
nakshatras is said to be apparent only, and produced by the circumstance o£ 
the motion of the sun being somewhat slower than that of the nakshatras, 
80 that he daily lags behind by a certain quantity which accumulated during 
a whole year amounts to an entire revolution. How the Stiryaprajnapti 
supposes the first and third motions to take place will appear from the 

It must be remembered at the outset that the general conception of 
the configuration of the world which we find in the Suryaprajiiapti is the 
same as that known from the Puranas. The earth is considered to be an 
immense circular flat consisting of a number of concentric rings, called 
dvipas, separated from each other by ring-shaped oceans. In the centre 
of the earth stands Mount Meru ; around it runs the first dvipa — Jambu- 
dvipa, the only one which will concern us in the following. It is sur- 
rounded by a circular ocean, the water of which is salt (the lavaQa-samudra). 
The southern segment of the Jambudvipa is occupied by the Bhilratavarsha) 
the northern segment by the Airdvata-yarsha ; east and west of Mount 
Meru are the two portions of the Yideha-Tarsha. Sun, moon and stars 
revolve round Mount Meru, in circles of difEerent height above the Jambu* 
dvipa, the same heavenly body, however, always keeping the same height. 
The detailed features of these motions are now according to the Stirya- 
prajnapti as follows. 

The circumstance of the sun seeming during one half of the year to 
approach daily more and more the north, while during the other half he 
seems to descend towards the south is explained in the following manner. 
On the longest day of the year which at the beginning of the cycle coincides 
with the first day of the lunar month S'rdva^a, the sun describes round the 
mountain Meru a circle, the diameter of which is 99,640 yojanas. The dis- 
tance of the sun from the centre of Meru amounts therefore to 49,820 
yojanas. On the next day the sun describes a circle concentric with the 
first, and having a diameter greater by 5 |f yojanas, so that the distance 
of the sun, from Mount Meru now amounts to 49,820 + 2 ff- yojanas. In 
the same manner the diameter of the circle described by the sun increases 
by 5 1^ on the third day, fourth day, etc., up to the day of the winter 
solstice, which according to the system is the 183rd day after the summer 
solstice. On this day the sun describes round Mount Meru a circle^ the 
diameter of which is equal to 100,660 yojanas, so that his distance from 
Mount Meru amounts to 50,830 yojanas. Beginning from this day the 
solar circles contract again, by the same quantity daily by which they had 
expanded during the southern progress of the sun. During the 182 days 
intervening between the day of the winter solstice and the day of the fol- 
lowing summer solstice the sun describes again the same 182 circles in 

1880.] G. Thibaut— 0» the Suryaprajnapti 119 

which be had descended towards the south, only in reverse order, until, on 
the day of the second summer solstice, he has again reached the innermost 
circle, from which he had started a year ago. During the second year the 
same expanding and contracting of the solar circles repeats itself and so on. 
The fact of the sun seeming to ascend towards the north during one half 
of the year, while he seems to descend towards the south during the other 
half is therefore explained by the supposition that he approaches us during 
the former half, while he recedes from us during the latter half. The 
system does not assume that he actually ascends or descends ; for all the 
circlea described by him are at an equal height above the Jambudvipa ; he 
only appears to us to stand lower at the winter solstice than he does at the 
summer solstice, because at the former period he has receded from us to 
the amount of five hundred and fifty yojanas. The exact localities too above 
which the sun describes his daily circles are defined. The innermost circle, 
«. e., the circle nearest to Mount Meru, which tlie sun describes on the 
Icmgest day, woiild, when projected upon the earth, be distant 180 yojanas 
from the outer margin of the Jambudvipa. The second circle approaches 
nearer to that margin, the third still nearer, and so on, until the circles 
of the sun are no longer above the Jambudvipa itself but above the salt 
ocean, the lavanoda, which surrounds the Jambudvipa. Finally on the 
shortest day of the year the sun describes a circle which, in projection, is 
distant 330 yojanas from the edge of the Jambudvipa. After that he again 
approaches the Jambudvipa, and on the next summer solstice he has again 
entered into it to the amount of 180 yojanas. The technical term by 
which this recurring progress of the sun towards the Jambudvipa and the 
salt ocean is denoted in the Sdryaprajnapti, is ^*ii\C or ^PRTr^fir (-^) ; 
the sun is said to merge himself, or to enter to a certain distance into the 
Jambudvipa or into the salt ocean accordingly as his circles are vertically 
above the land or the surrounding sea. 

In connexion with the sun's motion in circles of different diameter, the 
Sdryaprajnapti treats of the increase and decrease of the length of the day. 
As in the Jyotisha-Veddnga, the length of the day of the summer solstice 
is estimated at eighteen muhtirtas, that of the shortest day at twelve 
muhurtas. The days between the two solstices are erroneously supposed 
to decrease or increase by a uniform quantity, which is easily found to be 
equal to yfy = ^ of a muhdrta. 

A number of opinions of other teachers agreeing with the theory stated 
above in its general features, but differing in the figures, are likewise given 
by the Sdryaprajnapti. 

Different opinions regarding the extent of the solar circles are given 
in I, 8 and, which comes to the same, different opinions about the distance 
of the two suns from each other in I, 4i. According to this chapter there 

120 G. Thibaut— 0» the Sufyaprajnapti, [No. 3, 

were six different opinions about the distance of the two suns from each 
other on the longest day when the sun — or the two suns— describe the inner- 
most and smallest circle. According to some teachers, the distance of the 
two from each other, or in other words the diameter of the circle they 
describe amounts to 1,133 jojanas, according to others to 1,134 yojanas ; 
according to others again to 1,135 yojanas. Most probably we have to 
combine with these statements the statements given in the next chapter 
(I, 5) regarding the different opinions prevailing on the extent to which 
the sun ** immerges" himself into the Jambudvipa and into the salt ocean. 
There we read that, according to one opinion the sun moves on the 
longest day in a circle which projected on the Jambudvipa is dis- 
tant 1,133 yojanas from the edge of the latter, while on the shortest 
day he describes a circle above the salt ocean at the distance of 1,133 
yojanas from the Jambudvipa. According to the opinions of two other 
sets of teachers, the number of yojanas in both cases is 1,134 and 
1,135. If we combine these measures with the measures of the diameter 
of the innermost solar circle given above (and the sameness of the figures 
seems to entitle us to do so, although this is by no means explicitly stated), 
we get for the diameter of the whole Jambudvipa 1,133 (= diameter of the 
innermost circle) + 2 x 1,133 ( = distance of the innermost circle from 
the edge of the Jambudvipa on both sides), therefore altogether 3,399 yoja- 
nas ; or, starting from the numbers 1,134 and 1,135, 3,402 or 3,405 yojanas. 
These are very moderate dimensions compared with the 100,000 yojanas, 
which length the author of the Stiryaprajnapti himself attributes to the 
diameter of the Jambudvipa, and we shall not be mistaken in ascribing to 
opinions of this nature a considerably greater antiquity than to those 
represented by the Stiryaprajnapti. Besides, there is another circumstance 
in favour of such a view. The Stiryaprajnapti throughout makes use of 
the relation V' 10 : 1 for calculating the circumference of a circle. Thus 
for instance the diameter of the Jambudvipa being 100,000 (yojanas), its 
circumference is said to amount to 316,227 yojanas 3 gavy. 128 dhan. 13^ 
ang. But those teachers who stated the diameter of the innermost solar 
circle to amount to 1,133 or 1,134 or 1,135 yojanas stated at the same time 
that its circumference amounts to 3,399 or 3,402 or 8,405 yojanas, i. e,, they 
made use of the relation 3 : I for calculating the circumference of a oircle 
from its diameter. The adoption of this very rough approximate value 
seems to point back to a comparatively ancient time.* 

* It seems that all Jaina books take 1 : v^lO as expressing the relation of the 
diameter to the circumference. See for instance Bhagavati Sutra II, 1. 45 (Weber, 
p. 264), where, however, some confusion seems to have crept into the figures. The old 
and simple relation 1 : 3 is found for instance in the Bhtimiparran contained in the 
Bhishmaparvan of the Mah&bhirata. There the circumferences of the planets are 

1880.] G. Thibaufc— 0» the SuryaprajHapti. 121 

Three more opinions concerning the distance of tbe two suns from 
each other on tbe longest day are ^[uoted. According to the first, one whole 
dripa with the addition of the surrounding ocean intervenes between the 
two ; according to the second two dvipas and two oceans ; according to 
tbe third three dvipas and three oceans. The distance in jojanas is not 
gi?en. Two more opinions concerning the extent to which the sun enters 
into the Jambudvipa are stated ; according to some the sun enters on the 
longest day into half the Jambadvipa and on the shortest day into half tbe 
salt ocean ; the distances in yojanas are not mentioned. And according to 
others the sun enters neither into the Jambudvipa nor into the salt ocean, 
hot moves in the interval Cap4ntar&la) of the two ; how we have to imagine 
this interval does not appear. 

Tbe eighth chapter of the first book contains a long exposition 
of the dimensions of the circles described by the sun. Four different 
dimensions are stated. Instead of simply giving the length of tbe 
diameter, the length and breadth (dy&ma and vishkambba) are given ; 
these two are of course equal in a circle. Then tbe circumference 
of the circle is given, according to the ratio v/lO : 1, and finally tbe 
** vihalya," the thickness of tbe circle, i, e,, tbe diameter of tbe space 
filled by tbe mass of the sun or more simply tbe diameter of tbe sun himself. 
This amounts according to the Stiryaprajnapti to |f of a yojana. The 
diameter and tbe circumference of tbe circles are of course continually 
changing, tbe circle described on tbe longest day having tbe smallest 
dimensions and that described on tbe shortest day having the greatest. 
The dimensions of tbe small circle and the amount of tbe daily increase 
have been mentioned above ; it is therefore not necessary to follow the 
Commentator into tbe very tedious calculation of the dimension of each 
daily circle. The opinions of three other teachers on tbe dimensions of 
the circles, according to which tbe diameter amounts to 1,133 yojanas etc., 
have abready been mentioned ; the thickness of tbe circle, i, «., the diameter 
of tbe sun is held by them to amount to one yojana. 

We turn now to the statements regarding the velocity with which the 
son moves in his different circles, and among these at first to those made 
by the Sdryaprajnapti itself. Tbe calculation is a very simple one. Each 
daily circle being described by two suns, each of which travels through half 
of it in thirty muhtirtas, tbe whole circle is described by one sun in sixty 
muh^rtas, and consequently we have, in order to find the velocity of tbe 
son, to divide tbe periphery of the daily circle by sixty ; tbe quotient is 
the number of yojanas travelled through by tbe sun in one muhiirta. Thus 
the sun, when travelling in the smallest innermost circle, tbe circumference 

stated in nnmbers which are the threefold of the nmnhers ezpreasiog the diameters : 
^W*l^ ^^^rrf^ f.l<^$i||^il ^: I fWiW Jf^^iy ^'iftW^ ^^^^H etc. 


122 G. Thibaut— 0« the Suryaprajnapti. [No. 3, 

of which is 315,089 jojanas long, passes in one muhlirta through 5,251 f^ 
yojanas. On the following day both suns travel in the second circle which 
is somewhat larger than the first one, and consequently the suns having to 
describe a larger space in the same time, i. «., during the duration of a 
nycthemeron travel somewhat faster, pass in one muhurta through 5,251 
^ yojanas. Thus day after day the speed of the two suns is increasing in 
accordance with the continually increasing extent of the diurnal circles, 
until on the day of the winter solstice both suns travelling in the outmost 
circle pass through 5,305 ^ yojanas in one muhdrta. Beginning from this 
day their speed diminishes as they are again approaching the innermost 
circle, until on the day of the next summer solstice their rate of speed is 
again at its minimum. In connexion with this discussion of the swiftness 
of the sun, the Suryaprajnapti treats of the question of the distance from 
which the light of the sun becomes visible to the inhabitants of the Bhara- 
ta-varsha. By this distance we have, however, to understand not the dis- 
tance of the sun from the Bharata-varsha in a straight line, but rather that 
part of the sun's daily circle which lies between the point of the sun's 
rising and the meridian. It is well known, says the Commentator, that the 
sun becomes visible to the eye of man at a distance equal to half of the 
extent (kshetra) over which he travels during the whole day, ». e., at the 
time of his rising, his distance from us (=from our meridian, although this 
is not expressly stated in the Suryaprajnapti) is half of the arc which he 
describes during the whole day. The length of this arc has to be 
measm^ed simply by the time which the sun takes to travel through it. 
Thus, for instance, on the longest day the sun is visible to the inhabitants of 
the Bharata-varsha during eighteen muhlirtas out of thirty ; from the 
moment of his rising he will therefore take nine muhdrtas to come up to 
the point straight in front of us (to the meridian). Now we have seen 
before that on the longest day the sun travels over 5,251 1^ yojanas in one 
muhdrta ; consequently he travels in nine muhdrtas over 47,263 \^ yojanas. 
This therefore is the distance^xpressed as an arc of the diurnal circle 
— at which he becomes visible to the eye of man. On the shortest 
day on the other hand the sun is visible for twelve muhdrtas only ; we have 
therefore to multiply the amount of his motion in one muhdrta by six in 
order to find the distance at which he first appears to the eye of man on 

that day. 

Regarding the swiftness of the sun four other opinions are recorded 
by the author of the Suryaprajnapti. According to some teachers, the sun 
travels in one muhurta over six thousand yojanas, and as far as it appears 
this rate of motion is the same in whatever circle the sun is moving. How 
these teachers accounted for the fact of the sun taking the same time to 
travel through a large circle as through a small one is not explained. Tlie 

1880.] G. Tbibaut— On the SdryaprajhaptL 123 

amount of spaee illuminated on each day (the t^paksbetra), expressed as are 
of the diurnal circle of the sun, thej calculated in the same manner as the 
aatbor of the Sdrjaprajnapti, viz., by multiplying the amount of motion 
in one muhurta bj the number of the muhtirtas of the day. Thus the 
tapaksbetra on the longest day would amount to 108,000 yojanas, that on 
the shortest day to 72,000 yojanas. According to the opinions of two other 
schools, the motion of the sun in one muhurta amounts to 5,000 yojanas or 
4,000 yojanas. Here too nothing is said about any variation in the sun's 
speed at different times of the year. The t^pakshetra is calculated in the 
manner stated above. The last opinion mentioned is that of some teachers 
who held the rate of speed of the sun to be different during different 
periods of the day. According to them, the sun passes over six thousand 
yojanas in the muhdrta after his rising and in the muhtirta preceding his 
letting, over four thousand yojanas during the muhdrta in the middle of 
the day and over five thousand yojanas in all other muhdrtas. 

The various opinions prevailing with regard to the rising and setting 
of the sun are detailed in the first chapter of the second book. The opinion 
of the author clearly appears from what has already been stated. There is 
no real sunrise or sunset ; the sun or rather the two suns revolving round 
Mount Meru appear to rise to the inhabitants of some particular place at 
the moment when they enter their field of vision, and they appear to set 
when they leave it. In reality they always move above the Jambudvipa at 
the same height, estimated by the Sdryaprajnapti to amount to eight hun- 
dred yojanas. At the beginning of the yuga at sunrise on the first of 
STrdvana the Bbdrata sun becomes visible to the Bh^rata-varsha having 
reached the south-east point of his diurnal circle ; diametrically opposite to 
it, VIZ., in the north-west point of the same circle the Air^vata sun appears 
to rise to the inhabitants of the tracts north of Mount Meru. During the 
coarse of this day the Bh&rata sun therefore illuminates the countries to 
the south ; the Airiivata sun those to the north of Meru. At the time of 
sunset the Bhirata sun having passed through the southern segment of his 
circle disappears from the view of the people south of Meru and enters the 
view of those west of Meru ; these latter therefore have their day while it 
is night in Bharata-varsha. At the same time the Airdvata sun appears to 
have set to the people north of Meru and to have risen to those east of 
Mem. On the second day the Bhdrata sun rises to the countries north of 
Mem and the Airdvata sun to the Bhdrata-varsha. On the third morning 
the Bhilrata sun has completed a full circle and therefore again rises to the 
Bhirata-varsha while the Airavata sun again rises to the regions north of 
Mem. And so on o^ infinitum. We may recall here a parallel passage 
from the Vishnupurdna (II, 8), tending to illustrate how sunrise and sun- 
set were conceived to take place on the hypothesis of the sun (the Puraiias 

124 G- Thibaut — On the Suryaprajnapti, [No. 3 

know of one sun only) moving round Meru. ^' The sun is stationed at all 
times in the middle of the day {i, e., it is always midday at that place 
above which the sun is) and over against midnight in all dvipas. In the 
same manner rising and setting are at all times opposite to each other ia 
all the cardinal and intermediate points. When the sun becomes visible to 
any people, to them he is said to rise, and wherever he disappears from the 
view there his setting is said to take place. Of the sun which is always 
(above the earth) there is neither setting nor rising ; his appearance and 
disappearance are called his setting and rising."* 

The Stiryaprajnapti adds an interesting account of other views regard- 
ing the sideway-motion (tiryag-gati) of the sun. According to some the 
sun is not a divinity, but only a mass of rays which in the morning form 
themselves in the East into a globular shape, pass sideways along this visible 
world, and in the evening dissolve again in the West. This process repeats 
itself daily. According to others the sun is the well-known divinity ; but 
each morning he is born anew according to his nature in the ether in the 
East (svabhavad dksUa utpadyate), passes along this world and dissolves 
(vidhvamsate) at evening in the ether in the West. According to others 
the sun is the mighty everlasting god known from the Pur4qAS ; in the 
morning he rises in the East, passes over this world, and at evening sets in 
the West ; from thence he returns below to the East, illuminating the parts 
below. This — the commentator says — is the opinion of those who hold the 
earth to be a globe ; it finds great favour at present among the tirthdntari- 
yas and is thoroughly to be studied in their Purdijias. This opinion has 
three sub-divisions. Some say the sun returning at daybreak from the 
parts below rises in the ether (dkaie) and sets in the ether ; others say he 
rises or originates (uttishthati utpadyate) in the morning on the summit 
of the mountain of rising (udaya-bhudhara-iirasi) and perishes (? vidhvam- 
sate) in the evening on the summit of the mountain of setting (astamaya- 
bhudhara-^irasi) ; this repeats itself daily. (But, if he " utpadyate" and 
** vidhvamsate," how can he pass under the earth during the night ?). 
Others say he rises in the morning on the mountain of rising and enters in 
the evening into the mountain of setting, illuminates during the night the 
subterraneous world and rises again from the mountain of rising. Others 
say, he rises, that is, originates from the eastern ocean in the morning, pe- 

• Mr. Fitz-Edward Hall (Wilson's Vishnu Pur^^ia, Vol. 11, p. 242) directs 
OUT attention to the ^^ heliocentricism" taught in this passage. Bat clearly there is 
no trace of heliocentricisin to be found in it. He apparently is misled by the words- 
^niS^ ^^?r« WH • ^hich he translates ** of the sun which is always in one and the 
same place." But this translation is quite untenable, since the Yishi^n Pori^ most 
unambiguously teaches the sun's revolution round Mount Meru. 

1880.] G. Thibaut — On the Suryaprajnapti, 125 

ri^es at evening in the western ocean (same objection as above); others again, 
he rises from the eastern ocean, enters at evening into the western ocean, 
fNisses daring the night through the subterraneous world, rises again from 
the eastern ocean. The last opinion mentioned is not very clear and an 
lecoant of it is therefore not given in this place. 

The third and fourth books contain particulars about the tdpakshetra, 
«. e,j that part of the Jambudvipa which on each day is illuminated by the 
SQD or rather by the two suns. The shape of this t&pakshetra the Slirya- 
prajnapti compares to that of a kalambuka-flower turned upwards, a com- 
parison which has to be understood in the following manner. Each of the 
two «nn8 illuminates a sector of the large circle formed by the Jambudvipa. 
These sectors are, however, not complete, but a piece is cut off from each 
by Mount Meru which standing in the middle of the circle repels by its 
oira superior radiancy the rays proceeding from the two suns and therefore 
is not included in the tapakshetra. The interior border of the sectors is 
thus formed by a part of the circumference of Mount Meru, their outward 
border by s part of the circumference of the Jambudvipa. Between these 
two B'HstoTS of light there lie two sectors of shade (andhakdra) ; whatever 
part of the Jambudvipa is covered by the two former enjoys day at the 
time while it is night in the regions covered by the dark sectors. As the 
two suns revolve these four sectors revolve with them, sweeping over the 
whole extent of the- Jambudvipa and producing alternate day and night in 
all its parts. The relative magnitudes of the tapakshetra during the differ- 
ent parts of the year is estimated in accordance with the statements about 
the relative length of night and day. On the longest day the two suns, 
moring in the innermost circle, together illuminate three-fifths of the Jam- 
budvipa, each of them three-tenths ; on the shortest day they illuminate 
two-tenths each, together two-fifths. On the day after the summer solstice 
when the suns have entered into the second circle, and are moving at a 
greater distance from the centre, the extent of the tdpakshetra decreases 

3 1 3 1 

accordingly, so that it then equals g ^ ^ ^33 =5 gjj- of the 

whole Jambudvipa only ; the same decrease repeats itself daily up to the 
day of the winter solstice when the extent of the illuminated portion of 
the Jambudvipa has reached the minimum stated above. From that period 
it again begins to increase by the same portion daily. From this the 
absolute dimensions of the tdpakshetra or, to express it more conveniently, 
of one of the two sectors composing the tdpakshetra are easily derived. 
The two strMght lines by which it is limited are equal in length to the 
radius of the Jambudvipa less the radius of Mount Meru (60,000 — 6,000 
= 45,000 yojanas). To this we find in one passage of the Stiryaprajnapti 
added the sixth part of the breadth of the salt ocean surrounding the Jam- 

126 6. Thibaut— 0« the Suryaprajnapti. [No. »% 

budvipa, up to the end of which the light of the sun seems to reach, on the 

longest day at least ; this gives altogether 78,333^ yojilnas (= 45,000 + 

200000 \ 

^- — ^ ]. In the statements regarding the measure of the two arcs 

6 / 

limiting the sector, no reference is made to the salt ocean. We find these 

measures for the longest day by dividing the circumference of Mount 
Meru as well as that of the Jambudvipa by ten ; three of these ten parts of 
the first kind give the interior arc of the truncated sector, three of the 
second kind the exterior arc. On the shortest day we have to take two- 
tenths instead of three, and there is no difficulty in finding the corresponding 
increase or decrease on all days between the summer and winter solstice. 
In the same manner the dimensions of the andhakara, the dark portion of 
the Jambudvipa, are readily ascertained. Finally some statements are made 
about the distances to which the light of the two suns reaches above, below 
and towards both sides. It. is said to reach to a thousand yojanas above 
(above the chariot of the sun, svavimanad urdhvam). Further it is said 
to reach down to the depth of 1,800 yojanas, for which the following expla- 
nation is given. The sun is at the height of 800 yojanas above the earth, 
and below the surface of the earth at the depth of 1,000 yojanas are the 
subterraneous regions (adholaukikagramah), down to which the sun's rajs 
are penetrating. No further details about these subterraneous dwellings 
are given. Towards both sides, the east and the we?t, the light of the sun 
is said to extend to the distance of 47,263 |^ yojanas. 

For the sake of completeness, the various other opinions with regard 
to the subjects treated in the last paragraphs are added. Some say that 
the sun and moon illuminate one dvipa and one ocean ; while according to 
others the numbers of dvipas and oceans illuminated are 3, 3^, 7, 10, 12, 
42, 72, 142, 172, 1042, 1072. No details are given. One chapter contains 
the enumeration of a number of very fanciful opinions about the form of 
the tdpakshetra, which it would, however, be purposeless to extract in this 

On the assumption that the sun describes every day a circle which is 
at the distance of 2 |-f- yojanas from the circle described on the preceding 
day, the question naturally suggested itself, how the sun passes over from 
one circle into the next one. This question is treated in I, 6, and II, 2 
where two different opinions are expounded which, although the account 
given of them is not altogether clear, appear to be of the following 
nature. According to some the sun enters from one circle into the other, 
" bhedaghdtena" which (bheda being explained to signify ap4ntar4la) seems 
to mean that the sun passes from one circle into the next one by moving 
over the distance separating the two all afr once. Thus the sun would really 
move in perfect circles and the motion across from one circle into the 

18S0.] H. Rivetfc-Carnac— 0» Clay DUct called " Spindle WhorU:' 127 

othtir would be a momentary one only. The other opinion, and to this the 
Surjaprajnapti seems to adhere, is that the sun does not in reality move in 
flepante perfect circles, but rather in an uninterrupted spiral line. As the 
Surjaprajnapti expresses it, the sun begins from the moment he has entered 
the first circle to move " ^naij^ ^nai^*' across towards the second circle, 
and as soon as he has reached the second circle, he begins to move towards 
the third circle, etc. The term " karigia" which occurs in this description 
of the sun^s motion seems to denote the spiral line which passing across 
tiie whole room between the two circles connects the two ; a line which 
might properly enough be called '* karna," t. e.y diagonal. On this hypothe- 
ns then we should have to remember that the sun is only for convenience 
lake said to describe a separate circle on each day, and that in reality he is 
iQpposed to describe a continuous spiral line. 

After having thus given a succinct account of the Sdryaprajnapti's 
theory couceming the motion of the sun, we now proceed to consider the 
ftatements referring to the motion of the moon. 

(To he continued.) 

Memorandum on Clay Discs called " Spindle Whorls'^ and votive Seals 
found at SanJcisOy Behar, and other Buddhist ruins in the North 
Western Provinces of India, — By H. RiTETT-CiLBNAC, Esq., C. S., 
C. I. E., F. S. A. (With three Plates.) 

Last year I submitted for the inspection of the Asiatic Society speci- 
mens of stone and clay discs, similar to what are called " spindle whorls" 
bj the Antiquaries of Europe, found by me at the Buddhist ruins of 
Sankisa, Behar, Ac. in the Fatehgarh District, N. W. Provinces of India. 
Certain cky seals stamped with the Buddhist formula found in the same 
localities were also exhibited. The resemblance between these " spindle 
whorls*' and those described and figured by Dr. Schliemann in his work 
" Troy and its Remains" was briefly noticed by me at the time. Since 
then I have obtained some more specimens of these discs and seals 
and I think it well that they should be submitted for the inspection of the 
Asiatic Society, and that the attention of its Members and of other Anti- 
quaries should be directed to the resemblance to be traced between these 
remains and those found in the ruins of Hissarlik and in many parts of 

First as regards so called " spindle whorls," When we were encamped 
at Ranouj, Sankisa and Behar Khas in the Fategarh district, the village 
urchins were encouraged to bri^g to us everything in the shape of '* Anti- 
quities*' that could be grubbed out from these extensive ruins and from 
neighboaring mounds. These sites, as is well known, present many features 

128 H. Rivetfc-Camac— On Clay Discs called'' Spindle WhorU:' [No. 3, 

of resemblance to those which Dr. Schliemann dug through at Hiasarlik, 
described at length in his work upon Troy. That is to say, it is generally 
found in the case above-mentioned that the site has been selected on 
account of some Eunker Hill which, rising out of the flat alluvial soil of 
the Doab, offers a point of vantage for the building of a fort or city* 
Here, as at Hissarlik, these sites often bear the traces of several distinct 
colonies. The mud buildings of one set of colonists have been razed by 
their conquerors or successors to build thereon houses and temples which 
have again been levelled to form the foundations of the habitations of 
later settlers. The high mounds, on which part of the present town of 
Kanouj is perched, is to be accounted for in this way, and there can 
be little doubt that if shafts were to be carried through the ruins there, 
after the manner adopted by Dr. Schliemann at Hissarlik, the traces of 
several distinct periods might be unearthed. What has been said of Kanouj 
holds good in regard to Sankisa, Bamnuggur and other ruins. Much has 
not yet been done to explore these localities, and the recent interesting 
find of Mitra coins, reported by me to the Society, indicates that careful 
investigation might prove remunerative to antiquarian research. The heavy 
rains of India are, however, of much assistance in running amateur sections 
through the ruins, and in exposing from time to time relics of more or less 
interest. Amongst these may be classed the " spindle whorls" now to 
be noticed, many of which together with coins, beads, etc. are colllcted and 
set aside by the viUagers as possessing some mysterious significance, and are 
brought out for sale when the District Officer or some occasional visitor 
camps near the place. 

Of these clay discs and their stone prototypes four distinct classes 
are to be noticed : 

A. Terra Cotta Discs, plain and ornamented. 

B. Ditto with a hole through the centre. 

C. Terra Cottas " in the form of a top and the crater of a volcano'* 
(I use the words of Dr. Schliemann, Troy, p. 38 to describe these peculiar 

D. Clay Balls, plain and ornamented. 

With respect to A, Clay or Terra Cotta discs, these were brought to us 
in enormous quantities, and, if disposed to do so, we might have purchased and 
carried off several elephant loads of this description of relic. At the time 
I did not attach much importance to them, and am sorry now that no care- 
ful selection was made of those bearing different styles of ornamentation. 
They are all of red or black clay well baked. In size they vary from 1 inch 
to 2 inches in diameter and are about ^ of an inch in thickness. The 
majority oi them bear a rough ornamentation at the edges only, see 
Plate XIII, sketches 1 and 2. Others again show traces of more elaborate 
design and workmanship. Some of these arc figured in sketches 3 to 7. 

I860.] H. Rivett-Carnac— On Clay Discs called " Spindle WhorUr 129 

On one, No. 5 of my sketch, will be seen the broad arrow noticeable on 
Schlieiiuum*8 No. 458. On another, No. 6, is what looks like the sign - of 
Saturn or what Dr. Schliemann calls the " mystic rose," well known on 
fiaddhist coins and in Buddhist art. They all have more or less oma- 
meDtation at the edges, resembling the spokes of a wheel or possibly the 
njs oE the sun. 

I also obtuned at Sankisa several stone discs of nearly the same 
shape as the Terra Cottas. They are all highly polished. One is of black 
marble, another of crystal. Several are of red marble, and the material must 
hafe been brought from a distance, as no stone save kunkur is to be found 
within many miles of Sankisa. It will be noticed that all these stone speci- 
mens are grooved at the edges, see the section in sketch No. 8, whereas 
but few of the clay specimens have received such treatment. 

T^pe B, sketch No. 9, on Plate XIV consists of clay discs similar in 
most respects to the foregoing, save that a hole has been drilled through 
the centre of each. I did not pay any particular attention to the propor- 
tion in which these difEerent classes were brought to me in camp. But I 
find that I have many more of the plain discs than of those which have 
been pierced. There can be little doubt, however, that many hundreds of 
tbe pierced ones might have been obtained on the spot, and I am sending 
to ascertain whether any more ornamented specimens are procurable. 
The specimen marked and figured in sketch No. 10 is of grey granite. It 
bears the same relation to the pierced clay discs as the stone and crystal 
discs mentioned above bear to the clay whorls of type A. In the centre is 
a hole, round which are six concentiic circles. 

The specimen figured in sketch No. 11, is of a somewhat difEerent 
tjpe from the foregoing, as a section of the sketch will explain. The 
impressions of the spokes of a wheel with dots between each spoke appear 
to have been made in a stamp or mould. I find I have only two of this 
class in my collection. But doubtless hundreds more might have been 
obtained had I not been afraid of burdening myself during the march with 
too large a collection of such specimens. 

Of type C, Sketches Nos. 12 and 13, on Plate XIV, which may be 
described in Dr. Schliemann*s words as being in the form of a " top or 
crater of a volcano*' I have, I find, but 4 or 5 specimens ; I have little 
doubt that large numbers were ofEered to me, but at the time they did not 
appear to possess any particular significance. It was only in tumbling out 
a large number of discs from the box, in which they had long been kept, 
that I recognised this type of the illustrations of Dr. Schliemann's book, 
jnst consulted with reference to the Discs A and B mentioned above. The 
specimens I have with me do not bear any marks of ornamentation. 
Further search may perhaps bring better specimens to light. (Since this 
was written some ornamented ones have been found.) 

130 H. Bivett-Carnac— On Olay Dues called " Spindle Whorh:' [No. 3, 

Lastly we have type D, Clay Balls, Plate XIV, sketches Nos. 14, 15, 16, 
resembling somewhat those figured by Dr. Schliemann. Several of them 
are roughly ornamented, and the designs, such as they are, will be seea 
from the sketches. 

I hardly know how it happened that these specimens were carried 
away by me. Certainly no importance was attached to them at the time ; 
and they would have escaped my notice altogether, had I not seen, when 
comparing the clay discs, the sketches of somewhat similar balls figured 
in the last pages of Dr. Schliemann's book. 

Lastly, I have also figured two specimens Nos. 17 and 18 which seem 
to approach type C. And an enamelled glass bead No. 19. 

This bead is similar to that figured in Thomas' Prinsep, PI. IV, No. 13. 
These beads are found in large quantities together with crystal, onyx 
cornelian and others at Sankisa and similar ruins. It seems desirable to 
figure the specimen with this paper in order to ascertain whether similar 
ones are found in Europe or elsewhere. The village urchins during the 
rains make a practice of collecting these beads, and they are usually given 
to fakirs or devotees. Seeing such a necklace worn by an oW fakir led me 
to enquire whence the beads came. And I had little difficulty in procuring 
a variety sufficient for about nine necklaces. 

I have now to direct attention to the resemblance between the speci- 
mens ahove described and figured, and those discovered by Dr. Schlie- 
mann at Hissarlik and noticed at great length and figured in large numbers 
in his well known work upon Troy. 

As regards type A, clay discs more or less ornamented, without the 
central hole, I cannot be quite certain that this type was found by Dr. 
Schliemann. I do not see that any distinct mention is made of unpierced 
discs, and it is not quite clear from the sketches in Dr. Schliemann's work, 
whether, what is referred to as the Central Sun on the Discs figured in 
plates 22 and 23, is a hole drilled through the centre or is a depression or 
ornamentation representing the sun. Still, even if this particular type was 
not found at Hissarlik, it is found in Italy, and, as will be shewn further on, 
the resemblance between the remains found at Hissarlik and those of Italy 
is referred to by Dr. Schliemann. 

Dr. Schliemann writing of his discoveries at page 187 of his work 
above quoted, thus refers to the discs : 

'* During the last few days we have also found, in the strata next above 
the primary soil, at a depth of from 46 to 36 feet, a number of round brilliant 
black terra cottas of exquisite workmanship ; most of them much flatter than 
those occurring in the higher strata and resembling a wheel ; many are in the 
shape of large flat buttons. But we also meet with some in the form of tops 
and volcanoes which differ from those found in the higher strata only by the 

1880.] H. Rivett-Camac— On Olatf Discs called " Spindle WhorU:' 131 

fioeness of the terra cotta and by their better workmanship. The decora- 
tions on these very ancient articles are, however, generally much simpler 
than those met with above a depth of 10 meters (33 feet) and are mostly 
confined to the representation of the sun with its rays, or with stars be- 
tween the latter, or of the sun in the centre of a simple cross, or in the 
middle of four or five double or treble rising suns. At a depth of 6 meters 
(20 feet) we again fonnd a round Terra Cotta in the form of a volcano, 
upon which are engraved three antelopes in the circle round the sun. 

** At a depth of from 5 to 8 meters (16^ to 26 feet) a number of 
terra cotta baUs were found, the surface of each being divided into eight 
fields ; these contain a great many small suns and stars, either enclosed by 
dicles or standing alone. Most of the balls, however, are without divisions 
ind covered with stars ; upon some I find the swastica and the tree of life, 
vbicb, as already said, upon a terra cotta ball found at a depth of 26 feet, 
lad stars between its branches." (Schliemann's Troy, p. 187.) 

The above extract embraces not only the so-called spindle whorls, but 
mentions the volcano-shaped " whorls" of type C found at Sankisa and 
type D brought away by me from the same place. The discs were found 
bj Dr. Schliemann of terra cotta, of marble and of crystal. So at Sankisa 
did we find clay, marble and crystal discs. 

A comparison of the Plates appended to Dr. Schliemann's volume with 
tbe specimens submitted by me and the sketches which accompany this 
paper will, I think, shew that there is at least some resemblance between 
tbe remains found at Hissarlik and those at Sankisa. 

On nearly all these discs will be seen what are constantly referred to 
M the spokes of the wheel or the rays of the sun. I have placed side by 
side with my sketches a copy of the whorl engraved by Dr. Scliliemann at 
page 137. It might fairly be taken to be a representation of the whorl 
given in Plate XIV, Sketch 10 appended to this paper. 

Then my collection is unfortunately in no way large or complete. 
When at Sankisa, I had little idea of the significance of these remains or their 
waembknce to well known types, and I only purchased a few of them in 
tbe manner that I collect everything that seems to be unusual or strange. 
Farther search may possibly bring out even more remarkable points. 
Tbe few specimens that I have succeeded in obtaining bear, however, a 
resemblance, not only in shape, but also in ornamentation, to those figured 
DJ Dr. Schliemann, sufficient to render the subject interesting. The broad 
*now of my Sketch No. 5 and the Mystic Rose or sign of Saturn, or the 
numeral four of my Sketch No. 6, are all to be traced among Dr. Schlie- 
^nn*8 specimens ; and then again on the balls some similarity in ornamen- 
tation is to be traced. 

It would perhaps hardly be right to attach much importance to the 

132 H. Rivett-Carnac— 0» Clay Dim ealled " Spindle Wkorhy [No. 3, 

fact, that one or two clay discs were found in Buddhist remains in India, 
and that discs of somewhat the same type were unearthed at Hiasarlik. But 
here we have, not only pierced discs of type B, hut the Volcanoes C and the 
Balls D, all three types resemhling in some degree the three types of Hissarlik 
and all three types hearing somewhat similar forms of ornamentation. 

Again it is to be noticed that the lemains at Sankisa are undoubtedly 
Buddhist. Saukisa as is well known was a celebrated place of pilgrimage, 
being sacred as the spot at which Buddha is supposed (as described by 
General Cunningham, Vol. I, Archaeological Reports) *' to have descended 
from the Trayastrinsa heaven by the ladder of gold or gems, accompanied 
by the gods Brahmd and Indra." 

The place was Tisited and described by the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hian 
early in the 5th century, and by Hiouen-Thsang in the 7th century A. D. 
A detailed account of these interesting ruins will be found in General 
Cunningham's Archaeological Report above alluded to. 

Now the ornamentations on the Terra Cottas of Hissarlik, if they ue 
not Buddhist, certainly bear a close resemblance to the ornamentations on 
coins, buildings, etc., which in India «re generally supposed to be Buddhist 

Thus the wheel continually recurs in Schliemann's sketches, together 
with the Swastika. And what Schliemann calls the Mystic Rose, and Fergus- 
son the Trisul ornament is quite as frequent. The Sacred Tree, the Fire 
Altar and the Deer are also almost as common* In fact, we have every one 
of the Buddhist symbols of the well known type of the so-called Baddhlst 
coin, figured in No. 1, Plate lY, Thomas' Prinsep, and of which an engranng 
is given at page 17 of Fergusson's Indian and Eastern Architecture. Ur. 
Fergpisson points out, however, that there is some doubt whether these 
symbols really are Buddhist, and at the page above referred to, writer 
*^ One coin of the period is well known. It belongs to a king called 
Eunanda or Krananda generally assumed to be one of the nine Nandas 
with whom this dynasty closed. In the centre on one side, is a dagoba 
with the usual Buddhist Trisul emblem over it, and a serpent below it : on 
the right the sacred Tree, on the left the Swastika with an altar (?) on the 
other side a lady with a lotus (Sri ?) with an animal usually called a deer, 
but from its tail more probably a horse, with two serpents standing on their 
tails over its head which have been mistaken for horns. Over the animal is 
an altar, with an umbrella over it. In fact a complete epitome of emblems 
known on the monuments of the period, but savooring much more of 'b^ 
and Serpent worship than of Buddhism as it is now." 

Dr. Schliemann at page 38 of his work refers to the resemblance 
between the Terra-Cottas of Hissarlik and those of Italy. This directed 
my attention to Gastaldi's work. The following extract will show that if 
it be considered that the resemblance between the remains at Saoki^ 

ISSO.] H. Rivett-Carnac— On CJatf Discs called " Spindle Whorls.*' 133 

and Htssarlik is not established, sach doubt can hardly exist regarding the 
Indian and Italian remains. 

Gastaldi says : '' There are very many of these objects, for the 
greater part of Terra-Cotta, more or less discoidal, or conical, or 
spheroidal, pierced in the centre, to which the ArchsBologists of France 
and Germany, as well as our own, have given the name of spindle- 
whorls. The paste of the spindle- whorls is not, for the most part .equal 
to that of earthenware ; instead of the grains of sand, we find powdered 
carbon and ashes ; the colour is ashy in the internal parts, and ash colour 
Taiying into yellow and red on the outside. Some few spindle- whorls are 
black, and of a substance probably similar to the thinner vases, and, like a 
great number of these, are shining externally as if with varnish. They 
are Teiy various in form ; and although eight different ones have been 
represented by you, from those which, in the course of the summer, we 
aefit from Campeggine, courteously presented by the brothers Cocconi, not 
one represents the other six, collected in the sequel, in the marl-beds. Some 
few bear marks scratched upon them, and are among those you have had 
engra?ed (Pig. 25). 

" Besides all the spindle-whorls of earth, there were dug up from 
the marl-beds of Castellazzo di Tontanellato, three others, which are 
cnt out of different substances. One was made out of a stag's horn^ 
it ii in the shape of a cone, and is very highly polished ; the second 
of stratite, of a greenish tint, and spheroidal; the third, of a whitish 
limestone (calcare), is disc-shaped, brought to a high degree of polish, 
and certainly manifests an advanced epoch in art among the people 
who used such implements. Among the objects in the Museum of Anti- 
quities at Parma, which are of uncertain derivation, there are twenty 
Bpindle-whorls, some in limestone, stratite, and even amber, but the greater 
part of earth ; some are polished, some are ornamented with circles, concen- 
tric with hole pierced in them, or in concentric lines disposed in groups on 
the beck of the spindle- whorl. We find among these the transition from 
the more depressed discoidal form, almost medallion (nummulik) to the 
acute conical. Some one of those in terra cotta is said to have been col- 
lected from the ruins of the Boman City of Yelieia. The different forms, 
finish and substances of the spindle- whorls would lead us to suppose that 
they must have served for various uses in proportion to their diversity ; 
perhaps the most beautiful and carefully worked were amulets, or else but- 
tons; the others weights, used either for nets or in weaving." 

** Besides all the earthenware and all the spindle- whorls which we have 
spoken of, we meet in the marl-beds with other small objects in earth, 
badlj baked, in form disc-shaped, without any hole, sometimes ball-shaped 
(pallottola), of which it is impossible to divine the use which they served." 

134 H. Rivett-Carnac— 0« Clay Discs called " SpindU Whorh:' [No. 5, 

(Lake Habitations and Prehistoric Remains in Northern and Central Italjr* 
B. Gastaldi, pp. 44, 45, 46, 47.) 

In Italy these mysterious articles are found of clay and marble, as in 
India. The ornamentation is the same and in Italy also are found the 
disc-shaped Terra Cottas without any hole similar to those of North Wes- 
tern India. It is hardly necessary to burden this paper with any more 
sketches. The Italian remains are almost exactly the same as those of 
Schliemann, but I cannot resist the temptation of copying the specimen 
marked 8 B which will be found figured at p. 45 of Gastaldi's work. 
It is almost identical with No. 12 of those figured by me. 

Next as to the use to which these remains were placed. Dr. Schlie- 

mann discusses the subject at length in several places in his valuable work on 

Troy. And it will be seen that Gastaldi is puzzled as to their significance. 

Dr. Schliemann arrives at the conclusion that, although some of them may 

have been used as spindle-whorls, the greater number of them were votive 

offerings. And Gastaldi considers that some at least were amulets. The 

symbols on most of those found at Hissarlik would seem to leave little 

doubt of their religious character. Of the Indian specimens, it is not easy 

to say why some should have the central hole and others should be 

un pierced. But, if they are votive offerings, the fact that the pierced ones 

were found in smaller quantities at Sankisa than those without the Iiole, 

may possibly be explained by a practice, which was noticed by me years ago 

at some shrines of pilgrimage in the Central Provinces. There the pilgrim, 

when he makes a vow or implores a favour, smeares his right hand with red 

colouring matter, and impresses it, fingers upwards, on the wall of the temple, 

leaving there a mark like the Red Hand of Ulster. If the favour, the birth 

of a child or whatever it may be, is granted by the presiding deity, the 

pilgrim is supposed to return to the shrine the following year, and to 

impress on the wall a similar mark, the fingers of the hand this time point* 

ing downwards. It was very noticeable that the latter marks were well 

in the minority, and it was carefully explained by the local priests that 

this was not to be accounted for by the supposition that the deity was slow 

in his favours, but that, in truth, the suppliants, when they had obtained 

what they wanted, were not always mindful to return and to fulfil their 

vows. Perhaps in this way the proportion of the unpierced to pierced 

discs may be explained. The unpierced ones being offered when a favour 

was implored, the pierced ones when it was obtained. 

Be this as it may, the view that these discs are votive offerings is 
supported by the religious character of the symbols, already alluded to, found 
on the whorls of Hissarlik and Sankisa. Since I commenced to write 
this paper, I have received a copy of Alabaster's " Wheel of the Law." At 
Fig. 8 A will be found a copy of the sketch of the Buddhist wheel of the 

I890.J H. Rivefct-Carnac— On Clay Discs called ''Spindle WhorlsV 135 

law giTea in that work. And it is almost unnecessary to point out the 
resemblance which the highly ornamented Disc No. 7 bears to this sketch. 
The other discs, though not so elaborately ornamented, seem to adopt 
the same idea. No. 11, as far as ornamentation is concerned, undoubtedly 
resembles a wheel, though, as the section will show, it can never have been 
used, as some of my friends have suggested, as the wheel of a toy cart ; 
Dor indeed are there any marks of wear on any of the wheel-shaped discs 
to support the view that they were used for miniature playthings of this 
description. It seems much more probable that they were votive offer- 
ings intended to represent, more or less the Buddhist wheel of the law, 
similar to that stamped on some of the coins recently submitted by me to 
the Society. 

The view that these were indeed votive offerings, and not toy cart 
wheels or pachtsi or draughtsmen, as some have suggested, is further borne 
out by the large numbers of clay discs, of a somewhat similar type, but 
bearing on them the well known Buddhist formula, found in the same 
neighbourhood. These seals, as they have sometimes been called, from their 
bearing a seal-like impress, have been figured by Moor in his Hindu Pan- 
theon and have been described by General Cunningham, by Dr. Hajen- 
dralala Mitra, C. L E. and others. General Cunningham, if I remember 
right, found large quantities of such *' seals" made of lac in the Buddhist 
ruins of Behar. Though my stay at Sankisa was short, 1 succeeded in oh- 
taining a considerable number of these seals. Many of them are from the 
same stamp. Others from different moulds bear the same well known for- 
mula commencing " ye dharma hetavo.** The character of the legend in all 
these cases is comparatively modern. Those, however, marked 1 and 2 
Fkte XY bear the formula in the Gupta character. Others again marked 
8 to 6 are deserving of notice from the variety of their ornamentation. 
They would seem all to have been made and stamped, in what I may call, a 
cushion-like fashion, after the manner of the quaintly- shaped Mitra coins 
recently submitted by me to the Society. Some of these seals are I think 
worthy of being figured in the Society's Journal. 

There can be little doubt that these so-called seals, bearing the Buddhist 
formula, are votive offerings. A friend of mine, Mrs. Murray- Aynsley who 
recently travelled through a portion of Ladakh, brought me thence two 
stones, one inscribed with a portion of the Buddhist Formula, Plate XV, 
No. 7, the other bearing a conventional ornamentation. That these stones 
are offered in the present day, will be seen from the following extract from 
Mrs. Murray- Aynsley's work entitled " Our Visit to Hiudostan, Kashmir 
and Ladakh," p. 88. 

" We there first saw some of the walls called Mdnes, which are form- 
ed of stones placed one upon the other without any mortar, and are 

136 H mYettCsLrnsic— On Clatf Discs called " Spindle WhorV [No. 3, 

usually about four feet high, and four feet wide. Some of these walls are 
as much as a quarter of a mile in length, and are made, we were informed, 
with the following object. When a Buddhist undertakes a journey, or 
makes a vow, he chooses a flat stone, takes it to a monastery, and gets a 
lama (or monk) to engrave some rude characters upon it, which are said to 
be usually, ^ Om mani padme Om,' which has been titinslated to mean, 
' All hail to the jewel in the flower of the lotus !' though some give other 
interpretations to these words. When his stone is thus prepared, the in- 
dividual places it on the top of one of these walls, which on their upper 
surface are almost covered with such engraved stones. Thibetans when 
passing these walls, always keep them on their right hand, and frequently 
go out of their direct road in order to do this." 

There would seem, then, to be little doubt that the Terra-Cottas, plain 
and ornamented, and those also bearing the formula of the Buddhist faith, 
were votive offerings of a by-gone age. 

In what little I can do to further the objects of the Society, I generally 
try to content myself with bringing facts to notice, and pointing out the 
resemblance between the remains found in India and those discovered in 
other parts of the world. It must be lefb to those who are better informed 
than myself, or who are more fortunate in being able to consult what has 
been written by authorities on the subject, to determine whether there ia 
any real significance in the resemblance between the remains found at 
Sankisa and those of Hissarlik and Italy. I am not unprepared 
for the argument that a knife is a knife all the world over, and that tliis 
form of implement must have suggested itself to all people at an early 
stage of civilisation ; and that the fact of implements in the form of 
knives having been found at Hissarlik and at Sankisa would not be sufficient 
to establish any connection between the settlers at these widely separated 
sites. It may also be urged that earthen spindle- whorls might naturally 
enough suggest themselves to different races situated far apart from one 
another. But surely there is something more than a chance resemblance 
in the several types of these remains and the style of their ornamentation ? 
And does not the continual recurrence of, what we call, the Buddhist sym- 
bols on the Hissarlik finds, suggest the possibility of Hissarlik and Sankisa 
having been colonized by branches of the same race, be it Buddhist or not, 
one of which striking west from some point in Central Asia, found its way 
to the shores of the Mediterranean, whilst another, taking a southerly 
course, established itself in the Gangetic valley ? 

1880.] H. Rivet?t-Carnac— On Clay DUes called « Spindle Whorls.*' 137 

Supplementary Memarandwn. 
(With a Plate.) 

Since writing this Memorandum on spindle -whorls, I have received 
bom Sankisa a farther consignment of these peculiar remains. 

In mj paper recently read before the Society I mentioned that the flat 
discs, plain and perforated, were to be found in large quantities. I have 
received a farther large consignment. But the perforated ones are much 
ks8 numeroos than the others. It is unnecessary to send any more of 
these types. 

Of what Schliemann calls the volcano-shaped Terra Cottas I have 
leeeived several more. This hears out my view that they are numerous. 
Km. 1 and 2, Plate XVa, are interesting from their decoration. The one 
it will be seen is decorated on the top. The other is decorated on the base 
with what would seem to be a flower and in a manner resembling the 

Hioarlik types. 

I send also three more balls, Nos. 3-5. These are ornamented with 
stars, crosses and with lines. Several others of the same type have since 

reached me. 

I have obtained many more clay seals of the same type as those already 
sent. One only marked No. 6 is different in its character from those 
already submitted to the Society. 

No. 7, is a fragment of pottery highly ornamented with the rosette 
or wheel of the law, or whatever it may be, common on Buddhist remains. 

I should be glad of any explanation of the peculiar piece of soapstone 
marked No. 8. Its ornamentation is curious. The grooves at the top will 
be noticed. It may possibly have been worn as an amulei;. 

Further enquiries are being made at Sankisa, and I hope to be able 
to obtidn many more specimens showing various forms of ornamentation. 

It has been suggested that the carious balls of various sizes with their 
different markings may have been intended to represent the sun, moon and 


I see that the genuineness of the antiquities found at Sankisa and 
Behar is doubted by some. But these sites do not see on an average one 
European visitor a year ; as yet no one save myself has collected there these 
^)ecimens, and so it is hardly to be supposed that the native mind has yet 
been sufficiently prepared to attempt to provide forgeries for a possible 
future trade in such articles. 

138 H. Rivett-Camac— On some copper Buddhist coins, [No. 3, 

Note on some copper Buddhist coins. — By H. RiTETT-CABNi.c, Esq., C. S., 

C. I. E., F. S. A. 

(With two Plates.) 

I send for the inspection of the Society, some coins, mostly Buddhist 
from my Cabinet, some of which may perhaps prove of interest. They will 
not all, I think, be found described or figured in the works most readily 
accessible to Members, and it is possible some of them may be new types. 
I am indebted to Mr. A Carlleyle of the Archseological Survey for the 
readings on the coins. 

Plate XVI, Nos. 1, 2. Legend Vaisahha Bevasa. Two coins, if they 
may so be called, of the same type differing in size. They are evidently 
casts, i, e.y have been made in a mould prior to the time the art of stamping 
was discovered. On one side is the Bull taking here the place of the 
Elephant common to the earlier coins. The name tolerably clear above the 
Bull. On the obverse what looks like the Trisul of tlie Sanchi Topes, and 
the snake. I should be glad to know if this coin is known to the Society ? 

No. 3. Legend Bdja Kamuda Senasa. This coin resembles the pre- 
ceding ones in several respects. The Bull again occupies the most promi- 
nent place. The legend is beneath the Bull ; near the head of the Bull is 
the sacred tree. Behind the Bull is the snake. At first sight this has the 
appearance of an elaborate tail of the Bull. But a careful inspection will 
show that the tail is separate and quite distinct. On the obverse is the 
well known ornament which I think Fergusson calls the " Trisul," though 
it is different enough from Shiva's trident. It will be noticed that the 
marks on these coins have apparently been stamped in the same manner as 
those of the Mitras, found near Barelli and recently submitted by me to 
the Society. The Bull and Legend have been stamped in, as if with a 
square seal, and cover but a portion of the circular piece of metal. 
Perhaps these coins represent some of the earliest attempts at coining P 

No. 4. Legend Aja Varmma or Asha Varmma ; a coin of the same 
type as above ; the legend differing. 

No. 5. Legend Maphaha Varma. The same remarks apply here also. 
The coin has been cut in two, and was just going to the melting-pot when I 
was fortunate enough to rescue the two pieces from a quantity of rubbish. 
It is to be feared that a good many coins are thus lost to us. All the above 
were obtained by me at Faizabad. 

No. 6. Maha Satama. A coin apparently of the same type as above 
but in bad preservation. 
No. 7. Satya Mitrasa, 


I860.] H. Biveti-Carnac — On some capper Buddhist coins, 139 

No. 8. Aifu Miirasa, 

No. 9. Soya Mitrasa, 
Ail of the well known '^ Cock and Bull" type, but new names I believe. 

No. 10. Jaya Mitra (two specimens). 

Plate XVII No. 11. Vifaifa Mitra. 
These coins seem much older than the preceding ones. 

No. 12. (Lion) Laranga or Larata or Ldjasa. {Tree) Sugdta- Tana- 

This coin is quite a different type from the preceding. On one side is a 
Lion much resembling the carvings found among the ruins of old Buddhist 

No. 13. A pretty little Buddhist coin of a type I have not yet seen 
figured. The sacred tree is encircled by the snake forming a sort of 
lOflette in the centre of the coin. 

No. 14. These three little oddly-shap.ed specimens have all well 
stamped on one side what looks like the conventional Heraldic Lion. On 
the other side may be traced marks somewhat resembling the sign Fisces of 
the Zodiac. 

No. 15. Two specimens of a coin which is perhaps new. On one side 
what looks like a Fish as in the preceding coins, on the other a Thor's 
Hammer (?) or perhaps the sign of Saturn combined with some other sign 
io such a manner as to form a monogram ? 

No. 16. Three little coins of sorts. 

I should be glad for information regarding the dynasties, dates, &c., of 
these coins. 






No. IV.— 1880, 

"B/mtorki on the Afghani fowid along the Boute of the Tal Ohotiali Field 
Force, in the Spring of 1879. — Bg Lieut. R. C. Temple, B. S. C, 
F. £. G. S., M. B. A. S. &c, (With 3 Plates and 2 Maps). 

{Concluded from page 107.) 

Pabt II. 
III. Distribution of the Trihee, 

In the ahove description of the Tribes along the Tal Ch6tidli Eoute 
their distribution en route has been but briefly referred to. In the next 
Table the names of the tribes inhabiting the villages on the accompanying 
map are shown. And it will be seen that as a rule the Fathan Tribes and 
Sections stick pretty well together and are generally to be found in certain 
compact districts and nowhere else.* Thus Achakzais are confined to the 
region about To'ba and the Kho'ja AmsXn range, and the To'b TabIns 
to the Pishin Valley. Among the Kdkar sections the same thing is to be 
observed. The Amascd EIhe'l occupy the country about the north of the 
Pishin to Mt. Kaitd and the SulimIn Khe'l the range dividing the Pishin 
and Do'p Valleys, the Mehtabzaib all the country to the north of the E. 
Bo'd Goi^e and the PJ[Nf zais that to the south of it and so on. Even where 
the country seems to be pretty weU divided between sections, as the Do'f 

* Yfllagee of mixed populationB are to be found in the more settled parts, such as 

the Pishin, Dofp, and Gwa^ Valleys, though not commonly, and when it is said that 

t certain village is occupied by a certain subsection or section it is meant that tho 

mtin portion of the inhabitants belong to it. As a rule, however, villages are not mixed. 



R. C. Tem^leSoute of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. [No. 4, 

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ISSO.] R. C. Temple— ^oi*/<? of the Tdl Ohotiali Field Force, 


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144 R. C. Temple— i^ot*^^ of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force. [No. 4, 



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1880.] R. C. Temple— ^t*^<? of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 149 

IV. Folity, 

The portion of Afghanistan along the route may be divided into that 
formerlj subject to the Amir of Kabul, and that acknowledging no superior 
authoritj, into, in fact, the Amir's Territory and the country of Independent 
Tribes. The Amir's power never seems to have extended beyond the Do'p 
Valley to the eastwards further thau'TsAP Kagh, or further north in that 
direction than Mt. Kand, i, e., the inliabitants of the Zho'b Valley and all 
the country south of it eastwards of the Do'p Valley have never recognised 
him as their ruler. The tribes then under the Amir's sway were the Dura- 
nis,the Tor Tarins and such Kakars as inhabited the Do'f and Gwal Valleys, 
while the bulk of the Kakars, the Lunis, the Zarkhans and the Spin Tarins 
hare always been independent. For the purposes of this paper the country 
will be divided into Amir's Territory and Ya'ghista'n or Independent 

Under the Amir, Government in our sense of the term there was none, 
though the head of the Government nominally ruled through his Sirddrs 
or heads of tribes and sections, having, however, little real control over 
them. And how this system was worked has been thus described.* '* The 
Sovereign is absolute and makes any and every change which may appear 
to him necessary or proper in the government and administration. He can 
dispose of the lives and property of his subjects and is kept within certain 
bounds in these respects only by the calculations which prudence dictates. 
Beligion is the counterpoise to his authority. This gives the clergy great 
influence, one that he might try in vain to subject to his will and pleasure, 
and vainer still would be the attempt to infringe and invade the rights and 
privileges of the sirdars or chiefs of tribes, who would never consent to 
resign a certain influence in the a:fiEairs of government. It may be said in 
Afghanistan that there are as many sovereigns as sirdars, for each of them 
governs after his own fashion. They are jealous, turbulent and ambitious, 
and the sovereign can restrain and keep them in some order only by taking 
advantage of their rivalry and feuds and opposing one to the other. There 
is no unity, nothing is permanent, everything depends on the pleasure or 
caprice of a number of despots always at variance with each other and mak- 
i]]g their tribes espouse their personal quarrels. A constant feeling of 
irascibility is the result which finally leads to sanguinary civil wars and 
throws the country into a state of anarchy and perpetual confusion. The 
sirdars are at one and the same time the strength and the curse of the 
monarch. Prompt to take arms and defend him when a good understand- 
ing between them exists, they are as ready to revolt against him when they 
^d or think they have the smallest interest in doing so. In anything, 

* ^lacgregor's Gazetteer. 

150 R. C. Temple— 5ot*/e of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. [No. 4, 

however, to which they are disinclined, they would not obey even the 
sovereign o£ their choice but with reluctance ; moreover they are always 
impatient to see him replaced by another from whom they hope to obtain 
greater advantages. Each subdivision of a tribe is, according to its numeri- 
cal force and extent of territory, commanded by one or more sirdars. 
These chiefs may be compared to the dukes and barons of the middle ages 
in France, the more powerful to the knights bannerets, and those having 
authority over only a few families to the esquires who in "time of war 
enrol themselves and their men under the orders of the chief that inspires 
them with the greatest confidence and can pay them best.* The 
most powerful amongst them are caressed by the sovereign who attaches them 
to his interests much more by the concessions he makes than by the fear 
he inspires. Ordinarily and with a view to preserve a nominal authority 
over them, he remits the whole of the taxes and imposes in their stead the 
obligation to furnish a contingent of troops in the event of war being 
declared against him by his neighbours. This wretched system gives too 
much power to the Sirdars. The sovereign is at their mercy, and it is the 
ambition of these men that gives birth to the numerous civil wars in 
Afghanistan ; for they are constantly in revolt." 

Such being the state of civil government in the Amir's Territory, the 
only difference to be observed in the Independent Territory is, that the 
local Sirdar, or whatever other local chief happens at the time to be the most 
powerful, is absolutely uncontrolled even by the semblance of superior power. 
The above-mentioned independence of the Sirdars and their impatience of 
superior control Is to be observed in numerous instances even in the Ehins 
or rulers of villages, being of course more pronounced in Ya'ghista'w than 
in the Pisliin and other portions of the Amir's Territory. To give an 
example. In the Pishin the ruins of a village called Satad Sa'lo or 
Ueumzai were passed. It had been but recently destroyed by a mom 
powerful neighbouring village called Satad Paktd in a quarrel between the 
two Khans. The Ubumzais had to fly altogether out of Afghin Territory 
across the Belo'ch Border to Khu'shla'k: where they settled. They ap- 
pear to have been hunted across the Border by the other village without 
any attempt at interference on the part of the neighbours. Again not far 
from this last were two villages, Old and New Ma'likta'h, the old village 
having been deserted on account of an internal dispute and a new site 
selected a few miles off. The saute thing was to be observed at a place 
called Wakia'gai in the Bo'bai valley, where an evidently lately ruined 
village called Old Waria'gai was passed. I was informed it had become 
so about five years before on account of an internal squabble. Like the 

• The very remarkable parallel to bo observed politically between the Afghin* 
and the Mainotes of Greece I have elsewhere pointed out. J, U. S. I. of India, 18801 

1880.] R. C. Temple— i?oii/<? of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 


Barons of Earopean feadal times these village Khans seem to exercise the 
right of priyate war on their neighbours without control or interference. 
Ceriadn villages have acquired an evil name for this kind of truculence. 
KiCH in the Sho'b vaUejr is such a village. Nor is a fight or quarrel always 
a necessarj reason for a change of site, any caprice or change of owners is 
•officieDt A case in point is the fort of HA'jf Kha'n (Amand Ehs'l) in 
tiie Pishin. And towards the Border by the Hait Pass, in the long stretch 
of disputed land about the passes, ruined villages are naturally to be seen 
in the more exposed parts of the Lu'ni Ehe'l, Zaskha'n and Spf n Tab! it 
coontry on the Afghan side and in Ba'beho'm on the Beloch side, the 
resolt of endless border raids. The lawlessness of the Ghilzais along the 
roads between S[andahdr and Elabul has been noticed by former travellers, 
006 of whom has written :* *' Every man distrusts his neighbour or is at 
open feud with him. It is the custom of the country to throw a heap of 
itooes over murdered travellers, and in the ravine leading from SuiIiGab to 
ZrsiCAT (Ghilzai country) the frequency of these heaps is sickening. In 
masj cases they are to be found at the closed end of the ravines showing 
how the poor travellers have run as far as possible and then been cut 
down." The same may be remarked of almost any part of the Kakar 
eoanttj, and in that portion about Mts. Ma'zhwo and Spinsehab where 
the heights are crossed between the Ush and NANaALu'NA Passes, there is 
a bng narrow valley between low hills to be crossed, and in this it is hard- 
ly any exaggeration to say that these heaps may be seen but a few yards 
apait. The reason appears to be that persons going from the Sho'b and 
Bo'bai Valleys or the Dumab country from the south towards the Pisliin must 
pass this way through a country which is for some thirty miles utterly unin- 
habited. In the wild uninhabited border tract about the Uan, Hanokai 
aod Tbikh Eubam passes they may be seen in clusters in many places 
telling of some fights either among the local tribes themselves or with the 

The mutual distrust among the tribes and even sections inhabiting 
different districts is so great as to result in an almost absolute ignorance 
of each other. They appear to have a real fear of going into each other's 
country and invariably give one another a bad character. Thus Ka'kabs 
are an abomination to TabIns and Achaezais and Lu'ms to Ka'kabs, 
while the wretched Zabeha'k is harried on all sides. The Tsa' Kiie'l 
Kakars and the inhabitants of the Gwa'l valley manifested an extraordi- 
nary fear of the Pa'nI zai Eakars of the hills to the east of them. Saj^dab 
ILhul'l K&kars could not be induced to venture into the neighbouring LunI 
territory and I did not personally meet a man who had been towards 
GiiAZNi by the To'ba Plateau or along the Tal Chotiali Uoute. A guide 

• Macgregor's Ouzcttcer. 

152 B. C. Temple— i?oi*^« of the Tal CJwtiali Field Force. [No. 4, 

from the Do'f Bailey an Tsa' Ehe'l, showed the liveliest anxiety to get 
hack again from Isfiba Ba'gha and would not venture into the Zakhpe'l 
Territory and an old Utma'n Khe'l guide told me he had never ventured 
heyond the territories of his section of the Eakars. 

The structure of the houses in the more civilized parts, which in the* 
hills consist of nothing more than rough mud and thatch, is a further proof 
of the general lawlessness of the population. In the Ghazgaj, Bo'bai 
and Lu'ni Valleys, among the Utma'n, Sandar and Lu'ja Khe'ls a house 
is nothing less than a fort round which, frequently within walls, is the 
cultivation necessary to support life, and when the crops are gathered they 
are stored in little round mud towers which I have shown elsewhere to 
contain just enough grain for one family for a year. In the Do'f Valley, 
however, I only saw one fort in a village called Kha'nizai Ka'ee'z and in 
the Pishin the villages were all open. Life in the Pishin among the Tabiks 
and Say ADS seems to have heen much more settled than elsewhere, hut the 
AcHAKZAis have a had name as thieves and rohhers. 

Government among the Durdnis differs considerably from that of tbe 
other trihes, noticeahle chiefly in its regularity and order. Each section 
of the Dur&nis is governed by a sirdar and each subsection by a Malik or 
MusHiB. The principle is election qualified by hereditary claims, i. e.y the 
sirdar is elected from the chief family of the clan or section, and the malik 
from the chief family of the subsection. The sirddr has a deputy or naib 
always a near relative appointed by himself. Their occupation of the land 
is directly from the Amir on the condition of military service. Among 
themselves the Durdnis do not as a rule resort to private revenge, hence 
internal blood-feuds do not exist among them as among other tribes. Their 
disputes are settled by the " Jiboa'* backed up by the sirdar, by the inter- 
position of the elders, by friends of the parties, by the priests (Mullas), 
or by the civil and ecclesiastical judges (Ka'zi's). The Achakzais, the 
section of the Duranis met with en route, are the wildest of those inhabit- 
ing South Afghdnistan and are entirely a nomad race, hardly ever living in a 
house. They inhabit the To'ba Plateau and during the summer roam over 
it with their flocks and spread themselves over the lower slopes of the 
Kho'ja Amba'n Bange about the Kadanei and Pishin Valleys during the 
winter, where their black tents or Kizhdais are to be seen everywhere. 
Their Sirdar is at present MIb Aslam Kha'n, son of MfB Abdulla Kha'k 
who built the well known fort or village of that name at the Pishin 
entrance of the Kdo'jae Pass. 

The Kdkars and Independent Pa^hdns do not apparently recognise 
any particular sirdfir or chief, and probably any man rules who has the 
requisite force of character, though birth, on which an Afghan always sets 
such an extravagant value, is pretty sure to exercise considerable weight in 

1S80.] R. C. Temple "Boute of the Tal Ghotiali Field Force. 163 

the selection of a ruler. Thus Samanda.b Kha'k of the Lu'nis, now their 
leader, is the son or near relative of Paikd Kha^n their late ruler. Sha'h 
Jeha'k of Khasno'b (Zho'ii yallej) is a great man among the Edkars and 
GwABAT Kha^jt among the Sandab Khe'l. 

V. Civilization. 

Ajs regards civilization, except as to dress, methods of cultivation and 
dwellings, hut little could he observed iu such a hurried journey as mine. 

On the first point there is little to be noticed bejond what has been 
already written about it bj the authors of the following :* " The Afghans 
wear their clothes long. They consist of two large very ample robes and 
aie either of cotton or a cloth made of camel* s hairf called Babee : this is 
the dress of the people. The only difference in the garments of the rich 
is the material, which is silk, cloth or Kashmir. In summer they are made 
without lining, but in winter they are wadded with cotton or lined with 
for. The under-garment is confined by a piece of muslin or long-cloth 
which is wound round the body. The outside one, and sometimes a third 
rohe, is used as a cloak, and a person would be considered as wanting in 
politeness if on visiting a superior he did not put it on. The shirt is very 
full and the sleeves which reach below the hands particularly so.;( The 
former is open to the sides from the neck to the waist and falls over the 
trousers, and these which are excessively large, open at the foot and are 
drawn in at the waist with a string. The head is covered by an enormous 
blue or white turban and the feet with slippers without quarters. The 
upper classes are for the most part simply dressed and consider luxury in 
this respect as enervating, but some young chiefs have their robes embroider- 
ed with gold thread and ornamented with gold lace. This is done in the 
harems by the women who excel in this kind of work, particularly in Kanda- 
har. The Afghdns are not careful of their clothes and soil them the 
very first day they are put on, for they squat on the ground without taking 
the least thought whether the spot on which they sit is clean or dirty. 
They never change their garments, not even the shirt, until they are com- 
pletely worn out, and as they rarely wash themselves they are constantly 
covered with vermin great and small." 

In the matter of dress excepting the Achakzais, the Duranis show as 
usual a considerable superiority over the other tribes. The following was 
found to be a fairly true description of their dress.§ ** The Dur4nis about 

* Macgregor's Gazetteer. 

t A thick white material like felt for the outer cloak is common about KandahiCr 
and the Pishin, and to this is often added a '* p68htm" or coat of skin with the hair 
turned inwards. 

X The cloaks about Kandahar and all over the South have frequently long false 
■leeves reaching nearly to the ground. 

i Macgregor's Grazetteer. 

154 R. C. Temple— jBom/^ oftle Tal QUtiali Field Fbree, [No. 4. 

towns, most of those in villages and all those of the shepherds who are in 
easy circumstances wear a dress nearly resembling that of Persia, which 
though not very convenient is remarkably decorous and with the addition 
of a beard gives an appearance of gravity and respectability to the lowest 
of the common people. The poorer Duranis, particularly among the shep- 
herds, wear a wide skirt and mantle. The poor only change their clothes 
on Fridays and often only every other Friday, but they bathe once a week 
at least, and their prayerd require them to wash their faces, beards and 
hands and arms many times in the cpurse of the day. The lifctle Khdns 
all over the country wear the Persian dress. Their coats are made of silk, 
satin, and a mixture of silk and cotton called Gabmsut, and sometimes of 
brocade, and they all wear shawl girdles and a shawl round their caps. 
Their cloaks also are of broadcloth often red or of silk of different colours." 
To the Achakzais the above remarks hardly apply except in a very general 
way. Their manner of dress is the same, but they seldom or never change 
their clothes as long as they last, and consequently go about in iilthj rags 
often half tumbling off them. They are in dress as in everything else the 
most uncouth and uncivilized of the great clan to which they belong. 

With regard to the Sayads, Tarins and Kakars, etc. met with en route 
there is little to be remarked except that they all wore the unmistakeable 
Afghan dress. In the more civilized valleys as the Pishin, Ddf, Gwal, 
Ghazgai and the Borai the dress was better and more respectable answering 
to the above given description of the Durani dress.* But in the hill dis- 
tricts especially in the elevated region about Mt. MIzqwo the dress mere- 
ly appeared to be a collection of dirty rags, the remains of what was origin- 
ally the national costume. The PiNfzAis, Mehtabzais, Sabangzais, 
Amand and SulimXn Khe'ls, Dumabs and Zakhpe'ls among the Kdkars 
bear off the palm for dirt and squalor. The I'sX, UtmjCn and Sandab 
Khe'ls are much cleaner and neater in appearance and altogether better 
dressed. The Lf'nis and ZabkhXijs met with wore the dirtier and more 
ragged class of dress, but with the exception of the Sandab Khe'l Eakars 
the Pishin Sayads were the best-dressed people I recollect to have seen on 
the road. 

The dwellings were found to differ considerably in different parts of 
the route. Those about the Pishin and Dof valleys were apparently con- 
structed on the same principles, whether Sayad, Tarin, Achakzai or 
Kakar. Tribe indeed does not apparently affect the construction of 
dwellings so much as locality. 

The most noticeable construction of hut is that to be found every- 

* Among tho Sayads it was to be observed that the articles of drese were not 
homespun but of foreign Tnaniifafiture, obtained probably during their many visito to 

1S80 ] R. C. Temple— ^ott^c of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 155 

where to the west of the Eho'ja Ambait Eange. These are square dwellings 
of mud (kachchi) bricks about 20 feet bj 12 feet and some 6 to 8 feet 
high sormoanted hj one or more small domes. In this method of construc- 
tion wood is not required for the roof, a gi*eat consideration in a treeless 
coantry like South Afghanistan (vide hg, 1). But the hut ofthePishin 
Vallej and neighbourhood has a sloped roof (fig. 2) supported on strong 
nften, thatched and finally covered with mud. This roof is by far the 
most Taluable part of the structure, and during their numerous migrations 
tbej carry away the wood-work to be set up in the new site. The usual 
measurements of such a hut are roughly : length 18 feet, breadth 6 feet, 
height of wall 6 feet and of roof 10 feet. They have no windows but 
MsaaJlj three small holes at either end for air and smoke. A hut generally 
itands in a small yard surrounded by a rough stone or mud wall and some- 
times there are two or three huts in the same enclosure. 

As the mountainous regions between the Pish in and Shor Valleys are 
ipproached, the huts become much rougher though constructed on the same 
principles. They are irregular structures of mud over foundation walls of 
hi]ge unhewn and uncemented stones from the nearest stream or hill-side, 
ind frequently also the back wall is the hill-side itself. The roof as before 
ia of thatch covered with mud. There is also often a small window hole 
ud the door frequently stands out from the roof on the principle of a 
dormer window (fig* 5). The general dimensions are height 10 to 12 
feet, height of rough stone-work 3 feet, of mud wall 1 to 2 feet, length 10 
to 12 feet. 

Up in the mountains and in the upper gorge of the B. Ho'd the dwell- 
ings degenerate into a mere irregular thatch of leaves and brushwood of 
a pyramidal or conical form supported by a centre pole and having a door 
or entrance at one side. Frequently a hole is scooped out from the hill- 
side and thatched iu, so as to form a rough kind of hut or dwelling. These 
conical huts measure generally : height 10 feet, diameter at base 10 feet 

(PM20fig. 4). 

On reaching the lower lands about 0'BirsHTKA.i, KhwXra and 
CEniJ^, a hut very similar in appearance to that of the lower Ro'd 
Gorge is to be seen, the roof of which is irregular and of thatch covered 
with mud and supported on irregular rough stone walls cemented, so to 
•peak, with mud. There is usually no gap for a window (vide fig. 8). The 
measurements are : length about 12 feet, height of wall 3 feet, total height 
8 feet. 

In the mountainous tract between the Sho'b and Zho'b valleys the 
huts are very wretched and have the appearance of being of a temporary 
character. The floor is scooped out of the ground on the hill-side so as 
to save a back-wall, and a wall about 3 feet high is built up on three sides 

156 R. C. Temple— ^«^a of the 2U/ Chotiaii Field Force, [No. 4, 

Burmoanied bj the usual mud-and-thatch roof. The interior height la 
about 6 feet and the length some 10 or 12 feet, breadth 6 feet. 

But on reaching the Ghazoai and Bo'ba.i Valleys, «. e., the territories 
of the Utman and Sai^dab Khe'l Eakars, a notable difference in dwelling 
structure is observably. The houses, rather than huts, now to be seen are of 
mud, as in Belochistdn, Sind and the Panj4b.* In the Ghazqai Yallej 
they are all fortified after the fashion of these people, having frequently a 
look-out tower, which is sometimes square but generally circular, attached 
to them. The body of the building has the sloped thatch-and-mud roof of 
the Pishin valley. The entrances or doors are very low, being only 3 feet 
or so in height ; the tower has also a separate entrance of a similar 
construction, and round the top of it is a row of loop-holes. The usual 
dimensions are : height of wall 4 feet, of hut 8 feet, of tower 12 feet, base 
of tower 6 feet square (diameter, if round, 6 feet), length of hut 16 feet 
(vide fig. 9). 

In the Bo'eai and Lu'ni Valleys were the best dwellings (figs. 10, 11, 
13) I saw outside Kandahar in all S. Afghanistan, and I can hardly do 
better regarding them than repeat what I have elsewhere said.f " They 
are no longer huts, but have become houses with dimensions varying consi- 
derably ; fig. 10 represents one of the smaller ones. They are built entirely 
of mud with flat roofs from which the water is carried by projecting 
spouts. They are generally fortified and have towers attached and usually 
only one door. Fig. 11 represents one of these fortified houses. The 
bulk of the houses, however, in the Bo'bai Valley are much larger than 
those above mentioned, and may be described as fortified structures of mud, 
surrounded by a mud wall some 12 feet high and covering sometimes nearly 
an acre of ground (vide fig. 13). They have usually several towers attach- 
ed and one door ; within the outer wall are a quantity of fruit trees, and the 
house probably contains a whole family. Generally there is a low 3 
foot mud wall extending round the fields belonging to the house probably 
for their protection. Three or four such houses often constitute a village. 
The fortifications of an UtmXn Khe'l village are often supplemented by 
a small regular square mud fort or redoubt with corner towers. Forts of 
a similar description are also to be observed about the Sandab Khe'l and 
Lu'ni Territory, where the villages are generally a straggling collection of 

* In the Fanj&b the waUs of such a house (kachchi makan) are built simply of 
wet mud (g6i;idha) without foundation (bunydd), then smoothed over with liquid mad 
(kaigal) and finally covered with a wash of cowdung and mud (g6bri) and often also 
with whitewash (sufgdi) or a coloured lime-wash (rang). The roof (chhat) is of rafters 
(kharO covered with a light reed thatch (sirki), plastered over with mud or eartl^ 
(mit^hi) and cowdung (g6bri). 

t J. R. G. S., 1880. 

1880.] R. C. Temple— I(oute of the Tdl Ohotiali Field Force. 157 

the large fortified houses above described. They have a well-built, sub- 
stantial and prosperous appearance not often seen in the East. Sometimes 
a Malik or pettj chief will build himself a fort apparently as much for 
show as anything else. QBXsk Ko't in the Bo'sai valley (fig. 14) is such 
a fort. The main interest in it is that it is quite new, not more than 20 
years old, and so is a specimen of the modern method of Eakar fortifica- 
tion. It is on a small isolated hillock rising out of the valley, and is 
eonstmcted as usual of mud on a rough stone foundation. The owner is 
one SaitdI, an KiAzai Sandab Khe'l. The approach is by a 
eaoseway of very rough construction, and it is entered as usual by a single 
door so situated as to be easily commanded. The whole structure covers 
about an acre of ground". 

The nomadic habits of the Durdnis and especially of the Achakzai 
Gection of that tribe have been frequently noticed by former writers. 
Among the Kakars, too, are found several nomad sections, such as the Svli- 
uis and Amaitd Khe'ls of the Pishin and the bulk of the PInizais, 
DiTiCABS, and Zakhpe'ls ; even the more fixed and agricultural sections of 
the Eikars, as the Sandab and UtmIn Ehe'ls, and the Ltt'nis have the 
nomadic instinct strong in them and spend all the hotter weather roaming 
with their flocks in the neighbouring hills. By far the greater part of the 
AcHAKZAis have no fixed abode, but live in a curious kind of hut called 
a KizHDAi, which has been thought peculiar to the Durdnis, but as far as 
I oould ascertain, it is common to all the nomad sections whether DitbXni 
or KXiTAn- The Kizhdai is a structure of bent willow rods or withies 
covered over with black felt-like blankets and sometimes with black mat- 
ting {vide fig. 8). There are generally four or five of these willow supports 
in a row over which the covering is stretched. I saw one in the course of 
construction near AiizAi in the Pishin and the method of putting up the 
supports is that shown in fig. 15. The Kizhdais are very warm in winter 
and can be made, by opening out the sides, cool and pleasant in summer, 
and are also, from the closeness of the strands of the covering which swell 
with moisture, impervious to rain. They have for a nomad race the advan« 
tage of being as easily moved as an ordinary tent. In several Kizhdais of 
a permanent kind near villages I saw a regularly railed in space in the 
middle for goats and sheep. The usual dimensions are : height 4 feet^ 
length 12 feet, opening or doorway 3 feet by 3 feet. 

There are two other kinds of structure which are interesting in this 
connection. In the Bc/bai valley the Sandab Khe'ls build small circular 
mud towers of peculiar make {vide fig. 12), raised on piles about 2 feet 
from the ground, in which they store grain containing as I have elsewhere 
diown* about enough for five persons for one year. Bhcsa (chafE or chop- 

• J. B. G. S.. 1880. 

168 R C. Tem^le—Boufe of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force. [No. 4, 

ped straw for fodder) is kept in round mud-covered heaps containing about 
100 to 200 maunds, as ar« turnips etc. in England for the winter. Grain 
of all sorts is also stored in sacks weighing about 100 seers, which are kept 
in the huts and sometimes buried in some place known only to the owner 
to save them from the rapacity of the numerous hangers-on of the Sirdirs 
or of the Amir. 

.Secondly, XstAb or watermiUs are noticeable objects everywhere. 
Their general features have been frequently before described, as they are 
common to Afghanistan, Persia and Turkistan, and the following from 
MacGregor will answer the internal description of them all : " The wheel 
is horizontal and the feathers are disposed obliquely so as to resemble the 
wheel of a smoke-jack. It is within the mill and immediately below the 
mill-stone, which turns on the same spindle with the wheel. The water is 
introduced into the mill by a trough so as to fall on the wheel. The 
wheel itself is not more than 4 feet in diameter.*'* Externally they have 
always the appearance of the ordinary habitations round them, whatever 
the prevailing construction may be. They are to be found along the line 
of a KtT'l or of a natural running stream, and often, to give the water greater 
power, a portion of the stream will be banked up for some distance before 
it reaches the mill (fig. 4). The roof is usually on a level with the banks 
of the stream. In places, as at AhizAl in the Pishiu, long lines of 
Asxis and embankments are to be seen along the same stream (fig. 17). 

There is little to be remarked under the head of cultivation beyond a 
notice of such methods of irrigation, etc., as came prominently under obser* 
vation, for my journey was of too hurried a nature to admit of any inves- 
tigation. In irrigation considerable skill is everywhere evinced in 3. 
Afghanistan, especially in the direction of Ku'ls or artificial water-coorseSy 
of Kabe'zes or underground water-courses, and of groins and river dama. 
Wells are not seemingly in use for cultivation as in the Panj&b and Persia. 
The Ktt'l is well-known in all the northern districts of India and there 
is little to be added here, except to notice the general prevalence of this 
style of irrigation in S. Afghdnistdn, where along the Tabitak Valley it is 
used to such an extent as to dry up and disperse the water of the river : 
a state of things also noticeable along the rivers running towards the Indus 
and the KachI Plain of Beltichist&n. The entire flow of many mouDtaio 
streams is frequently thus utilised, and great skill is often to be observed 
in the preservation of the levels ; and in one place in the Bo'baj Valley I 
observed a Ku'l carried under the stony bed of the B. To'b Kha.ize' by a 
rough but practicable syphon. 

* Such watermills are common enough in the Himalayan district!, and I have in 
my possession a wooden bowl turned by a lathe worked by a water-wheel in a remote 
valley in KufLU'. 

1880.] R. C. Tem^le^Boute of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 159 

The EIrb'z has been freqaentlj noticed by travellers in Central Asia 
begianing with Marco Polo, who, according to Itamasio's version, writes 
aboafthe wearisome and desert road in EebmXn (KibmXn)'*, that* 
** after those days of desert jou arrive at a stream of fresh water running 
ondeigroand, but along which there are holes broken in here and there, per- 
hsps nndermined by the stream, at which you can get sight of it. It has 
in abundant supply and travellers worn with the hardships of the desert 
here zest and refresh themselves and their hearts." Col. Tule remarks on 
this (p. 116) " the underground stream was probably a subterraneous canal 
(called EjLjriT and EIbb'z) such as is common in Persia, often conducted 
from a great distance. Here it may have been a relic of abandoned culti- 
ntion". Khanikoff on the road between KibmXn and Yezd, not far west 
of that which I suppose Marco to be travelling, says : " At the fifteen 
inhabited spots marked on the map they .have water which has been 
hnHight from a great distance and at considerable cost by means of sub- 
tenaneous galleries to which you descend by large and deep wells. Al- 
tboogh the water flows at some depth its course is marked upon the surface 
hj a line of more abundant vegetation." Elphinstone says he has heard 
of such subterranean conduits 86 miles in length." MacGregor describes 
the construction of a Kinsfz thus : " a shaft 5 or 6 feet in depth is sunk at 
the spot where the stream is to issue on the surface, and at regular intervals 
of from 20 to 50 or more paces in the direction of the hill, whence it has 
heoD previously ascertained that a supply of water will be obtained, other 
•hafts are sunk and the bottoms of all connected together by slightly slop- 
ing tunnels. The depth of the shafts increases with their distance from 
the original according to the slope of the ground. Their number and the 
length of the Ka'bb'z depends on the supply of water met with, the 
quantity required and the distance of the habitable or cultivable spot. 
The position of the shafts is marked by circular heaps of earth on the 
nirface and their orifices are usually closed, the covering being removed 
at intervals of a year or more for the purpose of cleaning and repairing 
the shafts and tunnels. Much experience is required to select a spot from 
which a plentiful and lasting supply will be obtained. Some KXbe'zes 
afford a constant supply of water for ages whilst others become exhausted 
hefore they have paid for the cost of construction." To this I may add 
tiie advantage of the EjCbb'z is the prevention of the rapid evaporation 
the water would undergo in such a climate if freely exposed to the air. 
Eabe'zes are frequently very deep, 40 feet and more below the surface. 
Judging from one seen under construction in the Pishin, the shafts' or 
weUs are sunk as usual with pick and shovel and with crate and windlass, 
and the water-passage tunnelled out afterwards. One cause of the per- 

• Yale's Marco Polo I, 115. 

160 E. C. Temple— Boufe of the Tal Chotiali Field loree. [No. 4, 

manent drying up of EjCbe^es is the sbifting of the subterraneous water 
lodgment, and it is not uncommon to see parallel lines of KXbe'z wells close 
to each other. EXbe'z digging is a special occupation, the Ghilza.ib being 
famous for it. 

The system of irrigation by tanks or open reservoirs so successfully 
used in Maisu'b and many parts of the Madras Presidency is only sparing- 
ly used in Afghanistan, and I only observed a few small irrigation tanks in 
the Pishin and Kadanei Valleys, though from the universal presence of 
uneven country in Afghanistdn it would appear that the Maisu'b system 
of hands and tanks should succeed as a means of irrigation if regularly in- 

The method of irrigation by means of groins and reclamation of 
river-beds to be observed in the high lands along the valley of the B, 
Ro'd and in the Sho'b Valley in the neighbourhood of Chimjan" is very 
remarkable. These groins are constructed at a great cost of labour with 
rough stones and tree trunks and are frequently turfed over and planted 
with willows and small bushes. In the Bo'd Gorge the main portion of 
the cultivable land has been obtained in this way. 

There is one more point to be noticed in this connection. Elphinstone 
states (Kingdom of Eibul) that it seems to be only in* the very poorest 
parts of the country that land is allowed to lie fallow for a year. This, 
however, is apparently not the case in the Kdkar Country generally, espe- 
cially in the Bo'bai Valley, where the large area under cultivation is only 
to be accounted for by a large portion of it being allowed to lie fallow 
every year. 

Madder, which, as MacGregor observes, is common in the west of Afghi- 
nistdn and sold all over India by Pafihdns as MajIt orMANjfT, is to be found 
in the Do'f Valley in highly cultivated lands deeply furroughed and 
manured. The leaves are used for cattle and the roots for the dye. This 
cultivation is elaborate, good and costly, and the yield in the Do'f Valley 
is said to be worth Bs. 1000. The people there believe apparently that it is 
not grown elsewhere ; it is, however, to be seen about Takhi-i-Pu'ii near 

Graveyards deserve mention in this place. These are to be found 
scattered over the land in places quite remote from population. In fact 
the dead are frequently carried to long distances from their place of decease 
in order to be buried at a particular spot. This system of carrying the 
dead to certain places belonging to the family is prevalent among the 
Panjdb Muhammadans, the Yu'sufzais and other such Pa^hdns as inhabit 
British Territory. I saw the body of a SubabdXb of the 26th Panj^b 
Native Infantry who had died at Quetta being carried down the Bolan 
Pass to be buried in the Pesh&war District, and on the Panjdb Bailways 

1880.] B. C. Temple— jBou^tf of the Tal Chotiali Field Force, 161 

there are special rates and arrangements for tbe carriage of corpses. 
On the other hand among the Pafhans travellers and often the dead 
OD a field of battle are buried where they die, and the Ghilza^is are always 
60 huried. The reason given for conveying corpses to certain burial grounds 
is, that a Fa^hdn should be buried by the tomb of the Pf b or Saint he 
followed in life, at whatever distance it may be. This accounts for grave- 
vards on the summits of mountains, as on Mt. KhwjLta AmbXn in the 
GwijA Pass, and in the TbIkh Kub^lM and PIlkaj Passes miles away 
trom habitations.* I was told that parties on the road to and from a 
burial place were never molested. MacGregorf states with reference to 
the Ohilzais that it is the custom of the country to throw a heap of 
stones over a murdered traveller and that the road leading from Shilgha^b 
to Zu'bmat the frequency of these heaps is sickening, in many cases being 
{ound at the closed ends of ravines, showing that the poor travellers have 
nm as far as possible and then been hewed down. The same remarks 
would be perfectly true of the long and narrow TcxpoBABan Valley near 
Mi Mazhwo in the highlands separating the country of the Zaehpe'ls 
aod Pak£zais, a place particularly favourable for such murders, and the 
large number of such heaps as above described, sometimes three or four 
together, is horrible to contemplate. This method of forming cairns is 
eommon also in the Himalayan Districts, and I have seen Gxtbeh^^s in 
passing these Pathan cairns throw stones on them from sheer habit. 

The Lu'kib form little pillars of rough stones to mark the spots of 
victories over the Beltichis, and several such pillars (fig. 16) are to be 
found in the Han Pass and about the Debatable Lands. 

As might have been anticipated, of historical remains there are practi- 
cally none. Indeed such could hardly be expected in a country which has 
no history to speak of, beyond petty internal squabbling, and no means of 
constructing buildings on any scale or of durable materials. In the Pishin 
there is an old ruined fort of the HXbu'ns (TABfNs) on a hill called Sibe' 
£hila deserted about 60 years ago ; and near SamXlzai, not far from 
Eb:i7'8HDIL KhIn, a small artificial mound with some fortifications on it 
like those at Quetta, with which it has probably a similar origin. It is 
called Sp£n Khila (White Fort) but has apparently no local history. The 
only distinctly historical traditions which the Kakars appear to have relate 
to NiniB Shah's time, i. e.y only a century back, and in the Bo'bai all 

• The Zakxa Khb'ls, a wild troublesome tribe about the Khaibar, who have a 
bad name, are said to have stolen a saint from the Yu'sufzaib and murdered him 
to obtain the Pi'a round whose grave they bury their dead. Tradition says that they 
are such scoundrels, that no man among them could be found whom even they could 
reverence after death as a saint. 

t Quoted above in the section on Polity. 

162 R. C. Temple—Route of the Tal Ohotiali Field Ibree. [No. 4, 

remains are locally referred to him. lu the centre of the Valley a fort o€ 
some size built on the same principle as that at Quetta, but not so high and 
much more extensive, is called Sha.hb-i-N£i)IB. It is now deserted and 
considerably ruined. The principle on which these forts were built is a 
very sound one in such a country, as the most desirable position from, 
which to watch a valley is from an eminence so situated that all parts of 
the valley are visible at once, and at the same time that an enemy advanc- 
ing from the hills must show himself. As it is very seldom that such 
eminences are natural they had to be constructed where necessary. This is 
the governing principle in the selection of the sites of Quetta and Kanda^ 
bar, in fact the attempt to build Eandahdr alongside one of the apparent- 
ly strongly situated hills near it failed as a military measure. 

In the Bo^BAi Valley and along the route thence, vid the HakumbXb, 
TbI EH KuBAM and Hak Passes, towards BIbkho'm a remarkable set of 
remains are found everywhere in the shape of large quantities of pieces of 
burnt bricks and pottery* of a manufacture and excellence not now known 
in these parts. These are found in all kinds of places, on the hill tops, in 
the valleys and passes and alongside streams. The inhabitants say they 
are the remains of NIdib ShXh's army, but as this was an old KLftla. 
route, the present one vid Mbkhtab being not far distant, it is as likely 
that the presence of the remains is due to this as to NXbib ShXh's maroh 
in this direction ; it is, however, more than likely that he and his successor 
Ahmad ShIh, the first DubXni and hero of FiNfFAi, or portions of their 
forces made more than one march along this route. 

The state of civilization varies considerably with the locality, the in« 
babitants of the valleys being of course more civilized than their hill 
neighbours. As has been above observed, the more hilly the country the 
more scarce and rough the dwellings become, a sure indication of the 
general civilization of the occupants. The ZabkhIits and among the Ej[* 
KABS the DuMABS, Zaehpb'ls, P^kIzais and Amaitd Ehb'ls bear off the 
palm for wildness, and their civilization is merely nominal. The Utmait 
and SAin)AB Khe'ls present a substantial, though rude, form of civilization 
of the patriarchal type, as shown in their buildings, their husbandry, their 
better class of wearing apparel and the quantity of food supply, much of 
it foreign, which they possess, and the same is true of the Lifiri Ehs'ls. 
The E&kars of the Do^ and GwIl Valleys resemble their Pishin neigh- 
bours in almost everything, even to their habit of visiting foreign countries, 
and many an TsX Khe'l or Shamozai Eakar is to be found, who has been 
in Karachi and Bombay and even served as a sailor. In the Pishin there 
are many indications of a superior civilization, notably in the presence of 

* Several spedmens were sent to this Society by the present writer with tbe G(eo- 
logical collection he made in the districts under diacusaioa. 

1880.] R. C. Temple— -R<)tt/<J of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 168 

women and children in the villages passed by the annj, the knowledge of 
Hindustani, which is there so frequent as to carry one anywhere through 
the TaUey, and the travelling habits of the people. These traits are more 
specially to be observed among the Pishin Sayads, than among the TABfirs, 
ihongb many of these speak Hinddst^nf fluently, as also can some of the 
DofF and GwXl Valley Kakars. Many of the so-called Pa^hdns who travel 
to all parts of India and even to Burmah selling horses are Pishin Sayads, 
some of whom make it a yearly practice to do so, keeping regular agents 
at Basoaxu'b (in Maibit'b} and other horse marts. When the field tele- 
graph was first opened at Guusxiir KXbe'z in the- Pishin, all private 
messages had to be countersigned by the Political Agent, whose tent was 
besieged by applications for telegrams from the Sayads and Tarins, who sent 
messages to all parts of India, one being addressed to Kandy in Ceylon. 

YI. Language. 

Mj observations under this head were the most unsatisfactory of all, 
as I was enabled to do little more than observe the variations in the pro- 
nunciation of place names. 

The language spoken is Ptjshto* in dialects not, however, differing 
so much from the standard Pushto of our army as to prevent the soldiers 
from being readily understood. Its most prominent feature, the excessive 
guttundness, seen in such words as Ghwazh, Ukhmughdai, Zhizha Tak- 
eAi, is apparently such as is commonly to be found in the language, as 
also are the harsh cerebral \, 4 ^^^ Xt ^^ frequently heard all along the 

The next most important feature for the purposes of this paper is the 
interchaDge of consonants in place names. Those that came under obser- 
vation are the following, some of which are doubtless due to local dialectic 

Changes of J. 

into d and z. Nei]!n)EH s= NeisTEH: SxijOAi = SxIdgai = 


inio zh and y. Zho'b = Jo'b = To'b. 

into z. Zaj (the termination) = Zo'i = Jai «» JL 

into sh. Ka^BHiiiK sa KhujlXe. 

* Or PuxHTo. KH (^) and bh (cp) are convertible somidB in the language. 

t This IB especially the case in the Bo'hai Valley and in the conntiy approaching 
the Bel6ch Border. Bat this might be due to the propinquity of the Bel6chhi dialects 
in "wbick \ and 4 are very hard. 

X All Boch interchangeB are valuable for comparing and identifying the names 
gxten by yarioiis authors to places along the same route. 

164 E. C. Temple— Eoufe of the Tal Ohotiali Meld Force, [No. 4, 


Changes of Z, 

into d. Dabqai = Zabqai : Maitzajbiai =a Mundakai : Saitdas 

Ehe'l = Saitzab Khe'l, 
into d. To'b Khaize" = To'b Khaipe'. 
into zh, Zawab = Zhawab : Zad^jn = ZhadiJit. 
into g. Mflazai = Maxaoai. 
Changes of B and ^. 

r into r. Bo'eai = Bo'rai : WABiAaAi = WartXgai. 
r and r into i. MtJltat = Mitbtat : Kala = Kirs' = Kile': 

SbislqAij = Shnaohab = SmrAGHAL. 
r into d. KhwXra =a KhwXda. 

• ■ • • 

r into zh, Kizhdai = Kirdai. 

Changes of D. 

into g, AngXio) = NgXjtg = NigInd : SyXjgai eas StXjdai. 

Changes of G, 

into k. Ko't = Qo't. 

into gh, ShnaoXl = SbklquAl : Qhwaio) = Gund : Ghukdamaeai 


into Jch, GwXja sb KhwIja. 

Changes of KR. 

into k, KsHo'i KXbe'z = Khsho'i EIbe'z. 

into gh, Ighba^g &=» Iehbabg. 

Changes of F, 

into V and h, Tsap = Isab = IsAv. 

Changes of B, 

into p, Alab = Alip. 

Changes of 8, 

into sh, Lastai a^ Lashtai. 

Changes of TS. 

into ch. TsAMAUiiANG e=3 ChahIlang. 

Changes of V, 

into w, Vata'kbi =s Wata'babi. 

Instances of the loss and addition of consonants are : 

cf G, Pla'itgzhaea = Pla'nzhaea. 

of D and G, Anga'nd = Niga'n = Nga'ng. 

of B, DuMAB = Duma' : Bagha'wa = Baqhawab. 

of K, Lashtai = Lashtkai. 

And instances of the transposition of syllables and consonants are : 


of Gh, Ghobabgai sbs Oghbabgai : Zaghli^n »» Quazl^s, 
of y. A^TGA^'in) = Niga'itd = Inga'nb. 

im.] R, C. Temple— ^u/tf of the Tal GhoHali Field Force. 165 

From the above examples it will be observed that the most unstable 
consonants are J, z, zh, b, d, o, kh, f, b, s, ts, and v, with their counter- 
parts SH, CH, ZH, K, OH, B, and w. 

Begarding consonantal interchanges peculiar to the Fushto language, 
BaTcrtj (Gram. Pushto, p. 3) has noticed that kh ( ^ ) is changed into sh 
(cA)} ^ ( ^) i^te zh (J), ts and dz into ch and j. And of the Khai- 
SASis he observes that they so transpose their letters as to be almost 
unintelligible. In his Diet, of Pushto (xzii) he further notices the inter, 
change of z into dz. 

Of vowel sounds I noticed as peculiar an o pronounced in several 
words as the close Gterman o, thus, Uzhdo, Ma'zhwo. And also the common 
tennination ai (written bj Ravertj aey) which is sounded with a closed 
moath and sharply as one syllable, though it partakes of the nature of two ; 
thus, aL The frequent recurrence of this last gives the language an uncouth 
xmnd, and, coupled with the prevalence of guttural consonants, an unpleasant 
luurshness to English ears. 

The vowel changes are not important, the following being the most 

Changes of A and A\ 

a into i. A^i^gIkd = IkoXnd : Kazhdai = Eizhbai : Kala = 


* a into u. MulIzai «= Malagai : Manzakai «» Mundakai. 
a and a into au. Tsamaulakg = Chimalang = Chimalang. 
Changes of AI, 
into i and o%. Zai = Zo'i = Zf : LjCkai = LXkI : Bo'bai «» 

Bo'Kf : LiJnai = Ltfuf : Dabgai = DaegL 
into a. MaitgaIi bb Maingal. 
Changes of T7, 
into 0, LdKAi aa Lo'nai. 
Changes of L 
into e. IsAP == E'sap. 
Changes of WA, 
into au, WAi^f a = AurI A. 

into u and au. Ghwaih) = Gxtnd : WariXgai = UsiiGAi ^ 


into 6. StTBGHWAI^D = SUBGHiir. 

intoo. BaghIwa « BaghIo. 

Among local peculiarities a tendency to shorten and nasalize long 
vowel syllables was frequently to be noticed, thus — 
AuA5])t{K for AuadHs : Adinzai for Adizai : Banzai for BXzai : Ajjf 
KhXh for Ha'jI Kilas ; HAifniMBAB =^ Anubab : AKoisn) and NiNGiKD «» 

106 B. 0. Temple— i^oMltf of the Tat Chotiali Field Faroe, [No. 4, 

Nisa'n : Bahojl'wa »s Baohawax : and numerous other instanoes could 
be adduced. 

Tbe Persian silent w Bavertj (Gram. Pusbto 4) obaerres i« always 
sounded in Pushto ; thus vb^ t^ pronounced Khwa'b, not Kha'b, cA^ i 
is Khwa^, not Kha'n. Mj observations in Kakar-land did not quite 
bear bim out in this; for the following I found to be synonymous 
pronunciations. Akhttnd and Akkwakd : Zabeha^et and Zwarkha'n : 
Stjbkhwa'b and Sttbkha'b, (where the w is a gratuitous insertion, the 
word being Subkh+a^b, red water) : Subqhwand and SrBOnA'K. 

Before leaving the vowels a curious insertion of y in the following 
word is worthy of remark. Cno'TiA'Li is locally Cho'ta'lai : Zakhpe^l 
and Zaehpte^ are synonymous and so are Sya'jgai and Sa'z&ax. 

Tbe following is a list of the various forms under which place names 
were found by myself and on which the foregoing observations are based. 
1. Akqa'nb =s Noa^jeh, NieA^JEH, Niqa'n, Ik&ajt, NnfeAfir^ 

Nga'no, Niga'nd, Anoand, Nga'ndeh.* 
% muzabai = mzabai. 

3. Ajjf KIha'n = HA'jf Kha'jt. 

4. Gwa'ja == Khwa'ja. 

5. Sean =» Iskan. 

6. Zai — Jai, Jl, Zo'it 

7. Zho'b =a Jo'b, Yo'b. 

8. fsAF Kach «b Fsab Each, E'sab E[aoh, E'bav Each, Ydsuv 


9. Khabzangai CSS Khababzangai. 
10. Alla'hba'd =i Eha'laki>a'd.§ 

11. Kh^SHLA'K «=a KhUJIiA'K. 

12. EizHDAi = EiRDAi, Eazhixai, ElZHI>f .|| 

13. Eala = Eilb', Eire', Eo'igi. || 

14. Subkhwa'b = Subkha'b. 

15. Ehunghagai r=3 Ehckjagai. 

16. Go't == Eo't,|| 

17. EHSHo'f Ea'bb'z = EsHo'f Ea'be'z. 

• Jeh 18 for Deh, a village. These words represent the Lthi AiroiCKO and K*« 
AngXno of the map (Do^p Valley). 

t To show pronunciations of ai : this is a temuBatioii not a void. 

X These names arise from the confosioa between Tsay aad Y^suy (Esanand 

{ These words have the same meaning, f tc. God-given : there is a similarly named 
village near Kandahdr. 

II These aro not place names. 

I88a] B. C Temple— JZ0«#<9 of tie Tul OAotiali Field Force. 167 

18. Zhawab = Zawab. 

19. lOHBABa = iKHBABa. 

20. AMADthif = Amasb^jx. 

21. Adikai s= ADsrsAi. 

22. ZAiM^ir = ZHABtiH. 

23. MAireAX = MAnroAL. 
24 BaIeai = Ba'ksai. 

25. SuBeHWAKB = Subgha'st, SuBaHA'iri), Sbaoha^etj), Subohait, 


26. Shbaga'^jl = Shnaghab, Shbaqhal, Sknaoai, Shka' Khobai. 

27. WAjQif A Kaoh = Au^ £ach« 

28. Waboai = Babgai. 

29. MuLA'zAi = Malaoai. 

30. Zaehpk'l = Zakhpxs'Ii s= Zakhwai. 


32. DxriiAiL = Duma'. 

33. Sta'j0ai » STA^Bef, Sta'dgai, Sa'zai, Sya'jdai, Sazdai. 
84 Khwa'^a = Khwa^a, Khwa^^. 

35. ZAGHLt^ir = Ghazla'na, GHAZLiiir. 

86. DaBOAI = ZaBGAI, DABGf. 


88. GhWAITD = GXTET). 

39. Pla^zhaba =s Pla'^nozhaba. 


41. Baia'nai := BiA^iri. 

42. Sabdab KuEfh = Sakzab Khe^. 

43. To^B Khaizb' = To'b Khai^b'. 

44. Cho'tia'XiI = Cho'ta'lai. 

45. Bo'bi = Bo'bat, Bo']^ai. 

46. Labhtai = Lastai, Lashtkai. 

47. Wabia'gai = Wabia'gai, Ubia'gax, Aubia'gai. 

48. Hanumba'b = Akuba^b, Aitumba^ Hakvba'b. 

49. Mt^I/TAT = MUBTAT. 

50. LtfNI =: Lo'naI, LtfHAI. 

51. La'kai s: La^xI. 

52. TsAMAiTLAKG »» Chihalabg, Chakalabg, Chamaulang, Cha- 


58. Alab = Alip. 

54 Soba'h = Soba't. 

55. BaghaVa = Bagha'o, Baghawwa'b. 

56. Yata'xbi = Wataolabi. 

57. ZaBKHa'b = ZWABKHAV. 

168 E. C. Temple— i2ow^^ of the Tal Chotiali Field Farce. [No. 4, 

58. To'e Tsappab = To'r Tsuppei.* 

59. Paste* = Pasto'. 

60. Manzakai = Mfndakai. 

The frequent recurrence of certain names on the map leads to the 
supposition that many of them are merely descriptive and on examination 
the meanings of a great portion become apparent, the descriptive words 
having changed very little on becoming names of places.f And though it 
is always treading on dangerous ground to give derivations of place names, 
I think the following are worth hazarding : 

1. Tangai means a gorge or pass, so Spf b Tafgai would be the White 
Gorge (SpfE for SpIn) and Ti5r Tangai the Black Gorge (Ti5b for To'b.) 

2. Ghtind is round, globular and the Gnuin) Peak would mean the 
Round Hill, and Mt. Surghwand the Red Round Hill. Again Ghu:nt)a is 
a detached hill and Ghundamabai is Adam's apple in the throat, and as 
applied to a village would mean the village by the round detached hill. 

3. Lwa'ra means hilly and as applied to a valley would signify the 
hilly or upland valley. 

4. Chor means a ravine or water furrow and is applied to a steep- 
banked stream in the Pishin. 

5. Sire' Khila would be the Inn or Caravanserai Fort. It was the 
old rendezvous of the HXrtJi^ Tar£ns in the Pishin. This is probably also 
the meaning of Zara Khila in the Pishin. 

6. The Gaz Hills might mean the Long Hills f rom^^ a yard-measure 
or the Tamarisk Hills f rom ji a tamarisk. 

7. MzARAi means a particular kind of reed and is applied to a river, 
a valley, and some marshy springs and the hills near these last. 

8. Surkha'b is the Red River. 

9. Zargh^n means green, verdant, fresh and is applied to a range of 
mountains covered with forest in the heights and to a village by a stream. 

10. L(5r means Upper and K(5z, Lower, when found in composition 
with place-names. Lo'we' and Lo' mean Greater : Kuchnai and Kauit, 

11. In Mehtarzai, Mehtar is Persian meaning " master, ruler." 
Mehtarzai would mean the Ruling Clan. 

12. Ghwazh means a sluice and also the ear, and is found applied 
to a stream and a range of the hills, the Spfir Ghwazh, (?) the White Ear 
Hills. Zhwazh means the murmuring of a brook and may be the deriva- 

• A corraption of KalI Ohtjppr£ the Bel6ch name for the same place with the 
same meaning, viz., Black Hock. Thojs Tb£kh Kukam is called aljio So'u Kuram, vhich 
has the same meaning, Salt Springs. 

t I do not here refer to such purely men's names as HAsf bullah, KatsBDiL 
Khan, transferred to the villages owned by the persons of these names. 

1880.] R. C. Temple— 5otf/<J of the Tal Chotiali Field Force. 169 

tioQ of the river name, whence perhaps also Zhizha Tanoai (?) the Rip* 
pling Pass. 

13. Mt. ELoTD may derive its name from Kakb a chasm or Eajtbai 
broken ground. 

14. Mt. PiL from its fancied resemblance to an elephant, P£l or Ff l. 

15. Shaban Ka'^be z and Shabak occurring two or three times and 
once as Shs^bIn, are probably for Suf bi'n, sweet. 

16. StfB or SuBAi is red and is met with in several words. Subai 
also means a passage and the so-called Subaka'bi Pass (the Subai Pass of my 
maps) is for Subai Narat, the Slender Passage. Cf . also La'ndai Subai (?) 
the Lower Passage. Mo'mand Saba'i (?) the Momand's Passage. 

17. The word Qhbabg, as in Oghbabg, Iehbabo, Ihobabg and in 
the plural forms Qhobaboai and Oghbaboai^ occurs several times. It 
means the flat land between two hills, and upland valley : also double, two, 
tvins. In which latter sense it is probably used when applied to hills. 
And hence also Nabaighbabg Hills may mean the Narrow Valley Hills. 

18. Ro'd means merely a river : Ro'dba'b, a valley stream. 

19. KsHAi means in, between, etc. and Ksho'i Kabez might mean 
the Middle Karez. 

20. KnWARA is probably for Khwara, a sandy stream-bed, as 
Beveral such beds debouche into the SnoB valley at the spots so named. 

2L Sagab, Sbaghab, Sabghab, Subghab all common names mean 
the Red Hills (Sub+Ohab). So the Sagabbanjd Pass would be the Red 

22. SuBKAi Zangal is the Red Forest. 

23. Dabgai, a very common name, is the plural of Dabga, a copse, a 
place where trees and brush-wood grow together. Dabga also means a 
shrine and this may account for its application to villages. 

24. Gubb:hai is applied to a mountain stream and its defile and may 
mean rattling, noisy, as Gabkai is the rolling of a carriage and Gabkak^a 
a rolling stone from a mountain. 

25. Zawab or Zhawab (Zawar) is a slope, declivity. Lwar Zwar is 
uneven ground. Zhawab also means a deep or hollow place. 

26. TJsH or Ukh is the camel. The Ush Pass means the Camel's 
Bass, and the Ukhmughdai Pass the Camel's Mouth Pass. (Ukh + Makh). 

27. UzHBo, the name of a peak, is apparently the plural of Uzud, 
UzHD and Ukp, long, lengthy, stretched out. 

28- Tsa'bu Peak = P the Look-out Peak. 

29. The Mo'sAi Pass may derive its name from Mo'sai, a child's 
marble, a round stoiie, or from Mo'zi', troublesome. 

30. Kach is the cultivation by a stream-bed and is seen not only by 
itself as a name for ^ stream, a village and a hill, but constantly in compo- 

1^ B. C. Tem^leSoufe of the Tal Ohoiiali Field three. [No. 4, 

fiitioD, as TsAP Each, Esau's Plot, Ta'si" Kach, Greyhoand Plot, Eo'sh 
Each, Crooked Plot, War! a Each, the Free Plot, Si^b Each, the Bed 
Plot, Zagak Each (?) the Bough Plot. 

81. Sho'b which constantly appears as a name is prohahly for Sho'ea 
or Eho'ba, saltpetre, nitre : a common property of the soil along the 
route. It appears again in So'b Ei^raic, the Salt Springs. 

82. Shna' Ehobai occuring as a synonym for Shkagha% a yiUage 
Dame, would mean a Mastic Eater. 

83. Tbi'kh is salt, hitter, and appears in Tbikha'oaoh, the Salt Hill* 
aide, if Da'gh b for Ta'k, or the Salt Plain, if Da'gh is for Da'o : and in 
Tbi^kh EdBAM, the Salt Springs. 

84. Chafpab or Tsappab, a corruption of Hind. Ohhappab a thatch- 
ed roof appears as a hill name in Mt. Chappab and in To'b Tsappab, the 
Black Boof , a hill in the Han Pass. Both peaks have rounded tops. It is 
worth mentioning here that Tsapa means a wave, hillow. 

Z6, Chi'nai is a conmion village name and is the plural of Cm^i, a 
spring, fountain. 

36. Ghab, a hill, appears in Mt. SpnrsKHAB, the White Hill : Spe'sa- 
OHAB Hills, the Grey Hills: Tano Ghab, the Narrow Hills. Zhab, 
appearing in several hill names, is probably for Ghab : Zelibpitah Peak, 
the Sunny Peak, Pla'stzhaba Hills, the Broad Hills ; Zhabubaitd Peak, 
Hills End, is given to the last hill of a line in the Sho^b Valley. 

37. Ibpiba Ba'oha, the Open Meadow (Spa^ai + Ba'oh) ; the place 
is an open spot near Mt. Ma'zhwo. Spa|lai, open, also turns up once or 
twice as Sapubai. 

88. Mt. SUBLO' (?) the Bed Tablet. 

8d. Tang Tc/b Peak, the Narrow Black Peak* 

40. SuBTAK Peak, the Bed Precipice. 

41. Mali/wa Peak (?) The Camel Sack (Malav). 

42. La'kdai Peak, the Lower Peak. 

43. Pla'n Springs, the Wide Springs. 

44. EndNf Hills, the Bloody HiUs. 

45. Shaea'be'z (?) The Back E4r6z and Jalea'Ibe'z, theThom Eir^ ; 
two villages near each other in the Bo'bai valley. Shaka'bb'z occurs twice. 

46. EuTSA or Etjcha Yalley means perhaps the Little Valley. 

47. Tba'han Wells. Tsa'han is the plural of Tsa', a well, pit. The 
word appears again as Uchsaha'w Springs. (?) The Upper (|}j) Springs. 

48. Ba'ghu To'b Peak (?) The Black Bogie. BA'atf is a bugbear, bogie. 
48. Ba'la Dha'ka (?) The Upper Pkin (pA'o). 

50. Hakokai is probably a diminutive of Han, the two passes beiog 
near each other. 

51. ToQHAi, a river name, is Turki for a reedy plain. 

1S80.] B. C. Temple— Bouie of the Tal Ckoiiali Field Foree. 171 

Id a former paper in this Journal* I remarked that a village may be 
ei]led bj six different names bj glides, those thoroughly acqaalnted with 
the locality would recognise it by any one of them, others less well acquainted 
will only know it by some of them. Thus a village may be called (I) after 
the district or tract of land in which it is situated. Taeht-i-P^l is such a 
mme, Mel Maitda is another ; villages 10 miles apart are called Taeht-i« 
rfh and Mel Makda. simply because they are situated in the tracts so 
ealled. (2) It may be called after the section of the tribe which inhabits 
it, thus, Ba'bakzai; (3) after the subdivision, thus, Khuttsb'zai or 
MoHAMMABZAi, (4) after its late own^ if recently dead, (5) after its 
present owner, thus, EALA-l-vt$B-in>-Di'K Kha'it merely means N^B-UD-Bi'if 
£HAir*s village, and the owner*s is usually the proper name of a village, (6) 
after its own name. To give an example ; the village marked Ami'n Kala 
in my map of the ABGHiSA'iir valley was named to me as Ba^baxzai, 
HuHAincADZAiy Am'if Khav and Lati^f KhaV. Lati'f Kukmc is its 
present owner : AiiVs Khak was the late owner, Muhammadzai is the 
sobdinsion and Ba^akzai the section of the tribe inhabiting it. It will 
be eanly seen that the more general terms are known at a distance and the 
more specific ones only in the immediate neighbourhood of a village^ 
Comi^cated as this system of nomenclature looks, it is natural enough in 
i eoontry where the individual occupies such an important place in men's 
minds and nationality so little. It is not difficult to deal with in practice, 
after a slight knowledge of the country is acquired, but it accounts for the 
great apparent discrepancy in names and distances met with on maps and 
b roates. These remarks aru true also of the TASi'n' and Kaolab country* 
nras in the Pishik, Gakoalzai and Sha'Hpa^ are names for the same 
place, and so are llBrMZAi and Satad Sa'lo and also Bbtja'n Kala and 
Aru'A. Kala. Several villages are called Bbahamzai, viz., Satad Do'bt 
MoHAiacAD, Satab Ehaha'nbai, Satad La'l. Three are called Ltfs 
(Upper) EHA'inzAi, viz,, Mohammad Sa^dix, Yakt'l, and La'l Mohammad 
and two Baoabzai, viz., Satad Alab and Satad Paito ; two Ya'shtozat, 
«fts., Satad Shb'bbat and Satad To'ti. The more specific are the malik's 
(or owner's) names. In the case of the Bbahamzai villages, that of Do'st 
Mohammad may be ealled Bbahamzai proper, and the same is to be 
afaserved of the three Ka'bozai villages in the same neighbourhood, one ie 
called Ka'kozai and the other two also Madat and AiAf Mohammaik 
On entering the Do't valley the two villages known in the FishiB by 
leveral variations of the word Asqx'sq or NnroA^ND are found to be 
keally Ltf b and K^e AKOAire, Upper and Lower AiroA^iro. Names, however, 
are more specific in the Do>, and villages of the same name are distin- 
guished by the tribal name in addition, thus Tlabai (TsX Khb'l) and 

« Boogh notes on the DiatnbuUQn of the AlgUsk Tiibea ab»»k Kandahir. \oL 
XLVni, pt. 1, 1879» 

172 U. C. Temple— JBou/tf of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force, [No. 4, 

Tlabai (Meutabzai). In the Bo'rai valley, however, Wazu.'oaj and 
Khakkai seem to be general names for groups of villages and we have 
two MuAs and two Waua'bs. In the wilder parts names become more 
general and merely descriptive, everything in the neighbourhood, valley, 
river, village and hills, all being known by the same name. Such are, 
O'bushtkai, KnwA'^A, Chimja'k, Kach, Baii'nai in the Sho'b valley, 
and in still wilder regions Nangaluxa, To'pobasgh, Tbl'kh Ki5ra]£, 
TsAMAiTLANG and Ba'la Dha'ka. Towards the Beldeh Border double 
names, the Patlian and the BeMch are met with, as To'b Tsapfab and 
Ka'li' Chuppbi, both of the same meaning, the Black Hill : and Ba'uav 
KuKD (Pa^han) = Bani'wa'la' Kach (Bel6ch). 

Some names are corruptions and abbreviations ; such as Sat ad Sa'lo and 
Sa'tad Atv probably, and perhaps Skan and Iskan for Alexander (Iska5- 
dab) : Ajji' for Ha'ji' : Sama'lzai for Ibma'ilza'i : Bbahamzai for 
Ibba'himzai : Aljv and Alab for Halab (Aleppo) : and perhaps Sopa'5. 

EAi for Isfaha'nzai. 

In places there seems to bo a tendency to call villages after the names 
of celebrated places, thus we have Di'lai, La'ho'b and MiJltat in the 
Bo'bai valley. 

Before leaving this point I would remark that across the Beldcb 
Border in Ba'bkiio m (or Ba'ekha'n) a similar if not a greater confusion 
of nomenclature exists. Thus the place called Luoa'bi' Ba'bkha'it is also 
called Banoala': Hasni' Ko't = Ta'nkhi Shahb: Cha'he'n = Ba'bui* 
Kha'n ka Ko't or Shahb: Na'ndha' = She'kh Ko't while all the 
Na'hab villages are sometimes grouped as Na'hab Ko't, and finally the 
valley itself is variously called Ba'bkho'h, Ba'bkha'n, Ltjoa^bi BIbkhak, 
LiJxdi'a'n and Kaho. 

Having now explained a^ far as possible the reasons why the nomen- 
clature of travellers* along the same route in Afghanist&n should differ 
so greatly, and in order to clear the way for future students of this parti- 
cular route, I close this paper by a comparison and identification of names 
found in the journals of other travellers with those to be found in my maps. 
Included among these are the nomenclature ia Capt. Holdich's plane-tahle 
sketch-map of the Eoute and in the Quarter Master Qeneral's Depart- 
mental sketch-map, and also the names given in Major Waterhouse's paper 
in this Journal, t 

* Capt. Heaviside remarks on the difficulty of obtaining Afghin names, in Miajor 
Waterhouse's report, pp. 53. J. A. S. B. VoL XVIII, pt. II, 1879. 

t The works referred to in the comparison are Notes on the Survey Operationi 
in Afghanist^ in connection with the Campaign of 1878-9 by Major Waterhonsey J. A. 
8. B. 1879. Mackenzie's Routes in Asia, Sec. II, Afghanist&i. Macgregor's Gazetteer, 
Afghanistin, Leech's Route : Dera Ghilzi Khdn to Eandah&r. Lmnsden's Mission 
to Eandahir. A more detailed identification of the names along the route will ^ 
found in the appendix to my paper in the J. K. G. S. above referred to. 

im] B. C. Temj^USoute of the Tal Ohotiali Field Force. 173 






: < 




: o 







* ^ 

5 p 


I I 



wj W tt w w 
{^ H P4 


S tSP^M M t§ ^ PkP^CMPk^l^ 
















174 B. C. Temple— i2ot»^0 of the Tal Ohoiiali Field Farce. [No. % 






§ IS I 

P^ PQ CQ cc 

g 9 

C» M H 


s ^ 

Hi :5 


Si^ ^ 


rs ^ 

M ^ 









U O b ■•) 

Q M H M 

o C -I 


3 >^ te tfj 

^ < p s 

;:? a w B 


ti4 n 



I 5 v« .N -P § I 

g 3 s S g g B 5 

^ pq pqpqpqco 0.0. 








^ pS<ge 





(^ M H 



pq QQ QQ QQ 

1880.] R. C. Tem^leSoute of the Tal Okotiali FUld ^S^oe. 176 

















w 5 



X .. - "bb o o .-, 

o c> 5 !§ 5: § ^ 


ao g „ 


M 5 ^ S 




a e fe o 2 

•< ^ < , M 

pq S iz; p; S 















3 "^ 







'■ a 








176 R. 0. Tem^\e—Boute of the Tal Chotiali Field Foree. [No. 4, 

• » 










•5 d 



^ (3 







£ 5 § 
h3 M OQ 

S n qs 
PLi M pq 


» o 







o- ft 





" § g 






^ ^ - 


O -^ 




ra^w s § 5 

ocSm p4 m n 

1980.] B. C Tempie^Baute of the Ihl Chotiali Field Ibree. 


A comparison of the names to be foand on the three latest maps of 
this roate, namelj, those of my own, Capt. Holdich, and the Quarter- 
Master General's Department, will complete my observations. 

JErom the JPishin eatiwarde. 



KiDAyEi Valley 
Kho'ja Amrl'jx Hills 
Ehva'ja AjauN Peak 
EiLi. Abdullah Kjha^jx 
Gwa'ja Pass 
Kho'jax Pass 

filHAHDIL Kha'K 



Bsua'h Ejlla 

Satad Salo 



B. To'qhai 







Satad Paut 

Noa' Ba'za'b 




Kht'shdil Kha'it 

B. Babso' 




Eho'ja Akba'k 
Kwa'ja Amban 
Killa Abdula 

Ba'mdil Kha'n 
Maisai & PAizf 













Saifa'n & Saipain 

• • • 








Quarter-Master General. 
Kho'jeh Amba 'it. 

< • • 

Etla Abdula Eha'n. 




• • • 


• t« 








Saipa'n & Paut Eala* 

Noa' Ba'za'b. 







178 B. C. Temple— Botf^tf of the Tal Choi tali Fteid Ibrce. [No. 4, 



Quarter-Master GeneraL 













SuuAi Pass 






E. Subkha'b 



Mohammad Shabfi 

Sabta'da Ea'be'z 

Sabea'da Ka'be'z. 

Mt. Kand 
















• •• 


Balozai Ka'be'z 









Kha'nizai Ka'be'z 






Zabghu'n Ka'bts'z 

Zebgu'n Ka'be'z 


KsHol KXbe'z 



R. Ro'd 









Mt. Takatu' 






Ukhmttghdai Pass 



R. Zadu'n 






Mt. Zabghu'n 






fsAP Kach 

Ytjsff Each 

YusAP Kach. 

UsH Pass 



Mt. Mazhwo 








\ / 


Mt. Spjlnsehab 

• •• 




• «• 

Mt. Subguwakd 



Zho'b Valley 



1880.] B. C. Tem^le-^Boute of thecal Chotiali Field Force. 179 


Mo'iCAXD Sasa'i 


Pa'lkai Pass 
HntDU Ba'gh 


Mt. Matkhilas 
Mt. Sta'jqai 
Ki'sAi Hill 
Sabeai Zaitgal 




To'b KHAizir Hills 














HuTDu Ba'gh 


































Quarter-Master General. 



• * ■ 
Hnrooo Ba'gh. 
Shtj'n Lu'k. 










Chaplai. ) 









180 R. G. TempleSotUe of tie Tal Okoiiali Field Farce. [No. 4, 

\ Temple. 


Quarter-Master QenenL 

Babmivai I 









China' Ko't 













■ •• 





Kaun Waha'b 












Sabghab Peak 









Tbi'kh Ktjbam 

Tbekh Kubam 

Tbekh I^ubraic. 













Bbahamzai Khela't 



Ma'b Pass 






Hanokai Pass 



Ba'la Dha'ka 



MiTTHi' BIhuYw 



Han Pass 



jA'imHBA'N Hills 



Cho'b Tabap 


Cho'b Ei' Tap. 

Ba'han Kund 


Ba'hanwa'la' Each. 

Chapab Hills 



1880.] Dr. G. Thibaut— 0» the Siryaprajnapti. 181 

On ike Surynprajnapti. — By Dr. G. Thibaut, Principal^ Benares College. 

Pabt II. 

{Ckmiinwd from p. 127.) 

Although ancient Indian astronomy was chiefly interested in 
the moon and although the greater part of the Suryaprajnapti treats 
of her, especially of the places she occupies at different times in the 
circle of the nakshatras, a detailed connected account of her motions 
is not given anywhere, and we must combine the hints we meet with 
here and there, in order to understand the theory by which the old tirthan- 
kans tried to explain to themselves her motion. In doing this we are 
of course greatly aided by the full and unambiguous account gi\ren of the 
8iiQ*s motion, since it will not be presuming too much that the theory 
▼hich had been applied to the one luminary would be applied to the 
other one also. As we have seen above, the sun's daily apparent motion is 
regarded to be his true one and considered to take place round Mount 
Mera ; his yearly motion is the consequenca of his moving more slowly 
than the stars ; his motion in declination is the result of his describing 
round Mount Meru circles of varying diameter. All this is applied to the 
moon too. The moon describes (or the two moons describe) circles round 
Mount Meru at the height of eight hundred and eighty yojanas above the 
earth, so that her place is eighty yojanas above that of the sun. She moves 
slower than the stars and slower than the sun ; while the latter describes 
daring one yuga 1,830 (or strictly speaking 915) circles, the moon describes 
only 1,768 (or again on the assumption of two moons 884) such circles ; 
the difference of the two numbers = 62 indicates the number of times the 
moon enters into conjunction with the sun. During the same period, viz.^ 
the quinquennial yuga, the moon completes sixty-seven sidereal revolutions. 
Each of these revolutions is, analogously to the sun's revolutions, divided 
into two ayanas, an uttardyana and a dakshindyana, according as the moon 
is proceeding towards the north or the south (of the equator as we should 
Add). In reality, it is true, the motion of the moon is much more compli- 
cated, as it is not only oblique to the equator, like the ecliptic in which the 
ran is moving, but also inclined to the ecliptic itself at an angle of about 
^'i while moreover at the same time the points in which the moon's path 
cnts the ecliptic are continually receding. One of the consequences of the 
revolution of the nodes did, as we shall see below, not escape the observation 
of the author of the Suryaprajnapti, but he was manifestly unable to 
account for it by a modification of his theory. According to him the moon, 
like the sun, amply describes concentric circles round Mount Meru, some- 

182 Dr. Q. Thibftui— 0« fhe Suryajprajn^H. [No. 4, 

times approaching it sometimes receding from it. While, however, the period 

of the sun's progress from and towards Mount Meru comprises one year — 

the time which the sun employs in arriving again at the same star — ^the co^ 

responding period of the moon embraces one nakshatra month = 27 days, 

9 W muhurtas. From this it is easy to find the number of the circles the 

moon describes. She performs during one yuga 1,768 complete revolutions, 

1768 26 

consequently during one nakshatra month . - = 26 j;= revolutions, and 

during one ayana or sidereal half month 13 -r- revolutions. The moon 


therefore proceeds towards the north during the time which she wants for 

describing 13 -- circles, and after that she proceeds towards the south for 

the same length of time. From this it follows that, while the sun has lS4i 
different circles to describe, the moon has fifteen such circles only. At the 
beginning of the yuga she leaves the outermost circle and begins her utta- 
rdya^a, describes the thirteen circles intermediate between the outermost 
and the innermost ones and enters into the fifteenth (innermost) circle^ 


through -^ parts of which she passes. After that the sidereal half moon 

has elapsed, and the moon has to retrace her steps towards the south. She 
therefore leaves the innermost circle unfinished, returns into the next one» 
passes again through the 13 intermediate circles and enters into the 15th 


(outermost) circle. After she has passed through — parts of the latter, 

the sidereal half moon is again over and the progress towards the north 
recommences. Thus the moon moves in 15 circles of different diameter, 
but only 13 she passes through in their entirety while a fractional paii 
only of the two exterior circles are touched by her. We have seen above 
that the vikampa^kshetra of the sun, t. «., the extent to which the sua 
moves sideways in his northern and southern progress is estimated at 610 

yojanas ( = 183 X 2 ^r J *^® latter quantity being the amount of the 


daily vikampa) ; the vikampa-kshetra of the moon is estimated at neailj 

the same amount, viz,^ 509 -7 yojanas (it has been already remarked that 


the inclioation of the moon's path to the ecliptic is not known to the Sdrjs- 


prajnapti). The diameter of the moon herself is estimated at -^ yojanas, 


the interval between consecutive circles described by the moon at 

80 4 25 

1880.] Dr. a Thibaut— Oi^ the Sdryaprqfn^ii, 183 

4 . . . 

+ r — ^, which multiplied bj 14, gives the above stated amount 

[509 -- j as the whole vikampakshetra during one lunar half month. 

Here— as likewise above with reference to the sun — ^the Sdrjaprajfiapti does 

not directly speak of the diameter of the moon, but of the measure of the 

breadth of the circle described bj the moon ; but the two things come to 

the same. The manner in which the moon, after having completed one of 

her circles, passes over into the next one is not expressly detailed ; we must 

imigine it similar to that of the sun. 

In connexion with this account of the moon's motion, the Stirjapra- 

joapti enters into a curious calculation, of no practical, and it can hardly be 

mi any theoretical interest, which, however, may be mentioned here as a 

tpeeimen of the accuracy with which the system is worked out into its 

ouBQtest details. The question is raised : what circles are common to the 

Am and moon and how far are those of the moon's circles which belong to the 

Ban also touched by the latter P As the moon's circles are elevated above 

those of the sun by the amount of eighty yojanas, strictly speaking not 

any circle is common to both ; common to both are, however, said to be 

those circles of the moon which when projected upon the plane in which 

the sun describes his circles partially or entirely coincide with the latter. 

The vikampa-kshetras of the two being nearly equal, while 15 circles of the 

moon correspond to 184 circles described by the sun, the consequence is 

that the by far greater portion of the sun's circles do not coincide with the 

moon's circles, but fall into the wide intervals separating the latter, one from 

another. Thus for instance the first (innermost) circle of the sun coincides 

with the first circle of the moon, so that when both luminaries move in 

their innermost circles their distance from Mount Meru is equal ; only the 

circle of the moon overlaps that of the sun by —- yojanas, this being the 

difference of the breadth of the circles described by the two (of the diame- 
ters of the two bodies). The next twelve circles of the sun all fall into 
the interval between the first and the second circle of the moon ; for this 

8 38 

interval (plus the overlapping -- of the first circle) amounts to 85 + -j 


yojanas, while the vikampa-kshetra of twelve solar circles 



amounts to 33 -r yojanas only. After that two yojanas are occupied by 


the interval between the 13th and the 14th solar circles, and then the four- 
teenth solar circle begins, which therefore partly coincides with the second 
huuur circle. By continuing these calculations for all lunar circles, it is 

184 Dr. G. Thibaufc— 0/1 the SiryaprajnaptL [No. 4, 

found that the first up to the fifth inclusive, and again the eleventh up to 
the fifteenth inclusive are '* sdrja-sammi^r^i^i," t. e,y partly coincide with 
Bolar circles, while the sixth up to the tenth do not coincide with solar circles, 
the latter falling entirely into the intervals between the named lunar cir- 
cles. To reproduce here all the details of the calculation would be purpose- 
less. — That the preceding account of the moon's motion agrees with the 
ideas of the author of the Sur japrajnapti is to be concluded from the formulas 
given in different parts of the work for the performance of certain calcula- 
tions. Thus for instance the question is raised, in what ayana and what circle 
each parvan takes place, i. e., how many ajanas have elapsed at the different 
times when the moon enters into conjunction or opposition and in which 
of the fifteen circles she is moving just then. This question is answered 
by some ancient gathas quoted in the commentary, according to which the 
calculation has to be made as follows. The constant quantity — the V9KTff(^ 
which is to be used for the calculation of each parvan, is equal to 

4 9 

1 -f — 1 -f rr ;:= I viz,i of one of the circles described by the moon. 

67 3 L X 67 '' 

This quantity is of course easily found by the following consideration. The 

moon which describes in one yuga 1,768 circles describes in one parvan 

'ttt: =* 14 -— circles and in one ayana 13 —■ circles ; the difference of 
124i 31 '^67 

these two quantities is the above mentioned constant quantity. The rule 
for finding the places of the parvans is now as follows : The way accom- 
plished by the moon during one parvan being equal to the way accomplish- 

4 9 

ed during one ayana plus I -f — + ^r-- — -pi circles, take at first as many 

ay anas as the number of the parvan whose place is wanted indicates, multi- 
ply then the constant quantity by the number of the parvan, and if the 

result exceeds 13 i— , deduct it from this latter quantity (which subtraction 

if necessary has to be repeated until the remainder is less than 13 -p ) ; 

as often as this subtraction is performed as many unities are to be added 
to the number of ayanas found above and — unless the subtraction leaves 
no remainder — one additional unity is to be added ; add 'two to the remain- 
der ; the resulting sum will indicate the circle in which the moon stands 
at the parvan. Kegarding this latter point it is to be remembered that 
the circles are to be counted from the innermost circle when the number of 
the parvan is an even one and from the outermost circle when it is an odd 
one. To illustrate this let us take one of the many examples given by the 
Commentator. Bequired the place of the moon at the fourteenth parran. 
Multiply at first one by fourteen, that means : fourteen ayanas have elapsed 

1880.] Dr. G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajnapti. 185 

4, 9 
it the time. Then multiply 1 + - -f — by fourteen ; the result 

56 126 60 2 

"^* + 67 + snrer = ^* + 67 + WT&j- ™' " '^^ "'''"^' 

of circles which the moon has passed through during fourteen parvans in 
addition to fourteen ayanas. As this number exceeds the number of circles 

viz.y 13 — j, the latter number has to be 

deducted from it and one has to be added to the number of ayanas. So 

we see that the moon has performed 15 ayanas at the end of the 14th parran. 

The remainder left after the above deduction shows the number of circles 

vhich the moon has passed through in addition to the 15 complete ayanas ; 

47 2 
in our case these amount to 1 + ^7 + Z\ Fy* ^ there is an excess 

aitoTe 15 complete ayanas, we have according to the rule to add one to 

their number, t. e,j the parvan takes place in the sixteenth ayana. ' And 

since the moon enters at the beginning of the ayana into the second circle 

(the circles being counted from the innermost as well as the outermost) 

and since in our case the moon has completed more than one full circle^ 

tvro has to be added to the number of circles found above in order to obtain 

the ordinal number of the circle in which the moon stands at the expiration 

of the 14th parvan. The full answer is therefore : the 14th parvan takes 

place in the sixteenth ayana, in the third circle (reckoning from the inner* 

47 2 
most circle), •:= + ^k ^ ^^ ^^^^ circle having already been passed 

through. In the same manner the places of all other parvans may be easily 
found ; the commentator gives the places of parvan I — XV ; but it would 
serve no purpose to extract them here. What has been given will suffice 
to justify the hypothetical account of the moon's motion detailed above. 

The question regarding the relative velocity of sun, moon and stars 
which is raised in the 15th book finds its answer in accordance with the general 
principles of the system. The apparent daily motion being considered as 
the real one, it follows that the nakshatras travel faster than the sun, and 
the sun again faster than the moon; the space passed through by 
each of these bodies during a month, day, muhtirta, etc. is calculated and 
exhibited in detail ; we need, however, only remember that the sun describes 
b one yuga 1,830 circles, while the moon describes only 1,768 and the nak- 
shatras — through whose circle the sun passes five times — describe 1,835. 
From these relations all special values can be easily derived. It is just 
mentioned — no details being given — that the planets (graha) travel faster 
than the sun and the stars (tarah) faster than the nakshatras. It is need* 
less to discuss the former of these two assertions ; the latter is of course 

186 Dr. G. Thibaut— Oft the Suryaprajnapti, [No.^ 

eutirelj indefensible and no reason leading to it can well be imagined. 
This is tbe only time that the stars— excluding the nakshatras— are mention- 
ed in the Stiryaprajnapti as far as we can judge from the commentary. 

The next point to be considered is the information the Sdryaprajnapti 
furnishes with regard to the nakshatras. Incidentally it has already been 
remarked that the number of the nakshatras is invariably stated as being 
twenty-eight, and that the nakshatras are as invaria bly treated as being 
of different extent. The particulars are as follows : 

According to their extent or, to look at it from another point of view, 
according to the time during which sun and moon are in conjunction with 
them, the nakshatras are divided into four classes. Firstly, those with 
which the moon is in conjunction during one ahoratra oa thirty muhurtas ; 
to this class belong Revati, Aivini, Kfittika^ Mrigaiiras, Fushya, Magh^ 
Pdrvaphdlguni, Hasta, Ohitr^, Anur4dh&, Mula, Fdrvishddhi, S^raTa^a, 
S^ravishthd, Purvabhadrapad^. The one ahordtra for which the conjunc- 
tion lasts may be expressed as muhdrtas, the convenience of which 

expression will appear at once. The second division comprises those nak- 
shatras which are in conjunction with the moon for half a nycthemeron as 

fifteen muhurtas = --^ muhdrtas ; to this division belong S'atabhishaj, 

Aiileshi, Bhara^i, Jyeshthd^ Ardri, Sv4ti. To the third division belong 
those nakshatras with which the moon is in conjunction for one and a half 

nycthemeron = 45 muhdrtas = ■ muhdrtas ; these nakshatras are 

Uttar4sha4h&, Uttaraphalguni, Uttara-bh4drapada, Punarvasu, Yi^khd, 

Bohi^i. The fourth division comprises one nakshatra only, v iz. , Abhijit, with 

27 630 
which the moon is in conjunction f or 9 ;rr = -rz- muhdrtas. We see now 

^ 67 67 

for what reason the time of conjunction has been expressed throughout in 
sixty-sevenths of a muhdrta ; it was done for the purpose of obtaTniog 
homogeneous expressioiis for all nakshatras. At the same time these frac- 
tions furnish us with an easy means for calculating the time during which 
the sun is in conjunction with each nakshatra ; for five revolutions of the 
sun occupying the same time as sixty-seven revolutions of the moon, we 
have only to replace the denominator of the above fractions by five. The 
result of this operation having been turned into nycthemera, we find as the 
expression for the time during which the sun is in conjunction with the 
nakshatras of the four divisions the four following terms : 13 days, 12 
muhdrtas ; 6 days, 21 muhdrtas ; 20 days, 3 muhdrtas ; 4 days, 6 muhur- 
tas. — According to the space the nakshatras occupy they are either samft- 
kshetra, occupying a mean (medium) field or apardhakshetra, occupying 

1880.] Dr. G. Thibaut— On the SuryapmJTinpti. 187 

half « field or dYTBidhakshetra, occupying one field and a half. There is 
no special name for the extent of Abhijit. 

In connexion with this diyision of the nakshatras into different classes 
according to the space they occupy or the time during which they are in 
conjunction with the moon, there is another one referring to the time of 
tiie day or the night at which they enter into conjunction. This classifica- 
tion is, however, connected with considerable diflBiculties. It is nowhere 
dearly stated on the conjunctions of what particular month this 
division is based ; that such a statement ought to have been g^ven, appears 
from the consideration that the periodical month during which the moon 

puses through aU nakshatraa comprises 27 days plus - days, andthat there- 

fore in the second, third, fourth, etc. months the times at whicb the moon 

enters into conjunction with the single nakshatras will all differ from the 

times of the first month. If for instance the moon at the beginning of 

the first month enters into conjunction with Abhijit in the early morning > 

A& win at the beginning of the second month again enter into conjunction 

with it 9 ^= muhtirtas later, that is, in the afternoon and so on. Other 

difficulties will appear from the following detailed reproduction of the 
Surpiprajnapti's account concerning this point. The nakshatras are either 
" pirvabhaga" ». e., such as enter into conjunction with the moon during 
the forenoon ; or " p^chadbhdga'* ». c, such as enter into conjunction dur- 
ing the afternoon or " naktambhaga" %. e., such as enter into conjunction 
during the night or " ubhayabhdga" which term will be explained further 
on. The nakshatras of the two first classes are the samakshetras, those of 
the third class the apdrdhakshetras, those of the fourth class the dvyardhak- 
shetras. It certainly does not appear why the samakshetrad should enter 
into conjunction with the moon during the day only and the apdrdhakshe* 
tras during the night only ; in reality there is no connexion between the 
extent of a nakshatra and the time when the moon enters into it. Let us, 
howeTcr, follow the detailed statements about each single nakshatra. The 
first aphorism of the Sdryaprajnapti appears to be " Abhijit and S'ravaxia 
are pa^hadbh&ga samakshetra." To this the commentator rightly objects 

that Abhijit is neither samakshetra, since it occupies only 9 — muhdrtas of 

the moon's periodical revolution, nor pa^chddbhdga, since at the beginning 
of the yuga the moon enters into conjunction with it in the early morning. 
At the same time he tries to obviate these objections by remarking that 
Abhijit is called samakshetra and pa^ch&dbhaga, because it is always con- 
nected with ?ravana to which both these attributes rightly belong, or that 
it may be called pa^h&dbhfiga with a view to conjunctions other than the 

188 Dr. G. Thibaut— On tie SuryapmjiiapH. [No. 4, 

first one which may take place in the course of the juga. Bat these both 
attempts at reconciling contradictions are very ansatisfactorj. Howsoever 
this may be, the commentator goes on to explain that Abhijit and S^rava^a, 
after having finished their conjunction with the moon, hand her oyer to 
Dhanishthd at evening (Abhijit-^rava^o dve nakshatre s&yam-samayad 
drabhya ekdm rdtrim ekam cha sdtirekam divasam chandre^a sarddham 
yogam yukta^ etavantam kalam yogam yuktvd tad-anantaram yogam anu- 
parivartayatah dtmana^ chy&vayata^ yogam chanuparivartya sayam divas- 
asya katitame paichadbh^e chandram dhanishthaydh samarpayatah). For 
this reason Dhanishtba also is pa^ch&dbh&ga. After having been in con- 
junction with it for thirty muhurtas the moon enters S^atabhishaj at the 
time when the stars have already become visible (parishphutanakshatramanda- 
lavaloke) ; S^atabhishaj is therefore naktambhdga. How S^atabhishaj 
enters into conjunction at night, while exactly one ahordtra before Dhanish- 
fhd has been said to enter into conjunction during the afternoon, is not 
explained. S^atabhishaj being apdrdhakshetra, the moon remains in coa. 
junction with it for fifteen muhurtas only and enters on the next morning 
into conjunction with Purva-prosh^hapada, which being samakshetra remains 
in conjunction during one whole ahoratra. On the following morning the 
moon enters Uttara-proshthapada, which therefore would be purvabhaga. 
But the matter is looked at in a different light, Uttara-proshthapada is 
dvyardhakshetra, i. e,^ remains in conjunction for 45 muhurtas. If we now 
deduct from this duration the fifteen first muhtirtas and imagine Uttara- 
proshthapada to be samakshetra, the conjunction of the moon with it- 
looked at as samakshetra — may be said to take place at night and in conse- 
quence one — the real — conjunction taking place during the day and the 
other — the fictitious one — taking place at night the nakshatra is called 
ubhayabhaga (idam kilottarabhadrapaddkhyam nakshatram uktaprakarena 
pratas chandrei^a saha yugam adhigachchhati, kevalam prathaman pancha- 
da^a muhdrtan adhikdn apaniya samakshetram kalpayitva yada jogtA 
chintyate tada naktam api yogo 'stity ubhayabhagam avaseyam). Uttara- 
bhadrapada remains in conjunction for one day, one night and again one 
day, on the evening of which the moon enters Bevati ; Kevati is therefore 
paichadbhdga. After it has remained in conjunction for one nychtheme- 
ron the moon passes into A^vini at evening time. Aivini is therefore like- 
wise pa^chadbhdga. From it the moon passes on the next evening into 
Bharani, at the time, however, when the stars have become visible aud 
night may be said to have begun ; Bharani is therefore naktambhiga. 
Being at the same time apdrdhakshetra, the moon leaves it on the next 
morning to enter Kfittik^, which therefore is pdrvabhdga. On the next 
morning the moon enters Eohini which is dvyardhakshetra and, on account 
of that, ubhayabhdga. Mf iga^ras which she enters forty-five muhurtas 

1880.] Dr. G. Thibaut— Oil the Suryaprajnapti. 189 

Ia(«r at evening is paichadbh^a ; Ardrd which enters into conjunction 
thirty maburtas later, at the time when the stars have come out, is naktam- 
bhaga ; Ponarvasu into which the moon enters on the next morning, being 
drjardha, is ubhayabhaga. Pushya comes into conjunction on the evening 
of the following day and is pa^chadbhaga ; A^lesha thirty muhtirtaa later, 
when the stars have come out, and is naktambhaga ; Magha and Piirva- 
phalguni into which the moon enters on the mornings of the two following 
(iajs are purvabhaga ; Uttara-phalguni which comes into conjunction on 
the morning after that is ubhayabhaga, because it is dvyardhakshetra. 
Hasta and Chitra enter into conjunction oir the evenings of the two follow- 
ing days, before night has set in, and are therefore pa^chddbh&ga. Then 
tgain follows one naktambhaga nakshatra, viz,^ Svati which enters into 
eonjonction after nightfall, and upon this a dvyardhakshetra and conse- 
quently ubhayabhdga nakshatra, viz.^ Yii^akhd. Then Anuradha paichad* 
bhaga, after this Jyosh^h^, apardhakshetra and naktambhaga, remaining in 
conjunction from nightfall to the morning only ; after this two samakshe- 
tn and pdrvabhaga nakshatras, viz., Mula and Purvasha4h^. And finally 
Uttarasha4hd, which enters into conjunction on the morning, is, however, 
as a dvyardhakshetra, reckoned among the ubhayabhaga. It remains in 
conjunction for one nycthemeron and the following day, in whose evening 
the moon arrives at Abhijit whence she had started a (periodical) month 

The difficulties involved in all the preceding statements are increased 
by an assertion made in another chapter of the Suryaprajnapti, viz,y that no 
nakshatra always enters into conjunction with the moon at the same time of 
the day. This is indeed true, but it contradicts the preceding statements. 
It may be that this whole classification of the nakshatras according to the 
time of the day at which they enter into conjunction with the moon is a 
remainder of an earlier stage of knowledge, when the periodical month 
was supposed to last just twenty-seven days without an additional fraction, 
and when it therefore was possible to assign to each nakshatra one fixed 
hour at which it entered into conjunction during each periodical revolution 
of the moon. It is true that actual observation would speedily have shown 
the error of such an assumption, but this remark would apply to almost all 
hypotheses of the Indians of that period, and we may therefore suppose 
that in this point too the desire of systematizing prevailed during a certain 
period over the testimony of the eyes. Later on when the duration of the 
periodical month had become better known, the old classification lost its 
foundatipn entirely and ought to have been dropped ; but through the 
force of custom it maintained its place and was justified some how, although 
not with the best success, as we have had occasion to observe above. 

On the places of the nakshatras with regard to the moon we receive 

A A 

190 Dr. G. Thibaufc— Ort the Suryapmjnrrpti. [So. 4, 

the following informatiou (X. 11). Six nakshatras, viz., Mriga^iras, Ardri, 
Pashya, A^esbd, Hasta, Mula always stand to the south of the moon whea- 
eTer she enters into conjunction with them. Twelve nakshatras — Abhijit, 
S^rava^a, Dhanishthd, S^atabhishaj, Ptirva-bhddrapada, Uttara-bhadrapada, 
Bevati, A^vini, Bharani, Ptirva-phdlguni, Uttara-phalguni, Syati always 
stand to the north of the moon. Seven nakshatras — £[xittika, Bohini, 
Punarvasu, Maghd, Chitrd, Yiiiiikhd, Anuradha — sometimes stand to the 
north of the moon entering into conjunction with them ; sometimes, how- 
ever, the moon enters into conjunction with them " pramardariipena" tiz., 
in such a manner that she passed right through them. To this class, the 
commentator remarks, some teachers holding an opinion difEerent from that 
of the Suryaprajnapti add also Jyesh^h^. Two nakshatras, viz,, the two 
Asha^has stand at the time of conjunction either to the south of the mooD 
or the latter passes right over them. 'Both these nakshatras consist of 
four stars each, two of which are situated inside, viz., to the north of the 
fifteenth circle of the moon, while the two remaining ones are placed out- 
side, viz.y to the south of the same circle. Now whenever the moon enters 
into conjunction with either of the two nakshatras, she passes right between 
the former pair of stars and may therefore be said to be in conjunction 
'* pramardarupena." Finally one nakshatra, viz., Jyesh^b^, always enters 
into conjunction with the moon pramardarupe^a. Regarding the relation 
of the nakshatras to the fifteen circles of the moon, the following state- 
ments are made. Eight circles always are " undeprived" (avirahitani) of 
nakshatras. The twelve nakshatras mentioned above, beginning with Abhi* 
jit, are in the first circle ; in the third circle there are Punarvasu and 
Magha ; in the sixth, Krittikd ; in the seventh, Bohini and Chitrd ; in the 
eighth, Yi^akha ; in the tenth, Anurddh^ ; in the eleventh, Jyesh^hi; in the 
fifteenth, Mriga^iras, Ardra, Pushy a, Aslesha, Hasta, Mula and the two 
Ashddhas. For although the first six of the last mentioned class in reak'ty 
move outside the fifteenth circle, they are — the commentator says — so near 
to it that they may be said to be in it. In order to form a right estimate 
of the meaning and the value of these statements, we must recall to oar 
mind what has been remarked above about the Siiryaprajnapti's theory of 
the moon's motion. The moon is supposed to proceed alternately towards 
the south and the north in the same way as the sun does, following— as the 
Sliryaprajnapti seems to assume — ^the same path ; that she in addition to 
the movement in declination has a movement in latitude, and that the points 
in which her orbit cuts the ecliptic are continually receding is ignored, 
theoretically at least, although it had been observed that the position of 
the moon with regard to some nakshatras is different at different times, 
that she sometimes passes on the north or south-side of a constellation and 
at other times moves right through it. Now comparing the particulars 

1830.] Dr. G. Thibaut— 0» the Sutyaprajnapti. 191 

wi^ the information given about the position of the nakshatras in the 
Siddhantas, we find that the Sdrjaprajnapti agrees with the latter with 
i^rd to five oat of the six nakshatras said always to stand south of the 
fflooQ (Mrigaiiras, Ardrd, A^eshd, Hasta, Mula), the latitude of all of them 
eoQsiderablj exceeding the highest latitude the moon ever reaches. The 
cise lies differentlj with regard to Pashja, which according to the Siddhdn- 
tas lies in the ecliptic, so that it almost appears as if the Pushya of the 
S^iyaprajnapti wero an altogether different asterism. From among the 
twelve nakshatras said to stand always north of the moon ten (Abhijit, 
STrava^a, S^ravishth^, Pdrva-Bhddrapad^, Uttara-Bhidvapadd, A^vini, 
Bharani, Pdrva-Phalguni, ITttara-Phdlguni, Svdfci) may be identified with 
the nakshatras of the Siddh^ntas whose latitudes — excluding Abhijtt — vary 
from 9^ to about 89* north. Strange it is only that these nakshatras occupy- 
ing a zone of about 21^ breadth are said to be in one and the same circle 
of the moon, and still stranger that Abhijit too is classed among them, the 
iatitode of the latter — if identical with the Abhijit of the Siddhdntas — ex- 
ceeding the latitudes of the other nakshatras, with which it is here thrown 
into one class, by about 30^. The S'atabhishaj and Revati of the Siddhdn* 
tas are situated in and close to the ecliptic ; here too therefore we might 
donbt if the Sdryaprajuapti denotes by these two names the same stars as 
the Siddhdntas. The remaining nakshatras may be identified with those 
of the Siddhintas, the latitude of none of the latter much exceeding the 
greatest latitude reached by the moon ; a considerable mai^in must of 
coarse be allowed for the inaccuracy of the observations on which the state- 
ments of the Stiryaprajnapti are based. Quite unfounded is the statement 
about the moon always passing right through Jyeshfhd ; it looks as if it had 
originated at some period when one of the moon's nodes > had about the 
same longitude as that asterism. 

The order of succession of the nakshatras Is treated in X. 1. , Of 
five different pratipattis regarding this point the author details only one, 
ti>., that one according to which Erittik4 stands first. The author of the 
Sdryapdijnapti for his part calls Abhijit the first nakshatra, since accord- 
ing to his system at the beginning of the yuga on the day of the summer 
•olstice early in the morning the moon which is full at that time stands in 
Abhijit. He therefore altogether abandons the principle, sometimes fol- 
lowed, according to which the enumeration of the nakshatras begins with 
that nakshatra in which the sun stands on the day of the vernal equi- 
nox ; if he too had chosen this principle he would of course have begun 
bis enumeration with A^vini. It may here be mentioned by the way that 
the Stiryaprajnapti does not occupy itself at all with the equinoxes, 
the name of vvhich is not even mentioned in the whole work. 

We now proceed to consider some specimens of the numerous cal- 

192 Dr. G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajnnpfi. [No. 4, 

culations, rules for the performanoe of which are contained in the Surya- 
prajnapti itself as well as in a great number of old karana-g4th^ quoted 
by the commentator ; remarking at once that the rules contained in the 
gdthds presuppose exactly the same system as the rules of the Stiryapra- 
jnapti itself. A comparison of these calculations with those contained in 
the jyotisha-veddnga shows the extreme likeness and in many eases the 
complete identity of the two setc ; a result which supplies another reason 
for looking on the Suryaprdjnapti as — in all essential points — a fair re- 
presentative of Indian astronomy anterior to the period of the Siddhantasi 
Several of these calculations have already been reproduced above inciden* 
tally ; in the following a detailed account of the more important ones 
among those not yet touched upon will be given. 

It appears that before the influence of Greek astronomy made itself 
felt in India, the division of the sphere into 27 or 28 nakshatras was the 
only one employed and that no independent subdivisions of the nakshatras 
were made use of. This want was, however, supplied by a simple transfer 
of the subdivisions of time to the nakshatras. In accordance with this 

principle the Suryaprajnapti divides the sphere into 819 — muhtirtas, this 

being the duration of the periodical revolution of the moon, and allots to eseh 
naksbatra a certain number of muhtirtas according to its greater or smaller 
extent. Fixed subdivisions of the muhtirta such as are commonly met in 
Indian astronomical works are, however, nowhere employed by the attth(Nr 
of the Stiryaprajnapti ; he apparently preferred to keep himself perfectly 
free from restrictions of this kind and uses throughout those fractions of 
the muhtirta only which were immediately suggested by the various cal- 
culations in hand. From the general nature of the yuga it is manifest at 
once which fractions will present themselves most readily ; they are sixty- 
seconds and sixty-sevenths (62 = number of synodical months in a 
yuga, 07 = number of periodical months) and, whenever lunar months of 
both kinds enter into the calculations, sixty-sevenths of sixty-seconds. 

One of the most important rules is that which teaches how to find the 
place of the moon on any parvan. In the following the details of the 
calculation furnished by the commentator will be stated in extenso, so that 
at least one complete specimen of computations of this kind may be exhi- 
bited. — If we wish to devise a rule for calculating the place of the moon in 
the circle of the nakshatras at any parvan, we must at first find the 
constant quantity — the dhruvard^i — entering as a multiplicand into all 
calculations of this kind. This in our case is clearly the space pasMd 
through by the moon during the lunar month, or more simply, becaiue 
entire revolutions which bring the moon back to the same place can be 
neglected, the excess of the lunar synodical month above the periodical 

1»S0.] Dr. G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajn^pti. 193 

mooth. From what is known aboui the general constitution of the juga 


this quantity is of course readily found to be equal to 66 H + 


-= The commentator calculates this quantity as follows. If the 

62 X 67. 

sun performs during 124 parvans five complete reTolutions, how much does he 

perform during 2 paarvans (= one synodical month) ; answer :. = 

~ reT. This therefore is the excess of the synodical month above the 

periodical one. In order that the division can be carried out, the r~ rev. 

1830 21 

aie turned into nakshatras by multiplying them by -r-z- (». e, by 27 ^, 

tiie duration in ahoratras of the periodical month or, if we like, the 
extent of the nakshatras ; 27 entire nakshatras plus the fractional nak- 
ihatra Abhijit). Besult of the multiplication . Again — in order to 


turn the days or nakshatras into muhtirtas — ^the numerator is multiplied 

bj 80. Besult = . This division being performed gives as result 


66 muhlirtas. The remainder 336 is multiplied by 62 and the product 

sgain divided by 4154* Besult =: -^ muhurtas. The remainder— 62 — 


should again be multiplied by 67 (the fractions employed being through- 
out sixty-seconds and sixty-sevenths) and divided by 4154 ; but 4154 
being itself = 62 x 67, it is seen at once that the result is 1. Thus the 

whole quantity is 66 + «« + x^ — ^ muhtirtas. If now the place of 

the moon at any am£vasy& or pur^amdsi is wanted, the above quantity 
has to be multiplied by the number of the parvan ; for instance, by one if 
the moon's place at the first full moon after the beginning of the yuga is 
wanted. The product shows how far the moon at the time has advanced be- 
yond the place she had occupied at the beginning of the yuga, if full moons 
are concerned, or beyond the place she had occupied at the new moon preceding 
the beginning of the yuga, if new moons are concerned, (the new moon im. 
mediately antecedent to the beginning of the yuga having been selected 
as starting-point for all calculations concerning new moons). So far the 
place of the moon is expressed in muhdrtas only ; now in order to find 
from these the nakshatra in which the moon stands at the time, we should 

IM Dr. G. Tliibaiit— 0« the Suryaprajnnptu [No. 4, 

haye to deduct from the muhtirtas found the extent of all the nakshatras 
through which the moon has passed one after the other, until the sum would 
be exhausted. Thus, for instance, if we wanted to find the place of the 

moon at the third new moon after the b^inning of the yuga, the constant 

f\ 1 

quantity 66 + — + — -^ would have to be multiplied by 3, so 

15 8 

that we should have 198 + 7^:1+ rr -= muhurtas. Now the moon 

62 62 X 67 

standing at the new moon preceding the beginning of the yuga in Punar- 

vasu, of which she has still to pass through 22 r^ muhtirtas, we should 

10 2 

have to deduct this last quantity from 122 + ;::r + •tt ^^l ; from the 

^ "^ 62 62 X 67 

remainder we should have to deduct 80 muhtirtas (the extent of Pushya) ; 
from the remainder again 15 (A^lesh4) ; again from the remainder 30 
(Maghd), and so on, until in the end the fact of the remainder being 
smaller than the next following nakshatra would show that new moon takes 
place in that nakshatra. — In order, however, to shorten this somewhat 
lengthy process, certain subtrahends are formed out of the sum of the extent 
of several nakshatas, which materially alleviate the work by substituting 
one subtraction for a number of subtractions. Thus with reference to neir 
moon — the subtrahend (^dhanaka) for Uttara-ph&lguni is said to be 172, 
for Vi^kha 292, for Uttara-Ashd^hd 442 ; i. e.^ if from the product of the 
constant quantity by the number of the new moon 172 can be deducted, 
we see at once that the moon has advanced beyond Uttara-ashd^h^h ; if 292 
can be deducted, she has passed the limits of Yi^^khd and so on. The sub- 
trahends are not carried on from Punar-vasu beyond Uttara-dshtu^b^, but 
make a fresh start from Abhijit, apparently in order to make them available 
for the calculation of the places of the full moons too. Thus the subtrahend 
for Abhijit is 9 and a fraction, of Uttara-bh&drapadd 159, of Bohipi 809, 
of Punarvasu 899, of Uttara-philguni 549, of Vi^Akhi 669, of Mtila 744, 
of Uttara-ashadLbd 819. 

The places in which the different full moons of the yuga occur are . 
found by an exactly similar proceeding ; only all calculations have to start 
not from Punarvasu, but from the beginning of Abhijit where the first full 
moon which coincides with the beginning of the yuga takes place. The 
text enumerates the places of all full moons and new moons of the yuga at 
length, carrying in each case the calculations down to sixty-sevenths of 
sixty-seconds of muhtirtas. It is needless to reproduce these lists here in 
extenso, as any place wanted can be calculated with ease from the general 
rule given above. 


1880.] Dr. G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajnapti. 195 

Tie same result, viz.y to find the place of the moon on a g^ren parvan 
11 obtained by following another rule contained in some gdth^ quoted by 
the commentator. Their purport is as follows. Multiply sixty- seven (the 
number of periodical revolutions which the moon makes during one yuga) 
bj the number of the parvan the place of which you wish to find and divide 
this product by one hundred and twenty-four (the number of parvans of 
one yuga). The quotient shows the number of whole revolutions the moon 
bis accomplished at the time of the parvan. The remainder is to be multi- 
plied by 1830 {viz.y 1830 sixty- sevenths which is the number of nycthe- 
men of one periodical month) or more simply by 915 (reducing 1830 as 
well as the denominator viz,^ 124 by two). From the product (remainder 
multiplied by 915) deduct 1302, which is that part of a whole revolution 

vhich is occupied by Abhijit (Abhijit occupies — days, but as this amount 

is to be deducted from the numerator of a fraction the denominator of 
which is 62, 21 is to be multiplied by 62 ; product = 1302). The portion 
of Abhijit, from which the moon's revolutions begin, is deducted at the 
outset, because it is greatly smaller than the portion of all other naksha- 
tns and would disturb all average calculations. After it is has been de- 
ducted the remainder is divided by 67 >^ 62 ; the quotient shows the 
number of nakshatras beginning from S'ravana which the moon has passed 
through, in addition to the complete revolutions. The remainder is again 
multiplied by thirty, the product divided by 62 ; the quotient shows the 
number of muhtirtas during which the moon has been in the nakshatra in 
which she is at the time. And so on down to small fractions of nakshatras. 
The following is an example. Wanted the place of the moon at the end of the 
second parvan. Multiply 67 by 2 ; divide the product by 124. The quo- 
tient (1) indicates that the moon has performed one complete periodical 
revolution. The remainder (10) is multiplied by 1830 or more simply by 
915 (see above) ; from the product (9150) the portion of Abhijit (1302) 
is deducted The remainder (7848) is divided by 67 x 62 = 4154 ; the 
quotient (1) shows that after Abhijit the moon has passed through one 
complete nakshatra, viz.^ S^ravana. The remainder (3694) is multiplied by 
^ ; the product (110820) again divided by 4154 ; the quotient (26) shows 
that the moon has moreover passed through 20 muhui-tas of S^ravish^h^. 
By carrying on this calculation we arrive at the result that at the end of 
the second parvan the moon stands in S^ravish^ha, of which she has passed 
AL , 42 2 

through 26 -h ^ -h Q2ir67 "^"^^^**''- 

Analogous calculations are made for the sun too. For instance, in 
what circle does the sun move at the time of each parvan ? The rule here 
tt very simple. Multiply the number of the par?an by fifteen (the number 

196 Dr. G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajnapti. [No. i 

of tithiB of one parvan) and from the product deduct the number of aTama- 
rAfcras (excessive lunar days) which occur during the period in question. 
If the parvan occurs during the first ajana of the sun, the remainder im- 
mediately indicates the number of the solar circle which is in fact the same 
as the number of the civil day on which the parvan happens ; if the par- 
van takes place during one of the other nine ayanas, the remainder must 
lit first be divided by 183 (number of circles described by the sun daring 
one ayana) ; etc. The rule is simple and needs no illustration. 

The rule for finding the nakshatra in which the sun stands at the time 
of each parvan (the stiryanakshatra) is quite analogous to the rule given 
above for the moon. The sun makes in one yuga five complete revolutions, 

in one parvan -r^r-r revolutions. This quantity is to be multiplied by the 

number of the parvan and then we have as above to descend by continued 
multiplication and division to nakshatras, sixty-second parts of nakshatras 
and sixty-seventh parts of sixty-second parts. Instead of deducting the 
portion belonging to Abhijit at the beginning of which the moon stands 
on the first day of the yuga, we have to deduct that part of Pushya which 
the sun has not yet passed through at the beginning of the yoga ; it 

amounts to — of a nychthemeron. All the remainder of the calculation is 

the same as in the moon's case and illustrative examples are therefore not 

Besides there is another and considerably simpler method for finding 
the sun's place at the end of a parvan ; it is likewise contained in some old 
kara^a-gdth^. The rule again assumes a ** dhruvard^i", a constant quant 

tity, to be used in all calculations of this kind. This quantity is 33 + g 


muhtirtas ; for if we divide the whole circle of the naksbatru 

62 X 67 

into 819 -z muhtirtas (which is the time occupied by a complete revolution 

of the moon) the above amount expresses the way the sun accompllBhes 
during one parvan. This quantity has therefore to be multiplied by the 
number of the parvan required, and by subtracting from the product at firtt 

the 19 -h — + Tz ^ muhurtas belonging to Pushya, after that the 

62 67 X 62 

15 muhtirtas of A^lesh A, after that the 30 muhdrtas of Maghi etc., we find 
in the end the nakshatra in which the sun completes the parvan. In order 
to facilitate these somewhat lengthy subtractions, the muhtirtas of a cer- 
tain number of nakshatras are again added and presented in a tabular form. 
8o for instance 139 muhurtas (19 + 15 + 30 -h 3U + 45) lead us up b> 

1880.] Dr. G. Thibauir— 0» the S&ryaprajiiapti. 197 

tiie end of Uttara-pb41gun{, and if therefore the product foand in the man- 
MT shown above exceeds 139, we may at once subtract 139 instead of 
performiDg five separate subtractions and know that the sun has at the time 
piased beyond Uttara-phalguni. The procedure is analogous to the one 
deieribed above and needs no farther illustration. 

For finding how many seasons have elapsed on a certain tithi, the 
«>mmentator quotes some g4th^ of the old teachers. The rule they 
eontam is as follows Multiply the number of the parvans which have 
elapsed since the beginning of the yuga by fifteen, and add to the result 
the number of titbis which have elapsed in addition to the complete par- 
TUB ; deduct from this sum its sixty-second part ; multiply the remainder 
bj two and add to the product sixty-one ; divide the result by one hundred 
iod twenty-two ; the quotient shows the number of seasons elapsed (which 
when exceeding six will have to be divided by six, since so many seasons 
eoBstitate a solar year) ; the remainder divided by two shows the number 
of i^ current day of the current season. This rule seems not very well 
expressed, although it may be interpreted into a consistent sense. At first 
it must be remembered that the yuga does not begin with the beginning 
of a season, but with the month ^rdvana, while the current season — the rainy 
season — ^has begun a month earlier with dsh&dba. The calculation would 
ben, strictly expressed, be as follows. Take the number of parvans which 
hare elapsed since the beginning of the yuga, add to it the titbis which 
I11T6 elapsed of the current parvan and add again to this sum 30^ titbis 
(the titbis of ^hd^ha plus hidf a tithi of the month preceding dshddha) 
sod deduct fnxn this sum its sixty-second part, viz.^ the so-called avamard- 
tns, t'. 0., the lunar days in excess of the natural days (according to the 
8lizyapraJBapti's system each sixty-second tithi is an avamardtra). The 
remainder of the calculation needs no explanation ; the formula enjoins the 
addition of 61 instead of 2X}\ and division by 122 instead of 61 (the num- 
ber of days of a season) in order to get rid of the fractional part of 30^. 

In order to find the number of the parvan during which an avamaratra 
occurs and at the same time the tithi itself which becomes avamaratra, the 
following rule is given. The question is assumed to be proposed in the 
following manner. In what parvan does the second tithi terminate while 
the first tithi has become avamaratra, or in what parvan does the third tithi 
terminate while the second is avamaratra ? and so on, (kasmin parva^i 
pratipady avamardtribhtitdydm dvitiyd sam^ptim upaydti, etc.) The an- 
swer is : if the number of the tithi which becomes avamardtra is an odd one, 
one has to be added to it and the sum to be multiplied by two ; the result 
shows the number of parvans elapsed before the first tithi becomes avama- 
ritra. If the number is an even one, one is added to it, the sum multiplied 
bj two, and to the product thirty-one is added ; the result again shows the 

B B 

198 Dr. G. Thibaut— 0» the Suryaprajnapti. [No. 4, 

number of parvans elapsed. Thus for instance if it is asked :' when does 
the first tithi become avamardtra P add one to one (number of the tithi) 
result two ; this multiplied by two gives four ; therefore pratipad isavama- 
r&tra in the fifth parvan, after four parvans have elapsed. Or again it may- 
be asked : when does the second tithi become avamar^tra ? add one to two ; 
result three ; this multiplied by two gives six, to which thirty-one are 
added. The result — thirty-seven — shows that in the thirty-eighth parvan 
the second tithi is avama-ratra. Thus all the avama-rdtras for the first 
half of the yuga are found and the same numbers recur during the seoond 
half. The rationale of this rule is obvious. 

A simple rule is given for finding the tithis on which the iviittis of 
the sun, «. e.^ the solstices take place. Multiply the number of the solstioe 
whose date you wish to know by 183 and add to the result three plus the 
number of the solstice ; divide this sum by fifteen ; the quotient shows the 
number of parvans elapsed, the remainder the number of the tithi of the 
current parvan. This rule^-being based on the relation of tithis to savana 
days needs no explanation. The following list for the whole yuga zesnlts 
from these calculations. 

1st Summer solstice ( := 10th solstice of the preceding ynga). 

1st dark half of ^riva^jA. 

1st Winter solstice, 7th „ „ „ m^ha. 

2Dd S. S., 13th „ „ „ ^raya^a. 

2nd W. S., 4th light half of magha. 

3rd S. S., loth „ „ „ ir^va^a 

3rd W. S., 1st dark half of magha. 

4th S. S., 7th „ „ „ ^r^va^a. 

4th W. S., 13th „ „ „ m^ha. 

5th S. S., 4th light half of ^rdvanui. 

5th W. S., 10th „ „ „ m^hik 

The places which the sun occupies in the circle of the nakshatras at 
the time of the solstices have been mentioned before ; the places of the 
moon at the same periods can of course be easily calculated when it is re- 
membered that at the beginning of the yuga the moon just enters Abhijit. 
It is unnecessary to reproduce here the rule given for that purpose ; it may 

only be mentioned that the 77; of a sidereal revolution which the moon 

performs during one solar ayana in excess of six complete revolutions con- 
stitute the " dhruva rd^i*' for our case. The Suryaprajnapti likewise states 
the places in which the lunar avrittis take place ; from the circumstance 
that at the beginning of a yuga the moon is full in the first point of Abhijit 
and at the same time commences her progress towards the north, it follows 

1880.] Dr. a. Thibaut— 0» ilie Suryaprajnapti. 199 

4int her next progress towards the south takes place exactly on the 'same 
ipot on which the son was standing at the beginning of the juga. ^ At all 
loUowing lanar avfittis the places of the two Erst ones of course recur. 

Incidentallj another rule is mentioned which certainly was of frequent 
application, viz.y how to find on what natural day and at what moment of 
time daring that day a given tithi terminates. The rule which is contain* 
ed io an old karana-g&tha is of course very simple. Add together all tithis 
which have elapsed from the beginning of the yuga up to and including the 
tithi in question ; divide this sum by sixty-two ; multiply the remainder by 
aztj-one and divide again by sixty-two.^ The remainder is then the wanted 
qotntity. The first division by sixty-two has the purpose to shew by its 
quotient — ^the number of complete avamar&tras elapsed since the beginning 
of the yuga ; this number has therefore to be deducted from the number of 
titbis elapsed. The remainder of the above division shows the number of 
titjiis which have elapsed since the occurrence of the last avamaratra ; to 
find by how much they remain behind the same number of natural days, 
&y are multiplied by Gl and divided by 62 (61 natural days = 62 tithis) ; 
the remainder then indicates how many sixty-second parts of the current 
oataral day have elapsed at the moment when the tithi in question termi- 

Another old rule has the purpose of teaching how to find the number 
of muhurtas which have elapsed on the parvan-day at the moment when 
the new parvan begins. When the number of the parvan divided by four 
yields one as remainder (in which case it is called kaly-oja) we must add 
ninety-three to it ; if divided by four it yields two (in which case it is 
called dv&para-yugma), we add sixty-two to it ; if it yields three (treta-oja), 
we add thirty-two ; if there is no remainder (kyita-yugma), we add nothing. 
The sum which we obtain in each case is halved, then multiplied by thirty, 
finally divided by sixty-two. The quotient shows the number of muhtirtas 
of the parvan-day which have elapsed at the moment when the new parvan 
begins. The rationale of this rather ingenious rule is as follows. The 


doration of one parvan is 14 -r^ days. The first parvan therefore termi- 

««^^ v ^* r XI- J 94 X 30 47 X 30 , , ^ , 

nates when ■— - of the day = — r-— — =: — -- — muhurtas have elaps- 
124 ^ 124 62 ^ 

ed. The number 94 may be obtained by adding 93 to 1, the number of 

the first parvan. The second parvan ends 29 r-r- days after the beginning 

of the yuga ; 64 equals 62 -h 2, the number of the second parvan. The 

third parvan terminates 44 -— ; ^^^ after the beginning of the yuga ; 34 

200 Dr. a. Thibaut— 0» the Suryaprajnapti. [No. 4 

equals 81 + 8, the number of the third parvaa. The fourth parvan termi- 


nates 59 — days after the beginning of the juga ; 4 without any addition 

is the number of the parvan. The fifth parran again terminates 73 -r^ 

days after the beginning of the yuga ; 98 is equal to 93 + 5, the number 
of the parvan. And so on through the whole yuga. 

The above examples fairly represent the more important rules contain- 
ed in the Siiryaprajnapti. Now it will be apparent to every one who is to 
some extent familiar with the Jyotisha-vedinga* that the rules contained 
in the, as yet partly unexplained, verses of the latter refer to calculations 
exactly analogous to those contained in the Suryaprajnapti and the old 
gdthds quoted by the commentator. 

From this it might be concluded that it is now easy for us to explain 
whatever has up to the present remained unexplained in the Vedinga, 
possessing as we doubtless do a clear insight into the general nature of the 
calculations for which it furnishes rules. But close as the connexion be- 
tween the contents of the two treatises manifestly is, there are two reasons 
which preclude the direct application of the rules of the Sdryaprajnapti to 
the elucidation of the Yeddnga. In the first place the Yedanga divides the 
sphere into twenty-seven uakshatras only and, as far as has been ascertain- 
ed up to the present, these twenty-seven nakshatras are considered to be 
of equal extent ; while as we have seen above the Siiryaprajnapti through- 
out employs the division of the sphere into twenty-eight nakshatras of 
unequal extent. In the second place the starting point for all calculations 
(vtV., the places of the winter and summer soktioe) is not the same in the 
two works. The consequence of these two fundamental discrepancies is 
that although the questions treated of are essentially the same and although 
the modes of calculation are strictly analogous the results arrived at in the 
two treatises necessarily differ in all cases, that for instance the place of a 
certain full or new moon during the quinquennial yuga can never be the 
same according to the Sdryaprajnapti as it is according to the Yedanga, etc. 
Nevertheless it is highly probable that somebody who should apply himself 
to the study of the obscure portions of the Yeddnga after having made him- 
self thoroughly conversant with the contents and methods of the Surjapra- 

* Since the pnblication of the paper on the Jyotisha-vedinga in the 46th Tolnmd 
of <:1tiii Joomal, the writer has received some very important oontrihntions to tbe ex- 
planation of the Yedinga firom Dr. H. Oldenherg^, the well-known editor of the Ymxj^ 
pi^kam, who working altogether independently had sncceeded in explaining a namber 
of hitherto obscure rules. The writer intends to revert to the Vedinga before long 
and will then avail himself of the new results most kindly placed at his disposal by Dr. 

1880.] Dr. O. Thibaut— Ofi the SuryaprajnapH, 201 

jntpii, would succeed in solving some more of the riddles presented to us by 
thefonnsr work. 

Ifc most be remembered that there is no indissoluble connexion between 
tbst part of the system of the Sdrjaprajnapti, which might be called the 
eiuronometrical one, viz,y the doctrine of the quinquennial yuga and its 
wious subdivisions and that part which propounds the theories accounting 
for the apparent motions of the sun and the moon ; it might therefore be 
that the Yedanga agrees with the Suryaprajnapti only in the former point 
lod follows a different course with regard to the latter. There occurs, how- 
ever, one expression in the Yeddnga which makes it appear likely that the 
tnalogy between the two books extends to the second point also, vi».^ the 
"roiyama^yjalAni" mentioned in verse 22. 

^WhnrfwiTw wnrt^ fipr^f firftr'ci 
8^ iw^wi ^ firfiirir^ aim \f?: ii 

It certainly looks as if by these '* sun circles" in which the sun is said 
to be at the end of a tithi, we had to understand daily circles of the same 
kind as those which, according to the Sdryaprajnapti, the sun describes 
round Mount Meru. 

A few words may here be added on the principal feature common to 
the cosmological systems of the Purd^as, Buddhists and Jainas, viz., the 
doctrine of sun, moon and constellations revolving round Mount Meru. In 
order rightly to judge of these conceptions we must remember that they 
arose at a time when the idea of the sphericity of the earth had ^ not yet 
presented itself to the Indian mind, at a time ( — if we may assume that 
the PudLi^ic-Buddhistic cosmological system is not later than the period 
of the rising of Buddhism — ) when this then truly revolutionary idea 
first suggested itself to the early Greek philosophers. And if we carry our 
UiOQghts back to that early st^e of the development of scientific ideas and 
try to realize the conceptions which then were most likely to present them- 
selves to enquirers, the old Indian system will lose much of its apparent 
strangeness and arbitrariness. How indeed could men ignorant of the fact 
that the earth is a sphere freely suspended in space explain to themselves 
the continually recurring rising and setting of the heavenly bodies ? what 
could their ideas be regarding the place to which sun and moon went after 
their setting, and the path which unseen by man they followed so as to 
return to the point of their rising ? Certainly the difficulty was a very 
great one to those as well who had some vague notion about the earth 
extending in all directions to an unlimited distance as to those who imagin- 
ed it to be bounded at a certain distance by a solid firmament surrounding 
and shutting it in on all sides. We may recall, as one of the fancies to 
which the difficulty of this question gave rise, the old poetical idea, pre- 

202 Dr. G. Thibant— On the auryaprc^napti. [No. 4, 

fierved, for inBtance, in a beautiful fragment of Stesichorus, of Helios when 
he has reached Okeanos in the west embarking in a golden cup which car- 
ries him during the night round half the earth back to the east whence he 
rises again. Under these circumstances we must admit that the old Indian 
idea of the constitution of the world, according to which the rising and 
setting of sun, moon and stars is only apparent, cannot by any means be called 
an unnatural one, and it is interesting to consider the counterparts it finds 
among what is known of the opinions of the oldest Greek philosophers.* 
So it is reported of Anaximenes that he supposed the sun not to descend 
below the earth, but to describe circles above it and to pass during the night 
behind high mountains situated in the north ; an exact parallel to the 
Indian conception. Of Xenophanes we hear that he declared the sun, moon 
and stars to be only accumulations of burning vapour, fiery clouds kindling 
and extinguishing themselves by turns, that these clouds move in reality in 
straight lines and only appear to us to rise and to set in consequence of 
their varying distance, in the same way as the common clouds seem to rise 
from the horizon when they first become visible to us and seem to sink 
under the horizon when they pass out of our field of vision. These opinions 
too find their exact counterpart in the Stiryaprajnapti and kindred worb 
where the rising and setting ef the heavenly bodies is declared to be an 
appearance caused by their consecutive approaching and receding, and where 
their movement is said to take place not indeed in a straight line but at 
any rate in a plane parallel to the plane of the earth. The first mentioned 
opinion of Xenophanes about the constitution of the heavenly bodies finds 
its analogon in one of the different pratipattis, mentioned in the Stirya- 
prajnapti, according to which the sun is nothing but a " kiranasamgfadta," 
an accumulation of rays forming itself every morning in the east and dis- 
solving itself in the evening in the west. The cognate views held by 
Heraclitus concerning the nature of the sun are well known. Of Xeno- 
phanes it is further reported that he supposed different climes and zones of the 
earth, far distant from each other, to have different suns and moons ; which 
is another striking parallel to the view held by the Jainas with reference to 
the different suns, moons and stars illuminating the different concentric 
dvipas of which the earth consists. In both cases the assumption of the 
rising and setting of the heavenly bodies being an appearance, caused by 
their becoming visible and invisible in turns when having approached ufl 
or receded from us by a certain amount, seems to have lead to the conclu- 
sion that the light of the one sun and the one moon appearing to us can- 
not illumine the whole vast earth, since it only reaches to a certain limited 

* For the particulars mentioned in the following : oomp. Mullach's collection of the 
fragments of the Qreek philosophers, Zeller's history of Greek philosophy, Levia's 
historical survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients. 

1880.] Dr. G. Thibaut— On the Suryaprajnapti. 203 

distance. — Oo the other hand it is true enough that, notwithstanding these 
flinularities of Indian and Greek ideas, books of the nature of the Suryapra- 
jnapti serve clearly to show the difference of the mental tendencies of the 
two nations. Both in an early age conceived plausible theories, in reality 
deroid of foundation, by which they tried to account for puzzling pheno- 
mena ; but while the Greeks controlled their theories by means of continued 
observation of the phenomena themselves and replaced them by new ones, 
as soon as they perceived that the two were not in harmony, the Hindus 
religiously preserved the generalisations hastily formed at an early periodi 
and instead of attempting to rectify them, proceeded to deduce from them 
all kinds of imaginary consequences. The absurdity of systems of the 
nature of the Jaina system lies not in the leading conceptions — ^these can 
as a role be accounted for in a more or less satisfactory manner — but in the 
minute detail into which the followers of the system have without scruple 
lod hesitation worked it out. 

Before this paper is brought to a conclusion, the writer wishes to draw 
attention to the — in his opinion very striking — ^resemblance which the 
connological and astronomical conceptions, contained in an old Chinese book, 
bear to the early Indian ideas on the same subject, more particularly to the 
Jaina system as expounded in the Stiryaprajnapti. The Chinese book 
alluded to is the Tcheou-Pei of which a complete translation was published 
for the first time by Edward Biot in the Journal Asiatique for 1841, 
pp. 5d2 — 639. It consists of two parts of different ages ; the first part which 
apparently is of considerable antiquity, has been known since the time of 
Craubil, who inserted a translation of it into his history of Chinese astro- 
nomy, published in the Lettres 6d fiantes ; that part, as is well known, shows 
that the ancient Chinese were acquainted with the theorem about the 
square of the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle. The second and more 
recent part, which E. Biot thinks cannot be later than the end of the second 
century of our era, contains a sort of cosmological and astronomical system, 
and here the traits of resemblance alluded to above are to be found. As 
the arrangement of topics in the Tcheou-Pei is by no means systematic, so 
that it is not easy to form a clear conception of the essential points, a 
short abstract of the work, as far as it lends itself to a comparison with the 
Jaina system, is given in the following. 

According to the Tcheou-Pei the sun describes during the course of 
the year a number of concentric circles of varying diameter round the pole 
of the sky. On the day of the summer solstice the diameter of this circle 
is smallest ; it then increafts during the following months, up to the day of 
the winter solstice when it reaches its maximum. Beginning from this 
day the solar circles again decrease, until on the day of the next summer 

204 Dr. O. Thibaut— 0» tie SuryapraJHapii. [No. 4, 

solstice they have reached the original minimam. On the day of the win- 
ter solstice the diameter of the solar circle amounts to 476,000 11 (the li is 
a certain Chinese measure of length) ; its circumference to 8 x 476,000= 
1,428,000 li. The corresponding numbers for the circle, described on the 
day of the summer solstice, are 238,000 and 714,000. Between the inner- 
most and the outermost circle there lie five other circles, which the son 
describes in the months intervening between the two solstices, so that there 
are altogether seven circles ; the six intervals between these are said to 
correspond to the months of the year (2x6 = 12). So it appears that 
the Tcheou-Pei assumes separate solar circles for each month only^ not for 
each day. Each circle is at the distanee of 19,883^ U from the two neigh- 
bouring circles. 

The terrestrial place for which all the calculations of the Tcheou-pei 
are made is said to have such a situation that it is distant 16,000 li from 
the spot lying perpendicularly under the sun on the day of the summer 
solstice and 135,000 li from the spot lying perpendicularly under the sun 
on the day of the winter solstice ; the distance of the place of observation 
from the pole, «. «., the spot at the centre of the earth which lies perpendi- 
cularly under the celestial pole, is said to amount to 103,000 li. Bound the 
terrestrial pole there extends a circle of 11,500 li radius, which is the terres- 
trial counterpart of the circle described by the polar star round the celes- 
tial pole. The light of the sun extends 167,000 li in each direction, so 
that on the day of the winter solstice when the sun moves in the exterior 
circle it extends at midday only 32,000 li beyond the place of observation 
and so does not reach up to the polar circle. On the days of the two 
equinoxes when the sun is moving in the fourth circle — ^the diameter of 
which amounts to 357,000 li — the rays of the sun just reach up to the 
polar circle. On the day of the summer solstice when the sun moves in 
the interior circle his rays reach beyond the pole to the extent of 48,000 li, 
BO that then the whole polar circle is continually illuminated. When the 
sun in his daily revolution has reached the extreme north point, it is midday 
in the northern region and midnight in the southern region ; when he has 
reached the east point, it is midday in the eastern, midnight in the westeni 
region ; when he has reached the south point, it is midday in the southern, 
midnight in the northern region ; when he has reached the west point, it is 
midday in the western, midnight in the eastern region. As the light of 
the sun always reaches 167,000 li each way, we must add 2 x 167,000 to 
the diameter of the circle, described on the day of the winter solstice, in 
order to obtain the diameter of the circle reprei^nting tho outmost limit 
reached by the rays of the sun ; the diameter of this circle is therefore 

810,000 li. 

On the day of the winter solstice the space Uluminated by the son 

1880.] Dr. a. Thibaut— 0/1 the Suryaprajnapii, 205 

stands to tlie space not reached by his rays ia the relation of three to nine ; 
ibis proportion is to be reversed for the day of the summer solstice. The 
daj of the winter solstice is the shortest during the year ; the day of the 
lammer solstice the longest. On the day of the winter solstice the shadow 
of the gnomon is ld'5 feet long ; beginning from this day it goes on 
diminishing by equal quantities during equal spaces of time up to the day 
of the summer solstice when its length is reduced to 1*6 feet. It then 
ineieases again in the same uniform manner up to the day of the next 
vmter solstice. 

The circumference of the sky is divided into twenty-eight stellar 
dinoons of unequal extent, through the circle of which sun and moon are 
performing their revolutions. Kien^nieou is the asterism in which the sun 
sfctnds at the winter solstice ;' Leou the asterism of the vernal equinox etc. 
A procedure is taught how to find the place of the sun at any time. The 
w]M>ie circle of the asterism s is divided into 365i degrees corresponding 
to the number of the days of the year. A year is the period which the sun 
requires for returning to the same star from which he had set out. The 
meeting of sun and moon constitutes a month. A period of nineteen years 
of 365i days each contains 235 lunations. Arithmetical rules are given 
bow to find the place of the moon at the beginning of each year etc. 

The Tcheou-pei contains some additional matter about observations of 
the polar star etc., but by far the greater part of the topics it treats have 
been touched in the above summary. The similarity of this system and the 
dd Indian systems particularly, as far as some details are concerned, 
the Jaina system is obvious. The same supposition is made use of in 
both to account for the alternating progress of the sun towards the north 
ind the south. In the Jaina system the sun revolves round Mount Meru, 
in the Chinese system, to which the idea of a central mountain seems to be 
foreign, round the pole of the sky ; Mount Meru finds, however, a curious 
eounterpart in the Chinese polar circle, the projection of the circle described 
by the polar star. Both systems state the dimensions of the circles de- 
icribed by the sun ; both state in figures the extent to which the rays of 
the sun reach. Both hold the same opinion about the alternation of day 
•nd night in the different parts of the earth. Both are interested in find- 
ing out what places sun and moon occupy in the circle of the nakshatras. 
Both teach the increase of the shadow by an equal quantity in each month. 
On the other hand there are important points in which the two systems 
differ. The Chinese appear from comparatively ancient times to have had 
a knowledge of the fact that the approximate duration of the solar year 
smounts to 365i years and that a period of nineteen years comprises 325 
lunations. This of course makes the system of the Tcheou-pei to differ 
from the Jaina system in all those details which depend on the fundamen- 
o c 

206 Dr. G. Thibaut — On the Suryaprajnapii, [No. 4, 

tal period and the advantage is of course altogether on the side of the 
Chinese. On the whole the Tcheou-pei is much superior to works of the 
stamp of the Suryaprajnapti, as in midst of all the fantastical and unfound- 
ed ideas it contains there are found some positive elements, observations of 
stars which admit of control etc., features altogether absent in the Surjra* 
prajnapti. But in spite of these points of difference the similarities of the 
two works remain striking, especially if we take as one member of the 
comparison not the Suryaprajnapti itself but some hypothetical older work 
of the same class, less elevate and more moolerate in the statement of 
dimensions, figures etc. That such works if not existent at present must 
have existed at same earlier period is manifest from the remarks the Surya- 
prajnapti in many places makes about the opinions of other teachers, 
several of which have been extracted above. That two different chronolo- 
gical periods, the quinquennial yuga and so called Metanic cycle, from the 
foundation of the two systems does after all not interfere very much with 
their similarity. We might imagine the Jainas adopting the more correct 
cycle of nineteen years instead of the quinquennial one and work out all 
the new details necessitated by such a change, calculate all the places of 
moon and full moon during nineteen years instead of five etc., nevertheless 
the new system would immediately suggest the idea of the old one. An 
essential feature in the resemblance of the Chinese and the Hindu system 
is more over the circumstance of both limiting themselves to the treatment 
of a certain number of topics. The following paragraph of the Tcheou- 
pei (p. 603) which shortly states the questions to be treated in the work, 
might with hardly any change be taken as a summary of the contents of 
the Suryaprajnapti. 

" I have heard people speak of the knowledge of the great man. I 
have heard it said that he knows the height and the size of the sun, the 
extent which his light illuminates, the quantity by which he moves in the 
course of one day, the quantity be which he recedes and approaches, the 
extent which the eye of man embraces, the position of the four extreme 
(cardinal) points, the divisions of the stars arranged in order, the breadth 
and length of the sky and the earth." 

The question whether the similarity of the two systems justifies us in 
assuming a historical connexion between the two or would be an interest- 
ing one, but cannot be treated in this place, especially as its solution could 
only be attempted together with the solution of a number of cognate 

1890.] C. J. Rodgers— Coins supplementary to Thomas* Chronicles, 207 

Coins supplementary to Thomas' " Chronicles of the Pathdn kings of 
Belhir-^B^ Chas. J. RoDaBBS. (With a Plate.) 

Steady research is always followed by constant results. These results 
ire as a rule insignificant discoveries which are individually small, but col- 
]£cti?ely they all go to swell the sum of human knowledge. In my last 
small supplement to Thomas' '* Chronicles of the Pafh^n kings of Delhi*' 
I promised to give some additions which I had then in hand. But as I 
went on with two other papers and my researches for them, I found that 
inddentally my matter for the second supplement grew more interesting, 
and at last I found to my surprise that I had more coins in hand than 
ironld fill two plates ; so I began to draw at once and simultaneously to put 
awaj for a third supplement all coins for which I could not now find a 
pkoe. Strange to say just as I had made up my mind about these plates 
a find of about 600 coins of five Ghazni kings, all struck at Lahore, 
eame to hand, some quite new and unpublished, and after that a batch 
of silver coins of Ala-uddin Khwarizmi of whose coins I gave three 
nev types in my first supplement and of whose I give one great 
beaaty in my present paper. These silver coins were struck at Qhazni 
and ^rtodn or as Thomas calls it * Ferwdn,* He gives no drawings 
of them and only alludes to them as giving us the mint of Perwan. These 
Ghazni kings' and the Khw4rizmi king's coins must stand over for the 
present. I scarcely dare make a promise about them. About a year ago 
I eame across a find of Ghazni coins, in number about 500, and up till now 
I have had no time to work at .them and say what was in them, although 
there were several novelties of historic value. As I personally go to the 
bazars I see for myself what comes into them. And when I see what 
comes into them and what finds a lodgement in our museums, I am 
astouished and dumb-foundered to think that coins of whose existence we 
are unaware are daily being brought in from the villages and fields and 
ruins which abound here and there in the country and are simply handed 
OTer to the smelting pot as common silver, — bullion in fact which is pur- 
chased at a little less than its intrinsic value. And all this, while there is 
in India no Imperial Cabinet of Coins and no one appointed to collect for 
it and arrange it and. make it a thing worthy of the historical associations, 
India as an Empire and as a collection of ancient kingdoms and states, 
possesses. India is a continent : but it is too poor to possess one Imperial 
Cabinet of coins which would serve as a metallic record of past emperors 
and riders, past glories and shames, in fact, which would be a history of 
the past in metal manuscripts. With the present rage for melting down 

208 C. J. Rodgera — Coins iupplementary to Thomas* Chronicles. [No 4, 

everything it is high time something were attempted. Our only relics will 
soon he empty, worn out, hurnt up smelting pots. 

In the present supplement the coins I give are chiefly varieties of 
coins already known. The inscriptions are sometimes longer than those 
given in Thomas : sometimes they correct his readings ; sometimes the 
coins reveal new mints, sometimes they are quite new types of coins. 

Plate I, No. 1. Ohv. Taj ud daulat Khusrau Malik. 

Bev. Bull with new mark on its^Ai^/. 

This coin is quite a new type of Khusrau Malik's coins. 

No. 2. Ohv. (As sultan ulj Azim Tdj ud Daulat Khusrau MaUh, 

Bev. Bull with new mark on its jhiSth 
No. 8. Obv. (Us sultan al) Azim Eukn ud d/unyd noa ud Dtn 
Mroz (Shdh). 
Bev. Bemains of a horseman and his steed. 

Thomas gives three coins belonging to this king (PL I, fig. 24, 25, 26). 
I ascribe these three to Bezia. The JBukn is unmistakeablo in my coin* 
I give in No. 4 a drawing of a coin I have, which is exactly like one of 
Thomas' (No. 24). A careful study of it will at once show that it reads 
Obv. '* ZTs sultan al Muazzim Bezia ud Dunyd wa ud D%n.*^ Bev. 
Horseman and steed, exactly like Thomas'. In my coin the zufdd ((j^) is 
more fully developed and it must be a coin of Bezia*s. 

In Pandit Batan Narain's list of coins I find a rupee of Sukn ud D^ 
Firoz Shdh's, Obv. As sultan ul *Azim Shams ud Dunyd wa 'd Dm, aim 'I 
Muzaffar Bukn ud Dunyd wa 'd Dm Ftroz Shdh. Bev. M ahd il Im&m 
Al Mustansiry Amir ul Mominin, fi shahur i san thaldth wa ihaldthin wa 
sita mi^ata. In this rupee the letters of Rukn are exactly as in my coin. 
It has no margins, the date is given in the square area. This rupee is quite 
unique. I should very much like to know its' whereabouts. Such a coin 
should by no means leave the counfcry. I may add that Batan Nanun 
gives in his list a copper coin like mine, and, being misled by Thomas, gives 
also two of Bezia's coins as Bukn ud Din's. I have four coins of Bezia'B 
.of this kind, as well as four of the type I published in my last paper, and 
one each of Thomas' PL I, figs. 28 and 29. On comparing them I have no 
hesitation whatever in assigning Thomas' PL I, Nos. 24, 25, 26 to Bezia. 

In my last paper I gave a coin of Sanjar and Bahr&m Sh^h. In it the 
title of Muazzim was given to Sanjar. In my present paper I give coins 
which shew that this title was given to several kings, who rejoiced however, 
as is shown by their numerous coins, in the title al Azim. 

No. 5. Obv. *' As sultan ul Muazzim, AM ud Dunyd wa *d Din" 
Bev. Horseman and steed. 

No 9. Obv. As sultan ul Muazzim Sltatamsh as Sultan. Bev. Horse* 
man aud steed and remains in Hindi of Sri Samirah. 

18S0.] C. J. Rodgera — Ooitu tupplementary to Thomas^ Chronieles, 209 

Plate II, No. 2. Bev. (Ts sultdn ul Muazzim, 

Obv. Ghfds ud Dunyd wa ud Din. 
In these three coins Ala ud Din (Masaud Sh4h) and Shams ud Din 
Altamsh and Gjas ad Din (Balban) we have the title Muazzim. And it 
eomes also in No. 6 which I now proceed to describe. 

No. 6. Obv. in florid Kufic " As sultan ul Muazzim Shams ud dunyd 
va^d din Ahti 7 Muzaffar (Mtamgsh ?), Eev.» in a rayed circle, the 
Ealimah, under which (Al Mustansir) hiamri Hlah Amir ul Momintn. 
This coin weighs 62 grs. only. It is therefore a tankah. It came to hand 
with three Bahd ud JD%n Sam's silver tankahs. 
No. 7. A rupee of Shams ud Din Altamsh. 

Obv. " As Sulidn ul ^isrim Shams ud Dunyd toa ^d Din Altamsh as 
SsUdn Ndsir i Amir ul Jllbminin.^* Rev. JFi ahd il Imdm Al Mustansir 
Amir ul Momanin, Margin illegible alas ! 

No. 8. Obv. in Hindi above bull, Samasa Din. 

Bev. above horse Ha and no other letter of Hamirah. 
This type is quite new. 

No. 10. Obv. Ajs Sultdn ul Azim Shams ud Dunyd wa 'i Din. 
Rev. Horseman, to right of which Bltatamsh, and above horseman 
w Sultan. Thomas' coin had not any inscription in front of the horse. 
I have seen several of this type. 

No. 11. Obv. (Shams) ud Dunyd wa (ud Din) Eltaiamsh as Sultdn, 

Bev. Horseman and Sri Hamirah, 
No. 12. Obv. As sultdn ul ^Azim Eltatamsh as sultdn. 

Bev. Horseman at charge. 
No. 13. Obv. Shams ud Dunyd toa *d Din Abu *l Muzaffar us 

Reverse, not given. 

These three coins Nos. 11, 12 and 13 give more than do Thomas' Nos. 
47, 46, and 48. A comparison of them with Thomas' coins will at once 
show the additional information these supply. 

No. 14. This is the same as Thomas' No. 50, with the addition of the 
word as Sultdn on the obverse plainly visible. 

Nos 15, 16, 17, 18 show at one view four types of coins of Elduz, the 
general of Muhammad bin S&m. Three of them are binominal. 
No. 15. Obv. Muizz ud Dunyd toa 'J Din, Ahd Yalduz. 

Bev. Bull over which " 8ri Muq^^ in Hindi. 
There cannot be much doubt about the reading of the Hindi. Sri 
Hamirah it cannot be. It is an attempt I think by a Musalmau at Sri 


No. 16. Obv. Muizz ud Dunyd wa 'd Din. 
Bev. Abd Yalduz. 

210 C. J. Rodgers — Going supplementary to Thomas* Chronicles, [No. 4, 

There are floral ornaments about the inscriptions. 

No. 17. A similar coin to Ariana Antiqua, PI. XX, fig. 18, but much 

Obv. " As Sultdn ul Azim Muizz ud DunyA wa W D/»." 

Eev. ^Ahdu *l Malik ul Muazzim, Taj ud Dunyd wa *d Din 

No. 18. Obv. '* As sultan uL Muazzim Abu* I Fath Yalduz as 

liev. Horseman with remnants of Sr^ Mamirah and Star under- 
neath horse. 

Plate II. No. I. Gold Mohur of Sher Sh&h. Obv. in Mahr&bi area 
** As Sultan Sher Shdh^ hhallad Allah Mulkahu,** Rev., in square area, 
the Kalimah. Both margins are illegible : this is a great pity, as the coin 
is in every other respect one of great beauty. 

No. 8. Obv.—" Sultan Sher Shah, zarb i SambhaV Margin obli- 
terated. Bev. not given. 

No. 4, Obv.— « Sulidn Sher Shah, zarb i Alwar.'' 

These are two new mints of Sher Sh4h, 

No. 5. Rupee of Sher Sh&h. Circular areas on both sides. Obv. 
" Sher Shah Sultdn, hhallad Allah Sfc. 

Margin : — " Farid ud Dunyd wa *d Dtn ab4 H Muzaffar** 
and in Hindi, Sher Shah, and in Arabic figures 94i9. Rev. the Ealimah : 
Margin, the names of the four companions : and " As Sultdn ul 4^il, 
zarb Ujain, This is also a new mint of Sher Sh&h's. 

No. 6. Rupee of Sher Sh&h's : Square areas surrounded by doable 

Obv. Sher Shdh Sultdn, hhallad Allah mulkahu,** Margin "Fond 
ud Dunyd wa ^d Din, zarb i Shergarh, in Hindi " Sher Shdhi.** 

Rev., kalimah in area. Margin, the names of the four companions and 
their titles. This coin has not been figured before. Unfortunately mine 
has lost a piece out of its centre and it has not been mended very cleverly. 
But the workmanship is very superior. 

No. 7. Rupee of Kutub ud Din Mubdrak Sh&h. New type. 

Obverse : " Al Imdm ul Azim, Kutub ud Dunyd wa *d Din^ Ab4 *l 
Muzajar, FTialtfatu'lldh,'* 

Rev. central area : " Mubdrak Shdh as Sultdn, ibn us Sultdn Al 
Wdsiq billah, Amir ul Mo?ninin,** 

Margin.—" Zarb hdzd il Flzzat bi Razrat ddr it KhiUfat, Fi sawa, 
saba ashrata wa saba mtata. 

This coin has on it exactly the same as Thomas' No. 146. But his is 
a square piece. On Mr. Delmerick's coin are similar inscriptions, with the 
mint place however termed " ddr ul muik,^* not " ddr ul khildfat** 

1880.] C. J. Bodgers — Ooins supplementary to Thomas* Chronicles. 211 

No. 8. Gold coin of Gyas ud Diu Tuglaq. This coin is the same as 
Thomas* No. 158. In his coin the margin stops short when it gets to the 
mint. This goes on three words "^ mulk i OUalang.** It was struck in 

No. 9. A gold mohnr. Eev. Mahinud Shdh, bin Muhammad Shdh 
Un Tuglaq Shdh as Sultan 752." 

Obv. Ft zaman % Amir ul MomirUn, Gyds ud Dunyd wa *d Dtn, Abu 

When Muhammad Tuglaq died, Firoz Sh&h was with him at Tatta in 
Scinde. Ahmad Ajdz Ehwajah i Jahan set up in Dehli a boy of six years 
of age as king. Ferishta says that he was called Gyas ud Din Muhammad^ 
but the coin shows that his name was Mahmud, On Firoz Shah's arrival in 
Debli Mahmtid was deposed. 

No. 10. New type of Aid ud Din Ehw&rizmi's coin struck at Kishm, 
Obv. ^ Kishnty Ala ud Dunya ioa *d Din, Muhammad bin us Sultan,*' 
BeY. horseman by side of spear " (A)mtr" Above the horse " ul Azim** 

No. 11. Oby. " (Saif) ud dunyd toa *d Dtn, Abu ul Muzqffar, al 
Easn, bin Muhammad" 

Rev. Bull on which " Kirmdn," over it in Hindi Srt K?" 

No. 12. Obv. " Ndsir ud dunyd wa *d Din, Abu 7 Muzajffar, 

Bev. ** Muhammad bin Hasn Karlagh,** 

No. 13. Obv. in Hindi round a bull " Sri Jaldl ud Bin.** On the 
bull in Arabic " Kirmdn" 

Rev. Horseman over which words which may be Hindi " Sri Hami^ 
ffli, but they look like Persian " Farmdn rawd.** 

These last four coins are all new types. Kirmdn* may be the Persian 
province and town. Jal41 ud Din Khwdrizmi went there by way of 
Mekrdn after he left India. At least so says the author of the " Bauzat 
us Sofa:* 

No. 14. Obv. *' Khalifatu Babb il Alamin Kutub ud Dunyd wa *d 

Rev. " Abit *l Muzafar Mubarak Shdh as Sultan ibn us Sultdn Al 
icdsiq billah:* 

No. 15. Obv. ''Al Mujdhidfi sabil i *llah Muhammad Tuglaq,** 
Above, ''Abubahr;** to right, ''Ali;** to left " Umr** under " Othmdn:* 

Rev. the Kalimah in a circle. Margin : '' Zarb hdzd us Sikka, bi 
Hazrat Dehli^Ji sanat Khams asharin wa saba miata. This coin is a very 

* Thomas identifies it with Kurrum near Bunnu. Kishm is I suppose the island 
and to-wn at the entrance to the Persian Gulf. If so, there is no reason why Kirmdn 
should not bo the Persian one, except this one, that here we have coins struck in 

212 C. J. Rodgera — China tupplementary to Thomas^ Chronicles [No. 4, 

much better specimen than the one given in Thomas which was struck in 
DdrullMm.** Thomas calls his tin»^tf«, but I have one also struck at 
" D&r ul IsUm," and during the last five years I have seen about half a 
dozen of them. Dehli and Ddr ul Isldm were favourite mints of Muham- 
mad Tuglaq, but 1 have coins of the type of No. 159 in Thomas that were 
struck at not only these two places, but at '* Tahhtgdh i DehUy^ ^* Arta i 
Satgdtvn" and at '' Iqltm i Tuglaqpur urf (known = «. e,) Tirkut** 
There are coins extant which were struck at Daulatabdd, Thus there 
were six mints of this one type of coins. The simply DekU marked coins 
and the Tuglaqpur and Satgdum types have not yet been published. 
Thomas' No. 173 was struck at Dehli. The Lahore Museum possesses 
three similar gold mohurs. Of these, two were struck in 734 and one in 
735 and all at Satgdwn in Bengal. 

In Sir Alexander Burnes' '* TraveU in Bukhara*^ Vol. II, two plates of 
coins are given. This book was printed in 1834. Masson's researches in 
Afghanistan produced over 60,000 coins. From them Wilson compiled the 
Ariana Antiqua which contains 21 plates of coins, Grecian, Greco* Bactrian, 
Indo-Scythian, Sassanian and Indian. General Cunningham in his *' Coins 
of the Successors of Alexander in the East" gives fourteen plates which deal 
only with Grecian and Greco- Bactrian coins. Late discoveries have produced 
BO many new coins that a supplement equal in size to the original book might 
easily be published. The coins of each dynasty that has reigned in India 
supply matter enough for a volume. These coins are purchased by private 
individuals and of course kept in their cabinets, each new type being hailed 
with numismatic delight. When these private individuals go home, of 
course they take their acquisitions with them. . So that private enterprise 
in Indian numismatics simply robs the country of its treasures. When a 
poor student wishes to see the coins about which he reads, he cannot do it. 
The museums have not got them. The Calcutta Museum is I am credibly 
informed destitute of coins. It seems to me there is only one way of 
meeting this difficulty. The Museums of India must have grants made to 
them for the purchase oE coins just the same as Museums at home have. 
The Berlin museum gets everything good in Europe, simply because it 
gives good prices. Here in India those who can pay get the best coins. 
And if the Government of India desires that the museums should possess 
cabinets of coins, men must be appointed and money granted, or nothing 
will ever be done except opportunities lost. 

I have shown above how our knowledge of the different kinds of coins 
has increased. What I desire to see is an increase in the number of coins 
in our museums. 


C. J. Rodgers — Copper Coins ofAhhar. 


Copper Coins of Akbar. By Chas. J. Rodgebs, Amritsar, 

(With two Plates.) 

lo this paper I propose first to make a list of the coins I have drawn 
io the two plates accompanying this paper and secondly to offer a few 
remarks which seem to suggest themselves from a study of the inscriptions 
00 the coins* 

No. Wt in grs. 


2 109 





6 318 


8 319 

9 325 

10 3U 

11 317 

COhv. Bo tdnke % Alchar SUhi, 

\ Rev. Zarh i Agrah, {Shahretoar /*) 50 Ilaht, 

( Oby. Do tdnJce % Akbar Skdhi. 
\ Rev. Zarb i Agrahy Azr 46 llaht, 

( Obv. Tak tdnke i Akbar Shdhi. 
I Rev. Zarb i Lahor {?) 46 IlaU. 

{Obv. Dam. 
Rev. 83 IlaU, 

( Obv. Zarb i Fulus i Ndmol. 

\ Rev. M san i Nuhsad wa shast, 963. 

{Obv. Zarb i Fulus i ddr us saltanat, Ahmaddbdd, 
Rev. Fi san i Nuhsad wa hashtdd wa ihash, 

( Obv. Zarb i Fulus i Dehli. 

\ Rev. Nuhsad wa hashtdd wa yak. 

Obv. Zarb i Fulus i Ddr us saltanat^ Fathpur. 
Rev. F% san i nuhsad wa hashtdd wa nuh, 989. 

fObv. Fulus i Ddr us saltanat Lahor. 
Rev. Fi san % nuhsad wa hashtdd wa hafty 987. 

f Obv. Zarb i Fulus i Hissdr Firozah. 

\ Rev. Ft san i nuhsad wa nawad wa shash, 996. 

C Obv. Fulus i Ddr ul Khildfat, Lakhnau. 

\ Rev. Fi san i nuhsad wa hashtdd wa nuh, 989. 


12 ftoi 5 ^^^* ^^^^ Zafarfarin. 

^^^ iRev. Zarb i Ful^. Alif= 1000 A. H. 

13 317 

14 312 

15 818 

16 308 

17 316 

C Obv. Zarb i Fulus i Lahore, 

( Rev. FartDardtn, 39 llaht, 

( Obv. Zarb i Fulus i Multdn. 

(Rev. Urd i bihisht, 4il Ilahi 

( Obv. Zarb i Ilahdbds. 

I Rev. San », 36 llaht. 

C Obv. Zarb i Fulus % Dehli. 

\ Rev. Farwardin, 38 Ilahi, 

C Obv. Zarb % Fulus i Urdu i. 

\ Rev. Zafarfarin, 42 Ilahi, 

1« QOT f Obv. Zarb i {Oobi)ndpur, Sikka i Akbar Shdhi, 

10 5/7 ^j^^ jjrd i BihUht, 4/d Ilahi. 

1Q Q1 R ( Obv. Dokdni ? or Dogdnw ? Sikka % Akbar Shdhi. 

i» »i5 ^jj^^ Urd i Bihishl, 4A Ilahi. 

D D 

214 C. J. Hodgers — Copper Coins of Akhar. [No. 4, 

No. Wt. in grs. 

on Qi A I ^^^' ^^^^ * Fulds i Attah Bandrai* 
^^ **^^ ( Rev. Amr Dad, 37 Ilahi. 

^^ ^^"^ \ Rev. Shahrewar, 43 J/aAi. 

oo QQ ( ^^^* ^^^^ * JV*W» « L&hor, 
^^ ^^ \ Rev. 38 Ilahi. 

oq ^7 [ ^^^' '^'^^^ * -FtfZtt* i Ndmol, 

\ Rev. Nuhsad wa shast wa nuh. 

25 885 


Obv. Fulus. 

Rev. ZTrJii zafarfarin. 

2r 140 i ^^^* '^'"^^ * ^^^ ^^ Khildfat, A'grah. 
\ Rev. JV fan »* nuhsad wa shast wa, 

97 dj(\ f ^^^' -^''^^'' 

^' ^ (Rev. 33 JZaA*. 

9Q A9*i.f? i ^^^' ^^^^ * 2>«A7/, Sihka i Aklar 8Mhi. 

28a. The space between the two lines shows the thickness of No. 28. 

It will be at once seen that each of these coins with the exception of 
No. 26, has its own designation upon it. Thus Nos. 1 and 2 are called 
do tdnke pieces ; No. 3 is a i/ak tdnke piece. No. 4 is a dam. Nos. 
6 — 17 inclusive and Nos. 22 — 25 inclusive Arefulus pieces. No. 27, issidamri. 
Nos. 18, 19 and 28 are called Sikka i Akhar Shdhi, The term Julus is 
applied to coins varying from 37 to 326 grains, one struck at K4bul weigh- 
ing 149. The word /alas in Arabic means want, indigence, hence fals or 
filf, a small coin, an obolus, money given to relieve poverty, or small change 
or copper, as we say in English.* Fulus is the plural of fals. The firat 
coin I have seen with yi«/t2« upon it is dated 946 A. H. It is evident that 
a term used so loosely as is this one could never have been brought for- 
ward in accounts or revenue statements. 

Again the sikka has three weights 625*5 grains and 327 and 315 grs. 
I have three which I have not figured which weigh little more than 37 
grains each. Hence sikka could not well be used as a definite value. 

We have left the dam, damri ^xA tdnke. We know that the last of 
these was a name applied to coins from the time of Mahmdd of Ghazni. 
We know also that tdnkes were of two kinds, silver and copper. The 
weights of tdnkes varied as did also their values. The tdnkes of Sikandar 
Lodi were of different mixtures of silver and copper. Sometimes they 
contained only a little more than a grain and a half of silver in each, 
sometimes as much as eight grains and sometimes as much as sixteen, 
seventeen or even thirty-two. Hence it is evident that such coins could 

* [This derivation is doubtful. For /alt signifies a fiah scale as well as a copper 
coin. £d.] 


im.] C. J. Hodgers^Copper Chins of Ahbar, 215 

not be used in rerenue returns. It became incumbent on Akbar, therefore, 
when he made a demand from his ministers for revenue returns to fix 
a itandard. The yah tdnke i Akbar Shdhi seems to be such a standard 
▼line. In the Am i Akhari we are told that the dam was a coin of 
the yalue of five idnkea. And further we are told that there were forty 
dam* to the rupee. Hence we may judge that there were 200 idnkes to 
the rupee* Now the total revenues of Akbar are put down by Nizdm-uddin 
at 640,00,00,000 idnkes. This at the rate of 200 to the rupee would be 
equal to 3,20,00,000 rupees or £3,200,000. 

Now in our list of coins we have a ddm which weighs only 76 grains. 
And Abul Fazl gives Akbar's revenues as 5,67,63,83,383 dams. Now 
if a coin of 59 grains is valued at 200 to the rupee, a coin of 76 grains 
would be worth about 160 to the rupee. According to this account Abtil 
?azl's statement stands at about 3 krors 54 lacs of rupees or £3,540,000. 

These statements are small compared with those arrived at by Thomas 
who makes the first equal to 32 millions and the latter to 16 millions, a 
discrepancy rather startling. And the magnitude of the sums is somewhat 
appalling. For when we turn to the prices of the produce of the land we 
are astonished to find that wheat sold for two maunds per rupee, barley at 
four maunds, mutton at about a fortieth of a rupee per ft. And we must 
remember that nearly all Akbar's revenues were from land. 

Now if things sold so cheaply there must have been a vast amount of 
land under cultivation, in order to realize a revenue of £32,000,000, which 
is only a fractional part of the value of the whole of the crops. And India 
in those days must have been an enormously rich country, for Akbar had 
only a fraction of it in hand. 

Thomas in his calculations does not give one coin of Akbar's. He 
gives statements from contemporary writers. These men were often wrong. 
Certainly five yak tdnke pieces of 59 grains could not be equal to the ddm 

of 76 grains.* 

Akbar's copper coins seem to follow the copper coins of the S^ri dynas- 
ty. Sher Shdh put an end to a mixed currency. But on no one of Sher 
^ih's copper coins have I as yet been able to find a coin-name. 

Abdl Pazl's statement is for the year 1003 A. H. or Akbar's 40th year 
and NizAm-uddin's is for 1002 or for his 39th year. The ddm I figure is 
for the 33rd year and the yak tdnke piece is for the 46th year. It is quite 
possible that these values were those the authors had in view. 

I leave this part of the subject. It is one of great importance and one 
on which authorities differ widely. If Akbar out of the portion of India 
which he conquered could realize three hundred years ago 32 millions 
sterling, he in fact realized more than the English Government of India 
now does. For if we take away from the revenue all the extra sources 

* See note on page 191. 

216 C. J. Rodgers — Copper Coins of Akhar, [No. 4, 

which hare accrued to it since the time of Akbar we leave a mach smaller 
amount for land revenue simple than that realized by the third Mogul. I 
strongly suspect that the whole of these returns are paper sums which were 
never realized. 

Let us now look at some other features in the coins : — the mint towns 
claim a word. They are A'grah, L&hor, Ndrnol, Ahmadab&d, Dehli, Fath- 
pdr, Hiss^r Firozah, Lakhnau, Urdu Zafarfarin, Multan, Ilahab^, Gk>- 
bindpur, Dogdnw (P), Attak Ban&ras, Kabul, in all sixteen mints. I 
have in my cabinet some half dozen to-me-illegible mints more of Akbar. 
In the Lahore Museum is a great heap of Akbar*s large copper yuZttf, as 
yet unarranged. 

Ndrnol is not given in Thomas, neither is Fathpdr or Dog&nw or 
Qobindpdr. Fathptir is Fathpdr Sikri near Xgrah. It rejoices in the title 
of Dar us Saltanat on both gold and silver coins of Akbar. I have one rupee 
of Sh&hjahan struck at the same place. Attak Baniras is undoubtedlj 
Attock on the Indus ; for interesting remarks on this place I must refer 
the reader to General Cimningham's Archseological Survey Report, Vol. II, 
pp. 93, 94. 

The years and months deserve notice. No sooner had Akbar pro- 
claimed the change in the year than he began to strike coins according to 
his new system. The coins of the year 30 Ilahi are very rare indeed. I 
have two rupees of that year but no copper coins. (This was the year of 
the change.) Akbar reverted to Kalimah rupees after this. His square 
rupees with alif{= in Arabic 1000) are somewhat common. They all have 
the Kalimah on them. I have two square rupees of 1000 and 1001, with 
the date in figures, and with the Kalimah on them. The months also figure 
on the coins. Thus we have Shahretoar, Azr, JBhrtvardtn, Urd i Bihisht, 
Amr Ddd, and Zt, or six months out of the twelve on the few copper coins 
here put forward. In rupees I have all the months. I am going to trj 
to complete one year, having already of some years four months. I sap- 
pose the dies used must have needed constant replacing. Some of them were 
very sharp and deep and would soon be the worse for wear. 

Of some places I have only figured one coin. I have several of most of 
them. Thus of Namol I have four and five of 963, and one of an illegible mint 
of 966. The whole of the 60 years of Akbar's reign are I believe obtain- 
able in all the metals, gold, silver and copper. I have every year in rupees, 
except 965. During the last five years I have come across many mohurs 
of different years. Some of these are of rare beauty. Systematic research 
ought to bring these to light. The British Museum has dirhams of tbe 
Khalifahs which go year by year from the commencement of their ininting 
to the time when they ceased striking. And what makes these series tbe 
more interesting is the fact that each mint is thus represented year by 
year, sometimes for nearly a hundred consecutive years. In India^ one 

1880.] C. J. Eodgers— C(y>ptfr Coins of Ahbar. 217 

object to be had in view is a complete series of coins of all the Sultans 
whether Path^^i or Mogul, and of the Mah^rajahs and Eajahs. Another 
object should be series of local mints. Thus Lahore, from the time of 
Mfthmtid of Gazni to that of the latter Moguls, was a very famous mint 
town. But in the museum of that city no attempt has been made to 
secure complete series of Lahore coins. Those of the early Moguls are of 
great beauty and deserve to be gathered. The large mohurs and square 
rupees of Jahangir struck at Lahore are most especially worthy of notice. 
Of course the price of such coins would amount to a large sum. But if a 
moseum is worthy of being kept up, surely the things in it should be worth 
looking at. The coins in the Lahore Museum are now being catalogued, 
ind when the catalogue is issued, the deficiencies and redundancies of the 
cdlection will he seen at once. It is to be hoped that when the deficien- 
cies are made manifest, some attempt will be made to make them good. 

For coins Nos. 1 and 3, 1 am indebted to Dav. Boss, Esq., Traffic 
Uuiager, Scinde, Punjab and Dehli Railways for permission to make copies 
of them. For permission to draw No. 28, 1 am indebted to Mr. Ibbettson, 
C. S. of Kurnil. 

With respect to ih» fulus coins I may add that these are probably the 
the coins of which Bernier says that Aurungzib had bags of 1000 peyssaa 
ready for distribution. In a loose fashion the term ddm seems also to have 
been given to the lai'ge fulus pieces. And generally we see that with re- 
spect to Akhar's copper coins there was a want of definiteness which pre- 
cludes the possibility of arriving at exactness with respect to his revenues. 
For we must always remember that copper was the standard of value in 
Akbar*8 time. 

Xote, — ^There is some confusion in the names of the copper coinage of the East India 
Oompanj. Accoimts are kept in rupees, annas and pies. There are 12 pies to an 

anTin- But on the quarter anna we have in Persian distinctly {j 4 *^ ^^^ P^®* '^^' 
Gordii^ to this therefore there are only four pies in an anna. The coin we caU a 

pie has on it in Persian iS^ *^^ §ul§ pdi, the third part of a pie. If the accounts 
of the Company had been kept in pies only, there would have been tremendous con- 
fonon until the value of the pie had been fixed. 

The modem pice weighs about 100 grains. Hence a rupee is worth about 6400 
grains. If a ddm weighed 320 grains and a rupee were worth forty ddrnt then in 
Akbar*B time a rupee represented 12,800 grains. But if also the ddm weighed 80 grains 
onlj, and there were 160 of them, the same result is arrived at. Now nearly the same 
result is arrived at with reckoning the rupee to be worth 200 tankea at 60 grains each. 

If the relative values of silver and copper were the same in Akhar's time as now, 
then taking our coins the tdnJce and ddm at 60 and 80 g^ins we have 106 and 80 to 
the rupee respectively. Taking these values, which are probably the correct ones, the 
revenues of Akbar according to NiziUn-uddln and Abiil Fasd are £6,000,0J0 and 
£7,095000 respectively. 




Pabt I, FOB 1880. 


FOHANS along the Boute of the Tal 
Cbotiali Field Force, pp. 91, 141 
Agni-mitra, coins o^ pp. 21, 22, 25, 87, 88 
Aluchhatra, the modem B&managar, an* 

deat capital of North Fanchil^, p. 21 
Aibar, copper coins o^ p. 218 
Ana-mitra, coins o^ pp. 21, 26 
Aitetian wells at Fondicheny, p. 7 
Astronomy of the Jains, pp. 107, 181 
Ayu-outta, coino^ pp. 27, 189. 


HADRA-GHOSA, coins o^ pp. 21, 22, 

24, 88, 89 
BUna-mitra, coins o( pp. 21, 22, 26, 87, 

Bhnila, site of the ancient city of Kapila« 

▼uto, p. 21 ; coins of the Mitras found 

at, p. 21 
Bhumi-mitia, coins o^ pp. 22, 26, 87 
BnnfiJl, LL.Ck)L B. B., Deecziption of the 

Great $iva Temple of Gangai Konda- 

poram, p. 1.— Rude MegaliUuc Monu- 
ments in North Arcot, p. 8 
Bnddhisi Ruins, clay discs found in, 

p. 127, clay seals fotmdin, p. 185 ; oop" 

per coins, p. 188 


ARLLEYIiE, A. C, Description of 
coins of the Mitia dynasty, pp. 21, 87 
^^^nac, H. RiTett, coins of Mitra dynasty 
belonging to, p. 21 ; memorandum on 
^^ of the Bunga dynasty, p. 87 ; 

on clay discs, p. 127 ; note on Buddhist 
copper coins, p. 138 
Chenji or Sanji Koftai, a remarkable 

precipitous bluff rock, pp. 5, 6 
GhitUuntir, handsome sculptures at, p. 6 
CiTilization of Afghin Tribes, p. 168 
Classification of Hindi roots, p. 83 
Olay Discs found in Buddhist ruins. 

Memorandum on, p. 127 
Clay seals, Buddhist, p. 136 
Coins of Kashmir, p. 11 ; of Chumba,p. 11 ; 
of the Mah&rajas of Eangpa, pp. 10 — 
16 ; of Rajas of Kabul, p. 11 ; of 
Sdmanta Deva, pp. 11, 12 ; of Susanna 
Chandra, p. 11, of Fnthvi or Fithama, 
p. 11, of the Sunga or Mitra dynasty, 
pp. 21, 87 ; found at Ramanagar or 
AJiichhatra, p. 21, at Bhuila, p. 21 ; of 
Ghi&s-ud-din and Mu'az-ud-dm bin 
8&m, p. 28 ; supplementary to Thomas' 
Chronicles of Fafhan kings, pp. 81, 207 ; 
Buddhist copper, p. 138 ; copper of 
Akbar, p. 213 
Coorgs, tombs of, p. 9 
Cunningham, General A, list of Bi^^ of 
K&ngra, p. 12 

JDeBIVATION of Hindi roots, p. 83 
Description of the Great $iva Temple of 
Grangai Koij^dapuram, pp. 1 — 7 ; of 
megalithic Monuments in North Arcot, 
pp. 8—10 
DhruYa-mitra, coins o^ p. 28 
Distribution of A%haii Tribes, p. 141 




^ANGAI Eo^dapuram, Great $iva 
Temple at, p. 1 
Ghi&a-ad-dm, coixiB o^ p. 28 


...INDf Roots, coUection of, pp. 83—81 
History of Eaflhmir, Muhammadan period, 

p. 17 
Hoemle, Dr. A. F. Rudolf collection of 

Hindi roots, p. 33 


NDO-SOYTHIAN princes of Kibul 

and Eangra, p. 10, coins in the Lahore 

Museum, p. 13 
Indra-mitra, coins of^ pp. 21, 23, 27, 89 
Inscription, on Lanka l3land, Wular 

Lake, Kashmir, pp. 16, 20 
Iralabanda Bapanattam, tomb-field at, p. 8 


AIN Astronomy, pp. 107, 181 
Jalandhar, Rajas of, p. 10 
Jarrett, Major H. S., Note on an Inscrip* 

tion on Lanka Island in E^hmir, p. 16 
Jayamba Maharaj&, founder of the Temple 

at Mailam, p. 6 


goddess, carved stone dedicated to, p. 5 
Kamuda Sena, coins o^ p. 138 
Eangpa, fort and coins of, p. 10 
Kashmir coins of, p. 11 ; inscription found 
on Lanka Island, p. 16 ; Muhammadan 
history of^ p. 17 
Kistvaen in North Axcot, p. 8. 


ANGU AGE of Afghan Tribes, p. 163 
Lanka Island in Wular Lake, Eashmir, 

Inscription found on, p. 16 
Letters, Tamil, on old pottery, p. 9 


AHMITD, conquers Eibgra, p. 10 

Megalithic Monuments in North Arcot, 

pp. 8—10 
Mitra dynasty, coins of^ pp. 21, 87 ; list 

of kings of; pp. 23, 28 
Mu'az-ud-drn bin S4m, coins of, p. 28 
Muhammad Aazam, author of Persian 

History of Kashmir, p. 17 


AGAREOT, fortress oonqueied by 
Mahmud, p. 10 
North Arco^ megalithic Monuments in, 
pp. 8—10 


__ ANCHALA, ancient capital o£i p. 21 
Fathan kings, supplementary ooins o^ 

pp. 81, 207 
Perumukkal, stronghold near Tindira- 

nam, pp. 6, 7 
Fhaguni-mitra, coins o^ pp. 21, 22, 26, 87, 

Pithama, see Prithvf 
Polity of Afghan tribes, p. 149 
Pondicherry, artesian wells at, p. 7 
Ponniy&r, stone circles at, p. 7 
Prithvf, coins of; pp. 11, 14 
Pushpapura or Pdialiputra, capital of the 

Mitra dynasty, p. 21 


AJA Tarangini, History of Kashmir, 
p. 16 

Rajis of Eangra, pp. 10—12 ; of Tri- 
gartha, p. 10 ; of Jalandhar, p. 10, of 
Kabul, p. 11 

Ramadatta, coin of; p. 87 

Ramalinga-pillai-salai, a remarioible col- 
lege building, p. 2 

R&managar or Ahichhatra, ancient capital 
of North Panch&lik p. 21 

Rodgers, Chas. J., coins of the Mahar&jii 
of E&Dgfa, p. 10 ; Coins supplementary 
to Thomas' Chronicles of Pa^hiLn kings, 
pp. 81, 207 ; copper coins of Akbar, 
p. 213 

Roots, Hindi, p. 33. 


lAMANTA Deva, coins o^ pp. 11, 12, 

Sai^ji-Eottai, see Chei\ji 
Satya-mitra, coin of; p. 138 
Saya-mitra, coin of, p. 139 
Spindle Whorls, Memorandum on, p. 127 
8tulpnagel, C. R., Description of coins of 

GhiAs-ud-din and Mu'as-ud-din bin 

8&m, p. 28 
Sunga dynasty, coins o^ pp. 21, 87 
Sdrya-mitra, coins of; pp. 21, 24, 28, 87) 

Sibryaprapfiapti, pp. 107, 181 
Susanna Chandra, ooins of, p. 11 




AMIL letten on a £ragment of a bowl, 

p. 9 
IVmjoie, great Temple at, p. 1 
Temple, lient B. C, ftemarks on the 

AMisa fomid along the Boute of the 

Tal Chotiali Field Force, pp. 91, 141 
Tern Gottaa, Tolcano-shaped, p. 137 
Thibant, Dr. G., on the Suryapngnapti, 

pp. 107, 181 
TomlM at Inilabanda in North Arcot, 

p. 8; of tho Coorga, p. 9 
TnchinopoH district, remarkable places 

in, pp. 1—7 
Trigartta, Bijia o^ p. 10 


AISAKHA Deya, coins of, p. 138 

YV^LLS* artesian near Pondicherry, 

p. 7 
Wular Lake in Kashmir, pp. 16, 20 


ayn Ib4d, of Kadimfr, p. 16 

Zayn-^-A&bidfn, SulUm of Kashmir, 
pp. 16,' 19 

^^y^^^^^p^w ■ Wi >^^^»^%^i»>#'«*^ 

agji^AlSjt ;fBer.)>»l.Vo.,M.lit,?il.forl8: 

i ' 

.:[;.T:a;.As >oc' -jf Bengal. Vol. XLIX, Ft l.for I68Q. 

•iHirddterl/lriml) tittu, Iflnt U/tirr TtmfJe a/ A'j 

* -tAirml immxiUKi >/ (/ 

I DiilrUI 1/ Madru. 

'Jvur^:.A:> Sjc of Bon^'&I, V^ol.XUXPt 1 for 1880. 

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Coins of the mitra or sung* dynasty 

zim^.As. Sco: Bengal. Vol.:aiX.Pt.l.l8eO. 

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OP THB ^ •:< i 

NORTHERN BALOCdt^^^ 1' - -" ' 
















1. The Balochi langiiage belongs to the Iranian branch of the Aryan 
famUy. It is found in two distinct forms ; the Northern dialect which 
IB here treated of, and the Southern or Makrani dialect which has been 
lately dealt with in Major Mockler's Grammar. The Northern dialect 
is spoken among the Rind Baloches living in the neighbourhood of the 
JBolan Pass in Kachi, and on the Upper Sindh and South Panjab frontiers. 
The tribes speaking this dialect are the Hinds, Dombkis, Magbasis, Jakranis, 
Marris, Bugtis, Maz^ris, Drishaks, Gorchanis, Lasharis, Durkanis, Legharis, 
fiadyanis, Lunds, Khosas, Bozdars, and Kaisaranis. These tribes come 
into contact with populations speaking Sindhi, Panjabi, Braboi, and Pashto. 
The Indian languages, Sindhi and Panjabi, have affected the Balochi 
Vocabulary considerably, Pashto very slightly if at all, while Brahoi 
has probably borrowed considerably from Balochi. The Brah6is commonly 
understand Balochi, and it is the commonest medium of communication 
between them and the Balochi speaking tribes. The best BalocJ^ is pro- 
hablj spoken among the Dombkis and Bugtis, the most corrupt perhaps 
among the Boadars. But the differences in dialect between one tribe and 
another are very slight, while between the Northern and Southern dialects 
the difference is so great that the one is almost unintelligible to the tribes 
speaking the other. The Sarawan and Jahlawdn tribes oE Brah6is occupy 
a broad belt of country dividing one dialect from the other. 

2. This dialect was first dealt with by Leech in the Journal of the 

Bengal Asiatic Society for 1840. His sketch was commented on by 

Lassen in the "Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes" for iSll. 

Leech gives a small Vocabulary. Gladstone's Biluchi Manual (Lahore, 

1873) aDd Bruce's Manual (Lahore, 1869) both include Vocabularies, but 

no attempt has hitherto been made to compile a full or systematical 

vocabulary. There is a scanty vocabulary of Southern Balochi in Masson's 

travels, but this dialect is fully dealt with by Major Mockler, and a 

vocabulary is also promised. The difference between the dialects is so 



great however that Major Mockler*s works are of small value to the 
student of Northern Balochi, which is of most importance politically speak- 
ing. Partly to supply this want, and partly as a contribution to the studj 
of an interesting group of languages, I have compiled this Yocabularj, for 
which I have been collecting words for four years on the Southern Dcrajafc 
Frontier, and in the Sulaiman Hills, and for a short time in Sibi and Eaehi 

3. Balochi is as regards vocabulary a mixed language. The original 
old Persian stock has formed the nucleus round which the alien elements 
have gathered. The principal borrowings have been from Sindhi or the 
South Panjabi dialect which is nearly akin to it. Correspondences are 
pointed out in the vocabulary, Indian words being generally miarked as 
Sindhi, as that is the source from which they are immediately derived. 
But by pointing out the correspondence I do not mean to assert that in 
every case Balochi has borrowed from Sindhi. Sometimes Sindhi may ha 
the borrowing language, and in many cases both languages are indebted to 
modern Persian or Arabic. Though the numerical proportion of Sindhi 
words as shown in the vocabulary may seem very large it is not so in actual 
practice, as many of these words are of rare occurrence, and others odj 
locally used. Nearly all the words in commonest use, especially the verbs, 
are pure Balochi. 

4. I prefix an outline of the grammar of Balochi. Lasseu has 
already treated of the sounds, but the materials furnished him by Leech 
were too imperfect, and too full of misprints to be a safe foundation to 
build on in every case. Although, however, he was led astray in individoal 
cases, the true character of the language did not escape him, and the 
remarks that follow are based on his. 


























a ... 














ral ... 

































pb £ 





4 ALPHABET. [Eztn No. 


Balocbi can hardly be called a written language. It is only witbin 
the last few years that Balochis have begun to write it, Persian being 
the ordinary medium of written communication and the Balochis consider- 
ing their language to be merely a colloquial form of Persian. In writing", 
uniformity of spelling is little attended to. As the Persian character is 
the only one current in the countries where Balochi is spoken^ I have 
employed it in the Vocabulary, giving a transliteration of all words in the 
Boman character. Short vowels are not marked in the Persian character, as 
the transliteration renders it unnecessary. The Arabic letters i^ and d are 
retained to represent certain Balochi sounds corresponding, or nearly so, 
with their Arabic values, the representation of these sounds by ^^ and 3 
being insufficient and misleading. The other Arabic letters ^, ^, ^, J», 
J», a, and o cure omitted as unnessary having no distinct value in Balochi. 
In the borrowed Arabic words phonetic correctness is all that is aimed at 
Aspirates are represented by Aa or A following the aspirated consonant 

xne cere 

Drais are marjL 

ea as la Uruu. 


The Fertian Alphabet as applied to Balochi. 





a, i, u, i, 

As in Persian, an initial introducing all vowek 


e, ai, 0, an 

With the short vowel marks it forma 

a, i, u. With madda f it forms L With 
iS following it forms i, e, ai. With j follow- 
ing it forms ti, o, au. As a medial and final 
it is always 4. 


As in English and Persian. 



Aspirated h. 



As in Persian and English* 



Aspirated p. 



Dental t as in Persian. 


Aspirated t. 



As in Arabic, English th in breathy health. 



Cerebral t pronounced as in Hinddst&ni. 



Aspirated ^. 



J* as in English. 






As in English church. 

1880.] AMHABET. 5 

Aspirated eh. 
An aspirate guttural as in Persian, pronounced 

without harshness as in Pashto. 
Dental <^ as in Persian. 
Aspirated d. 

Cerebral a? as in Hinddstdni. 
Aspirated d. 

As in Arabic, or English th in hrother, breathe. 
A clearly trilled r, as in Persian. 
Cerebral f* as in Hindtistani, and like it nearly 

connected in sound with S d. 
As English z. 

As in Persian, or « in English tneasure. 
As in Persian. English s. 
As in Persian, the palatal sibilant. English ah. 
As in Persian. A slightly pronounced guttural, 

not so harsh as in Arabic or Pashto. 
A pure labial f, not partly dental as English /. 
As English k without any palatalization as in 


g G hard as in English and Persian without 

As English m. 

As English n. Also as a slightly pronounced 
guttural nasal, as in the final n of Persian or 
Hindustani plurals. 
Either as English «; or as a purely labial v, not 
as English v. 

h As English h. Occasionally mute as a final. 

When so mute it is not represented in 
^ J As English y. Sometimes pronouncd with a 

slight tendency to become zh. 

I Persian. 


1 **f 


1 t 


1 ' 


f fi 


1 I 






























W, V 


6 cOKSONAin*8. [Extra No. 


1. — O0N8ONAKT8. 

i*i k corresponds with Persian k, which however more usually appears 
in Balochi as ^ kh or ^ kh, 

^ kh as an initial represents Persian vJ k or ^ ibA ; e. g., 

Balochi khush-a;^A Persian kush-tan 

B. khar P. Har 

B. khan-ayA P. kun 

As a final it sometimes represents 4^ g ; e. g., 

B. gwdxikh P. bdng 

B. gurkh P. gurg 

4. kh seldom occurs initially, its place being taken by kh. As a final 
it corresponds with Persian k or g ; e. g., 

B. hUeh P. khi)L 

B. rekh P. reg 

sS g corresponds either with Persian g or b. As an initial gw 
answers to b (original v) ; e. g., 

B. gandim P. gandum 

B. gist P. bist 

B. gwd^A P. bdd 

B. gwaf-ayA P. baftan 

B. ge^A P. bed 

^ gh does not seem to occur in true Balochi words, but to be confined 
to words of Indian origin. 

e gk hardly ever appears as an initial. As a medial it corresponds 
with Persian g and h ; as a final usually with h (whether pronounced or 
mute in modem Persian, also occasionally with g ; e. g., 

B. jayAar P. jigar 

B. niyAdh P. nigah 

B. di^Aar P. dihar 

B. jiyA P. zih 

B. roshayA P. rozah 

B. rayA P. rag 

In the words sayAar * head/ P. sar, and nayAan * bread,* P. nan, the gA 
has no consonant corresponding to it in the Persian. 

* These explanations follow the order of sounds in the Table, p. 3. 

1880.] CONSONANTB. ' 

The gk appears to be inherent in past participles, answering to the 
Eoal h of the Persian, but it is not heard except in compound forms when 
followed by a vowel. Thus khu^Aa, p. p. of khana^A means * done,' but 

kha^ia-yA-ant ' thej have done.' 

c; ft frequently occurs as a final, in the place of n or nt ; e. g., 

khana^Aen — khanayAant. 
Occasionally owing to a nasal style of pronunciation, nw stands for m, 
tod t is interpolated as a final ; e. g., 
nyiifiw&n — ny4m& 
5 ch generally corresponds with the same letter in Persian. 
l^^ chh also represents Persian ch ; e.g., 

B. chh^h P. ch4h 

B. chham P. chashm 

5 j corresponds either with original Persian j or z ; e.g., 

B. jihan P. jahan 

B. jan P. zan 

B. jiyA P zili 

^^ jh is only found in words of Indian origin. 

The cerebral consonants are found almost entirely in words of Indian 
origiiL Before a dental, j r is occasionally pronounced } r, as ma^d for 
mard, gaftha for gartha ; but this is not universal and has not been marked 
in the Vocabulary. Leech represents this by 4* but I have never heard i 
it 80 pronounced. 

«s> t represents an original t, which however more usually becomes 

^3 th as an initial commonly represents an original t. As a final, and 
ifter a consonant medially, it often corresponds with Persian d ; e.g., 

B. thaA;Atha P. ta^Ata 

B. thafar P. tabar 

B. iLrth P. 4rad 

B. khanth P. kunad 

B. burtha P. burda 

i£» ih (pronounced as in Arabic, like English th in nothing, heath), does 
not occur initially. As a medial and final it corresponds with Persian d. 
As a final it does not occur, unless preceded by a vowel ; e. g., 

B. hrkth P. biradar 

B. gw4lA P. b^ 

B. ro^A P. ruda 

B. roth P. ravad 

B. Ath P. sud 

B. rasi^Aa P. rasiida 



[Extra No. 

d d coiresponds with Persian d as aa initial and occasionallj' after a 
consonant; e.g., 

B. dem P. adtm 

B. khanda^A P. Mand-fidan 

Si) dh only occurs in words of Indian origin. 

i dh (pronounced like English th in mother^ breathe) never oeem 
initiailj. As a final and medial it corresponds with Persian d ; e. g., 

B. di^Aar P. did&r 

B. a&dh P. sad 

B. rodh P. rod 

In some verbs dh aa Sk characteristic represents a consonant which ia 
lost in modem Persian ; e. g., 

B. Tudh'Skffh, p.p. rustha P. rustan, Imp. rd 

B. nyidh-nffh P. nihddan, nih. 

B. shodh-Skffh P. shustan, shti, p.p. shustha 

In msidhaJeh ' locust' dh corresponds with 1 in Persian malaM. 
In t&ffh&dh 0^1^ the Persian spelling is preserved, though o is pro- 
nounced dh not z. 

In na^^Ara it represaents Arabic ^ in^^. 
tti n corresponds with Persian n. 
^ «1» p corresponds with Persian p, also with f before a consonant ; e. g., 

B. hapt P. haft 

B. gwaptha P. bafta 

^ ph as an initial represents Persian p and f ; e. g., 

B. phanch P. panj 

B. phusht P. pusht 

B. phur P. pur 

B. phr^h P. faraM 

o f seldom occurs initially, its place being taken by ph. As a medial 
and final it commonly represents Persian b ; e. g., 

B. thafar P. tabar 

B. shaf P. shab 

B. a P. 4b 


1^ b corresponds with Persian b as an initial and when not preceded by 
a vowel. 

^ bh is found only in words of Indian origin. 

J w, V, has two sounds. The most usual is that of English w, which 
it receives [generally when followed by a vowel, and the other that of a 



klnal T (bh in Ellis's palseotype), which it receives when followed "by a 
consonant or as a final, and in borrowed words of Sindhi origin. With 
both pronunciations it often corresponds with Persian b ; e. g., 

3. zaw4n 
S. wama 
£. savz 
£. wh4y 

P. zabdn 
P. bamd 
P. sabz 
P. khw&h 

Combined with b, w is pronounced like English wb in tohieh ; wh and 
w alnie often correspond with Persian khw ^ or kh followed by a labial 
Towel (u, u, o). The guttural is either preserved in the aspirate h, or more 
^eqaently lost altogether (see h) ; e. g., 

B. whan 
B. wh4r 
B. wash 
B. wan-ay^ 
B. war-ayA 

P. khw&xi 
P. A:7*war 
P. Mush 
P. Mwan-dan 
P. khnT'd&n 

A m corresponds with Persian m. 
f^ 8 corresponds with Persian s. 
1^ sh as an initial corresponds with Persian sh. 
it corresponds either with sh or z ; e. g., 

As a final and medial 

B. shaf 
B. ash 
B. namash 
B. scshin 
B. rosh 

P. shab 
P. az 
P. namdz 
P. sozan 
P. roz 

Sber ' below' seems to correspond with Persian zer, but there is no other 
case of initial sh corresponding with z. Sher may be a contraction of 
asb-er * from below.' 

J z corresponds either with Persian s or z ; e.g., 

B. zuwAr P. suwdr 

In the following words z corresponds with Persian d ; viz.^ 

B. zi 

A. z&n-SLgh 

B. zimidh 

P. di roz 
P. d4n-istan 
P. damad 

In zi * yesterday,' mazain * great,' zana^A ' know,' and zirde, a poetical 
word meaning ' heart,' the original Zend z is preserved. In zama^A z 
represents an original ]• 



[Extra No. 

In zik and zar&^& z corresponds with the j of Sindbi jik and jaru, 
but these words may have been borrowed bj Sindhi. Cf. Pashto zik. 

J zh corresponds with Persian sh^^z and j ; e. g., 

B. duzhman P« dushman 

B. azhmin P. &sm&a 

B. drfch P- daraz 

B. wazh4 P. HwAja 

iS Ji^^y and J 1 correspond with the same letters in Persian. 

s h generally represents an old Persian h, modern Persian hor kh; e.g., 

B. hushk P. Hushk 

B. hon P. khun 

B. hikh P. Hlik 

B. phrih P. fari^A 

Borrowed Arabic words beginning with ^ undergo a similar change, as : — 

B. hair A. A;^ir 

B. hatar A. Hatar 

The above noted correspondences may be tabulated as follows -. 











as an initial 
medial ) 



medial ") 

medial ') 

initial *) 
medial 5 








ghf kh 



th, dh, th 


f,v, w 

zh (occasionally) 
z, zb (occasionally) 





sh, zh 



z medial ) 

fa medial ) 


initial occasionally omitted 

It will be noticed that the aspirates of the surd row (kh, chh, th) 
«ie very common, replacing the corresponding nnaspirated Persian conso- 
ii«n^ while those of the sonant row (gh, jh, dh, hh) seem to be entirely 
ooofined to words of Indian and Brahoi origin. 

The letters kh, gh^ th, dh, and f are usually medials or finals, re- 
pnenting tbe Persian letters, shown in the above table. 2^ and dh are 
BeTer initials, and kh, gh and f, when they occur in borrowed words of 
modem introduction as initials, are usually pronounced kh, g and ph. 

An initial h is occasionally lost altogether ; e. g., 
B. asten P. hastand 

B. am P. ham 


The Towel sounds in Balochi generally agree with those of ^urasani 
Persian. They may be arranged as follews :-r- 
Long &, i, & 

Short a, i, u 

Diphthongs e, ai, o, au 

The most noticeable point of difference from Persian is the frequent 

«u\)8latation of the palatal series i, i, e for the labial series li, u, o ; e.g., 
B. Ath P. sM 

B. dir P. diir 

B. seshin P. sozan 

B. gandim P. gandum 

B, bi^Aa P. btida 

B. hikh P. ifcAtik 

B. wasi P. khMs^ 

B. sirmu^A P. surma 

A similar change sometimes affects borrowed Arabic words ; e. g., 
B. m&lim A. m^tim 

B. hir A. hur 

In a few cases the change is reversed ; e. g., 
B. osht-a^A P. iflt-Adan 

• B. sixf P. sev 

Other variations from the Persian vowel system are rare. 

12 THE NOtrsr. [Extra No. 


I — Tebminatiohts. 

1. Balochi nouns in their formation correspond closely with Fenian. 
The original terminal vowels have been lost, and the majority of noons 
now terminate in consonants. There is no distinction of gender. 

2. Vowel-endings. 

L The majority of nouns, ending in 4 are borrowed from Sindhi or 
Arabic. In the former case & sometimes represents Sindhi o,, therein 
corresponding more nearly with Fanjabi ; e. g., 
Ar. hay&, dud. 
Si. bh&, jhe^d, thori, tr&m&y Tel&. 

The words w&zhi, zi, chaw&, pdsnd and hegi are not borrowed. Of 
these wazhd (F. khw&jah) and heg& in inflected forms drop the k, and take 
the termination ah as a base of inflection ; e. g., 
yrizh&, pi. w&zhah^, lords 
begd : abl. begahi, in the evening. 

The borrowed noun veld time, is similarly treated. Other noans 
ending in 4 take no inflections. Some Sindhi nouns as jhefd, thord have an 
alternative form in o which can be inflected. 

i. This is a conamon termination being commonly used as in Feniaa 
to form abstracts as duzi, ' theft' from duz ' thief,' saki strength from sak 
' strong' &c., also as the termination of other abstract nouns not directlj 
formed from Balochi bases as shddhi ' rejoicing,' ziydni ' injury.' It occurs 
also in other nouns as godi ' lady,' druhdni ' pistol,' mav&rki * assembly/ 
pahli 'rib' (F. pahlti). A as a termination of borrowed words i is also 
found as in chdri ' spy,' mehi ' buffalo,' phalli ' section of a tribe.' 

O is of frequent occurrence both in pure Balochi and in borrowed 
words; e. g., 

Balochi di^^lo, mist (F. ddd). 





bathlo, . 









race, prize 





















pony Si. dradro 


echo Si. parando 


a hand of horse 


a turhan 




This o nearly corresponds in sound to the close ^English o, and never 
Ills the open Italian sound. Most words ending in o change it to av when 
&Ilowed hy a vowel, whether this vowel commences a following word or 
ao inflectional suffix. The o of the first eight words in the ahove list 
(di/Alo to jo inclusive) does not undergo this change. Go and jo are 
ndical words, and the others end in the sylkhles lo and kko which pro« 
liably had originally a distinct force of their own ; e. g., 

jo 5 ^"""^ *^^ P^^*^ [ jod» 
hut phalc ) . n . , i phalavd 

jaddo \ ^'^ '^®"*^^ 1 jaddavd. 
pihav ' leopard' may he classed with words ending in o, though I have 
ttrer heard the termination pronounced otherwise than av. This v is a 
Y^lj lahial sound, not the English v. 

U^. ti as a termination does not seem to occur in pure Balochi words. 
It is found in a few words of Sindhi origin and undergoes no change in 
ioflectioDs; e. g.| 

&nu, an egg 
(il^ a hell 
vani, a heam 
limtia, lemon (Arahic). 
£ has not heen met with except in kahne * pigeon,' also pronounced 

An is only found in^at* * barley.' 

3. Special terminations. 

(a). Verbal Nouns^ 

Agh, This is the termination of the infinitive, and verbal noun which 
^<vre8pond8 with it in form. It apparently corresponds with the Pashto 
▼erbal noun in ah, as final gh in Balochi generally corresponds with Persian 
^ Agh as a termination corresponds with the Persian termination ah in 
"**ny other nouns ; e. g., rama^A " a flock of goats," ^hanja^A ** a sash" &c. 
Some are verbal nouns in form as gvr&nz2kffh " a swing." The termination 
V^ also forms collective nouns as murdanayA '* the fingers," from murdan, 
pbWAa^A " legs," from phA<fA. 

14 THE Nouir. [Extra No. 

Okh, This termination f onns the noun of agency from the Verbal 
baee, and may be used with almost any verb ; e.g., thar8oik& '' a coward,*' 
from thursa^A ** to fear ;" wBiokh *' an eater," from wan^i^ These nomu 
of agency can be used and inflected as adjectiyes ; e. g., 
impykh, a fighter 
mi|X>A;Aen bing, fighting dog. 
Okh is ocasionally found in other nouns besides those of agency u in 
gsxinokh * fool.' 

(5) Abstract Nouiu, 
L This is the commonest termination for abstract nouns, which may 
be formed from other nouns, or adjectives ; e. g., duzi *' theft/' sakmardi 
" valour," yAami " grief." 

Adh, Used in forming abstracts from adjectives of dimension ; as, 

gwandd^A, shortness 
dr4zbi(/A, length 
phrahdJA, breadth. 
ikik ; as azmdtd ' examination' from Azmaina^A. 
dr ; as didar ' sight/ raf tar ' paces.' 

(c) Ooliective I^owns. 

kgh. See above under verbal nouns. 

gal. This is most usually employed to form collectives ; e. g., 

jangal, a band of women bom Jan. 
zahgal, a flock of kids from zah, 
pahar, as gwar-pahar, a flock of lambs. 

(d) Diminutivea. 

Ak, akh, ikh. This termination is frequently employed to fonn 
diminutives, sometimes modifying the base ; e. g., 
janikh or jinkh girl, from jan woman 

gwarakh lamb, from the base gwar — cf . gur&n^ ram, and gwar- 
papar flock of lambs. 

kisdnakh very small, from kisdin. 
This termination is occasionally used when all diminutive signification 
has been lost, as wasarikh, '* father-in-law," (Persian khuBsx). 

Ko, occasionally used, as in kisdnro, a diminutive of kisdi^ 'gmall.' 
Possibly the termination lo in di^Alo, shd^Alo had originally the force of a 
diminutive. Compare also the adverbs khamro " a very little/' from khan, 
and chiklo " a little." 

4. Compound nouns and adjectives. 

Compounds are numerous, and may be classed under the Sanskrit 

1880.] THE KOUV. 15 

difisioitB of Dwandwa, Tatpurusha, Eannadhiraja and Babuvrlhi, or 
Copulatiye, Qualifying, Descriptive and Possessive. 

«. Copulative. This class consists of nouns inseparably coupled to- 
gether, only the latter being subject to inflection ; e. g., 

phol-phurs, enquiry 
thauArA-taw&r, conversation 
chukh^chori, children. 
). Qualifying or dependent. In this class the latter member of the 
compoond is qualified by the former. The latter member may be either a 
lumn or a verbal root, the verbal noun in okh being occasionally but not 
offeD used ; e. g., 

(1). When both members are nouns. 

jogin-dir, a pestal (lit. mortar-stick); 
maz4r-dumb, a plant (lit. tiger-tail), 
rosh-is&n, sunrise. 
chagi-h£lwar, a matter of jest, 
chham-phusht, eyelid, 
m&h-^^umi, eclipse of the moon. 
(2.) When the first member is a noun and the latter a verbal root. 
shirwAr, milk -drinking 
rozh-gir, eclipse of the sun (sun-seizing). 
go^A&Q-din, udder-tearing (name of a plant), 
shav-khash, nigbt-expeller (the planet Venus). 
mar-khushoA;A, man- slayer, 
sangband, connected by marriage, 
e. Descriptive. In this class the first member is an adjectives, numeral 
or oiher word simply describing or defining the second ; e. g., 
syah.&f, perennial stream, (lit. blackwater). 
dr&zhd&r, a beam (longwood). 
m&dhgor, female wild ass. 
ergwa^A, the leeside (lit. downwind), 
chyar-gist, fourscore. 
d. Possessive. These are formed in a similar manner to the last 
class, with the force of adjectives or descriptive epithets, the possession of 
the qualities described being implied ; e. g., 
hor-dast, empty-handed. 
phash-ph&fA, barefoot. 
swe^A-rish, greybeard 

sy&h-gwar, black-breast (e. g. the black partridge). 
phoiA&n-demi, the name of a flower (lit. thither-faced). 
dir-z&nayA, far-knowing. 
dast-basthayA, hands joined. 



[Extra No. 

5. Inflection of nouns. 

The suffixes used in forming the different cases are a, ar, eyA, an, 4iiri 
and iuij hut these suffixes are put to a great variety of uses which will be 
considered under the different cases. 

The most usual inflection is that in i. It may he used us an instra- 
mental or nominatiye with verhs in a past tense, as an accusative, ahlatire, 
and locative, its place is to a certain extent taken in the plural hy the 
suffix ^ni, the use of which is however more restricted. 

(1) The Nominative, The nominative of all intransitive verhs, ud 
of transitive verhs in the present and future is the simple uninflected noao. 
With transitive verhs in tenses derived from the past participle the instni* 
mental construction is employed, the inflected form in a being used for the 
agent while the ohject is left uninflected. 

(2) Qenitive, In most cases the simple base is used with a genitive 
signification, but if greater precision is required the suffix egh is used, as 

Kn mard bachh, that man's son ; but hawe bachh anhi marde^i^ en, 
ho is the sou of that man. 

(3) Dative, The termination &r or aris employed for the dative, as: 
Mardum&r nayAand da^Aa-i, he gave the man bread. 

(4) Accusative. The most usual ending of the accusative is k, but 
ar is frequently used, especially when emphasis is required or to distinguish 
a nearer object from a more remote ; e. g., m^ Balochiya ro^i-ar na^Aan 
khanun. In Balochi we call '* rofi'' na^Aan. 

The uninflected noun is also sometimes used for the accusative. 

(5) Ablative, Locative. The inflected form in ^ is used with the 
prepositions go "with," azh "from,'* pha "on," man "in," gwar "in 
possession of," dan " into," and avr " in, upon," which alone precede the 
noun. It also expresses without a preposition position, motion to or from, 
time when. . The meaning from is often implied without the use of the 
preposition azh ; e. g.. 

An ki khai chi kidhiri Whatever thing comes from God 

Bahr-khan&ni go hiidhiriL That I will divide with my heart. 

Har sh4kh& bazar sh4^A bi^Aa On every branch a thousand branches 

Har shkkhi wa^Ai gul bi^Aa. On every branch its own flower. 


(6). An. The termination an is used for the nominative and accusa- 
tive plural, but the singular forms are perhaps more frequently used. 
With numerals the singular is almost exclusively used. 

d»rd. The plural dative in mri is also of rare occurrence, the singular 
being more frequently used. 


dm. This is the most usual plural suffix, being always used for the 
geoitiTe and ablative ; e. g., 

pftitiltam kbund, the vale of poplars. 

(7). Hie suffix e. 

e is used in the sense of an indefinite article ; e. g., mard ' man' ; 

wr& 'a man.' 

The indefinite base formed by the suffix e is used as a base of inflec- 
tion, the case endings following the e. Thus from mardo we get marded 


L Adjectives are formed by the terminations i, en, ena, Sigh, o, and 
t§h from nouns and adverbs ; e. g., 

i. demi, former from dem 

phaJAi, hinder „ ^hadhi 

en, ena. mardew, manly „ mard 

nu^Arae», 1^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 
nuyAraena, 3 
9ffh, gandayA, bad „ gand 

o. gwa;^Ao, windy „ gwkth 

egh. d&regh, wooden „ ddr 

2. Adjectives precede nouns and generally take the termination eti 
vken used with nouns, unless the original termination happens to be en ; as, 

nuyAraen dden, a silver mirror 

gwii^Aoen halwar, windy talk. 

^ adjectives jowain, good, kisaiw, small, and mazain, great, form respec- 
tiveljr before nouns jow4ne«, kis^new, and mazanen. 

3. Comparison. The comparative degree is formed by the suffix 
^1 thir, or tar ; e. g., 

kisain comp.' kisdnthar and kasthar 

hurz „ burz4thir 

mazain „ mastbar 

jowaift „ jowanthar 

sak „ sakthar, 

tile base being sometimes slightly modified. The word bathir (Pers. bihtar) 
^ someUmes used with other adjectives to express comparison ; as, 

bathir gandayA, worse. 
The word geshtar " more" corresponds to the Pers. beshtar, but the 
pofttive is wanting in Balochi. 




[Extra No. 

'^Than" in comparison is expressed bj azh, whether the adjectiTe is 
put in the comparative degree or not ; e. g., 

Azh tho nekh en, he is better than thou. 

There is no special superhitiye form. The comparatiye form iosj be 
used, or the adverbs sakii '^ extremely", hudhii '^ divinely" may be emplojed 
to give emphasis to the adjective. The phrase azh thewaghen or azh kalMs 
"of all", may also be used with the comparative to give a supedilite 

sense ; e. g 


Azh thewayAen masthar, the greatest of alL 

1. Cabdhtal Numbers. 

Yak 1 

Ya ) 









Hasht 1 

Hazhd ) 




























Twenty-two, and so on r^uUrly 

















Haziur 1 

Hadh&r j 








A hundred 

A hundred and twenty 

A hundred and forty 

A hundred and sixty 

A hundred and eighty 

Two hundred 

A thousand 

One hundred thousand 

An indefinitely large number. 

Tlie form ja " one'* is used with nouns ; ya is used by itself. 

Counting from sixty upwards is usually done in multiples of twenty, 
lotennediate numbers being reckoned on or back from the nearest 
multiple; e. g., 

217 is sai kham y&zhdah-gist, t. e., three less eleyen-twenties. 
223 is y^zhdah-g^-o-saiy »'. e,, eleven-twenties and three. 

2. Obdiital Nitmbebs. 




































' Eighteenth 

20 NniEBALS. [Extra No. 















Compound numbers are treated as single words in forming &e 
ordinal; as, 

Gist-yakumi Twenty-first 

Gist-phanchumi Twenty-fifth 


one-half (i) nem 

one- third {\) saiak 

one-quarter (i) pAo, chyarak 

one-fifth {\) phanjak 

three-quarters (f) sai-p4o 

one and a half (1^) yak nem or dedh 

with one half more 8a4ho4» 

e. g. four and a half (4^) eiiho&n chy4r 

With minuter fractions the word bahr is employed with the ardinai 
number, as Gistumi bahr, one-twentieth. 

4. Multiples. 

a. Multiples of quantity, expressed in English by the word " fold." 
dura double 

yake sai threefold 

yake chydr fourfold 

yake phanch fivefold 

and so on as required. 

5. Multiples of time expressed generally by the word bar correspond- 
ing to the similar tise of " times'* in English. Bar is put in the plural 
except in ya-bare ** once", where it receives the indefinite suflixes. Thi-bare 
'* another time" is similarly constructed : 

ya-bare once 

do-barAft twice 

sai-barai» thrice 

ehyar-bard» four times 

and so on. 





a. First person. 




: } 




: 1 

I. — Pebbonal Pbonouits. 

man, mah 
mani, main 


azh man, go man 



mar, m4r£ 


me, to mer 

I, from me 
with me &C* 




us, to U9 

we, us, &c* 

The plural m& is often used with a singular signification. 

I' Second person. 


thau, tha 










: } 




: } 

than, tha 

8haw4, sha 
shawai, shai 

fthawar, shar 

thee, to the9 
thou, <&c* 






shaw4, sha 

The singular and plural in the second personal pronoun are generally 
confined to their proper significations. 

22 PKONOUWS. [Extra No. 

II. — Thied Personal Pbokoun and Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The demonstrative 

» pronouns " this" and " that" take the place of the 

Srd personal pronoun, 

which only exists independently in the form o£ 

the pronominal suffixes to be noticed hereafter. 

1« Proximate demonstrative pronoun. 




esh, e, i 

this, he 


eshi, eshiy^ 

of this, his 



to this, to him 


eshiy^, eshiyar 

this, him 





'sh eshiyd, go eshiya, <&c. 

from this, from him <Sx;. 


esh, eshin 

these, they 



of these, their 



to these, to them 


eshin, e&h&nrk 

these, them 



these, they 


'sh eshani &c. 

from them &o. 

An intensive form is used with the prefix 

ham, sometimes corrupted 

to haw, as hawe, hamesh, hameshij^, hameshani <Sbc., " this very one, by 

this one." 

2. Bemote demonstrative pronoun. 





that, he 


inhi, inhiji 

of that, his 



to him, that 


dnhiyar, a»hiy& 

that, him 



that, he 


'sh anhiyi <&c. 


from him <&c. 


inhin, in 

those, they 



of those, their. 



to those, them 


inh&n, inh&nri 

those, them 



those, they 


'sh d^hani &o. 

from them Ac. 

This pronoun has also an intensive form with the prefix ham or haW| 
meaning " that one", '* that very one", as hawan, hawanhiya &c. 

1880.] PBONOUKS. 23 

The compound fonns imar and inxaai (for i-mard and &i-mard} are 
frequently used in the sense of personal pronouns and are applied even to 
animals and inanimate ohjects. 

3. Pronominal suffixes. 

These are frequently employed with the verh when the regular pro- 
nouns are not expressed. Those of the 8rd person, ^ ''he" and ish "they" 
are most frequently employed, the distinction hetween the singular and plural 
forms not heing carefully ohserved. (For examples, see under the yerh.) 
The suffix dn is also sometimes used in the Srd person as khuf ^ayAantdn 
** they did." The Ist person has also a suffix dn, which is not so frequently 
used. With this suffix the verh takes a peculiar form, a euphonic t heing 
inserted to strengthen the weak final nasal of the 1st person singular or 
plural, as khushthi^Atot^ or khushthst^AdntuA *' I or we killed." 


The word ki performs most of the duties of a relative pronoun, as in 
Persian, and often merely has the meaning of a relative particle, heing 
indeclinahle, so that the meaning is not complete without the use of other 
pronouns ; e. g., 

' E mard hameshen ki eshiy4 hiridhi m& giptha^Adn, this is the man 
whose hrother we have taken. 

The following relative phrases are used : 

har khas ki wlioever 

har ki ) v j. 

, , , , . > whatever 

har chi ki j 

&n ki who, whoever, whafcever 

har khas ki kh&iht, every one who comes 

har ki thau gushe, whatever you say 

an ki khii' chi kidhiri, whatsoever thing comes from Qod, 

IV. — Reflectives. 

Wa^A, self. 

Nom. wBth self 

Qen. wa^^i own, one's own 



wa^^ar self 

Nom. ws^hin selves 

Gen. wa^^&ni own 



wa/Unri selves 

2-4 PBONOTjys. [Extra No. 

The words jind and but are also used in the sense of '' self." 

oneself, wtUhi wa^A 
or wtUhi jind 

Anmar wAthi jindar khusbtba, be killed himself. 

Jind is especially used in referring to one's own private property, as the 
Hindtistdni nij ; e. g.» 

bawe mkdhin mani jindeyhen, this mare is my own property. 

The phrase pha-wa^A&n is used for among themselves, ourselves, your- 

V. — Iktebbooatiyes. 

Who, kh4i ? 

Sing, and Plur. 

Nom. kbdi who ? 

Oen. kh^iffh whose ? 

Dat. Ace. khaiar whom ? 

what ? chib 
which, what (qualifying a noun) kith&n tbdn 

bow much | chiA;^tar, chikar 

how many ? j (P. chi qadr ?) 


80 much "I ikAtar, ikar 

60 many j (P. in qadr ?) 

just so much hawi^^tar (P. bamin qadr ?} 

that much ankhtar 

just that much 




kbaa nen 
hech \ 

any one, some one 
every one 

hechi ( 
'chi ) 


bar- chi 



a little 



nothing i 




thi > 

phi/M ) 
thi khase 
thi 'chie 
thi 'chi-ria 











one another 

other, another 

some one else 
something else 
nothing else 


the whole 



The simplest form or hase of every verb is with one or two exceptions 
ftntical in form with the 2nd pers. sing, imperative. From this base are 
fanned immediately, by the addition of certain terminations, the imperative, 
lorUt, infinitive and present participle. The termination of the infinitive is 
%gk From the base so obtained two more tenses, the present and imper- 
kdj are formed. The past participle is formed from the base in a manner 
vhich will be described hereafter, and other past participles are formed from 
it B8 a base. 

(a). Forms derived immediately from the base. 

The imperative, as observed above, generally is the simplest form of the 
^. Verbs beginning with vowels take the prefix ba or hi, and the verbs 
^fWfh " to eat" and rava^^ " to go" also form their imperatives bawar and 
baro. Verbs beginning with vowels take also the prefix hi or kh in the 
^orisi. These prefixes are not used either in the imperative or aorist when 
& negative is . expressed, the negative particles na, ni and ma taking their 
place; e.g., 

riyAr ■ 



do not bring 


I will let 


I will not let 


he will come 


he will not come 


26 VEBB. [Extra No. 

The. prefix kh is moat usually taken in the aorist, but the verb ila^A 
" to let" always takes b. 

The aorist has both indefinite, present, future and subjunctive signi- 
fications. The terminations are as follows : — 

Singular. Plural. 

1. in ti«, om 

2. e ethf edh, e 
8. th, th, ith, i ant 

The most usual termination of the 3rd person sing^ular is ithy which 
often becomes simply i. The following take th : — 

Infinitive 3rd pers. sing, aorist. 

khanay^, to do khanth 

jana^A, to strike janth or jath 

gira^A, to take girth 

bars^A, to take away bdrth 

wara^^, to eat wdrth 

In giray^, gir is the radical form of the verb. In baray^ and wara^A 
the radical vowel is lengthened. The following take th ; — 

bia^A to be bith, bi 

rava^A to go ro^^, ro 

deay^ to give dith, da 

siayA to swell si^A 

The present participle used of a continued or repeated action is formed 
from the base by the termination 4na ; e. g., 

Infinitive Present Participle. 

hisiffh biana 

khanay/^ khanana 

The infinitive in ayA is a noun and can be inflected. The inflected 
form has a gerundial signification ; e. g., 

khana^A, to do, doing. 
-khanayAd khapta-i, he began to do (lit. he fell a-doing). 
The present and imperfect are formed from the infinitive by the 
following terminations : 






dun, dom 



e, eth 




ant, an, en 








M, eth 






The past participle is formed by the addition of the suffix tha or 
ik^ to the base -which is liable to modifications to be noted below. For 
purposes of composition the past base ends in yA. (See sounds, yA.) From 
the base so formed the perfect and pluperfect are formed by tbe following 
termioations : 



&m tin, om 


e &, eth 


— ant 



sJh&n nth^m 


sdhe Sithe 


B,th, a a^Aant 

The 3rd pars, singular of the perfect is the simple form of the past 
participle without the yA. In transitive verbs with an object and agent, 
this form expresses the perfect throughout, the agent being in the inflected 
or instrumental form, while the object is uninflected ; e, y., 

mardumd nay^an wartha, the man ate bread, 
where mardumd is the inflected form of mardum. But — 

mardum nayhan4r warth, the man will eat bread. 
Here mardum is uninflected and naghan receives the objective inflection. 

The terminations of the present are nearly identical with those of the 
perfect, and those of the imperfect, with the pluperfect. Both seem to 
be formed by the addition of the present and past forms of the defective 
Terb to be to the infinitive base and the past base respectively. The 
piesent with the infinitive base forms the present, with the past base 
^ perfect. Similarly the past forms the imperfect and pluperfect. 
Ihese forms are as follows : 

Sing. Plur. 

I am 


we are 


thou art 


you are 


he is 


they are 


I was 


we were 


thou wast 


you were 


he was 


they were 


The plural forms lin, e, &thu.n, athe, when used with a pronoun immedi- 
ately preceding, take the prefix kh ; e. y., 

ma khuft we are 

m4 kha^Adfi we were 

But this prefix is never used when a noun or adjective immediately precedes. 

28 VEBU. [Extra No. 

From the simple past participle which has hoth an active and passive 
signification are formed two other participles; viz,^ (I) the active past 
participle, used of a completed action and only found before a verb in a past 
tense. This is formed bj changing the termination tha, thh into tho. (2) The 
present participle used of a continued but not repeated action. This is 
formed bj changing tha or iha in thijij thij& or sometimes thi^Aa, thi^ia. 

The use of the four participles may be shown as follows : 
( dinghy to hold. 
Past \ dishtha, held 

C dashto, having held. 

!dd8hthiy4 "^ 
or > holding, continuing to hold. 

ddshthiyM, ) 
d4rina, holding (vdth intervals), keeping on taking hold. 


The termination is cither tha, or tha which is added to the base. jHb 
is the more usual. It is taken by all verbs whose bases end in a vowel 
Verbs ending in mutes take f Aa as a rule, with a short vowel inserted after 
the characteristic ; a. y., bashkayA " to give," P. P. bashka^Aa. When a verb 
corresponds with a Persian verb in idan, a short i is sometimes inserted ; e. g^ 

TtLSBiffhy to arrive P. P. rasi^a (P. rasidan). 
thursa^^A, to fear P. P. thursi^Aa (P. tursidan). 

When tha is used it is always attached to the base without an inter- 
vening vowel. This leads frequently to the modification of the characieris- 
tic of the base, the changes corresponding closely with those which tske 
place in Persian. In some verbs the vowel of the base is also changed, ud 
others are wholly irregular. Verbs whose characteristic is n (a class which 
includes all causals) take the termination tha without any modification d 
the base. 

The most usual changes of characteristic letters are sh and zh to Hf 
to p, dh and z to s. Many verbs in sh and s, take the termination witfaooi 
modifying the characteristic. 

The following list gives the past participles of all the irregular verba, 
also most of those which form their past participle by taking tha without 
modification of the base. The verbs beginning with vowels which take the 
prefixes b, hi and kh in the imperative and aorist are also given. 

Infinitive Past Participle 

&r&ffh to bring drtha 

issL^h to rise astha 

asbkhanayA to hear ashkhu^Aa 

&^h to come ikhthsL, atka 

1880.] VEBB. 

aksayA to sleep 

ilaffh to let 

Oiht&qh to stand 

oshtalaina^A (causal of osbtagh) 


Past Participle, 

(The above take the prefixes b, bi, and kb.) 


































to low 

to be killed 

to take away 

to spin 

to discbarge (a gun) 

to open 

to sbut, tie 

to be 

to run 

to burst 

to cook 

to faint 

to extinguish 

to run, g^lop 

to gallop (a borse) 

to cbew 

to strike 

to pick up 

to tear 

to milk 

to sew 

to f etcb water 

to give 

to go 

to grow 

to tear up 

to reap 

to pursue 

to scatter, pour 

to bring forth 

to know 

to snatch 

to raise 

to burn, be burnt 

to burn (tr.) 

to break 
























sbui^Aa, shuJAa, raptba 



rutha, runtba 





zitba, zi^Aa 







[Extra No. 


Past Participle. 


to swell 



to hunger 



to wash 



to send 



to forget 



to sell 



to pull, torn oat 



to cultivate 



to km 






to do 




to allow 



to copulate 



to boil 



to return 



to take 



to weep 



to pass 



to speak 



to praise 



to see 



to summon 



to rain 



to weave 



to bear abortion 



to pay, pick out 



to touch 



to slip 



to drink 



to freeze 



to die 



to fight 



> to urine 



to suck 



to rub 



to listen 



to sit 



to post 



to read 



to sleep 


1880.] TEBB. 31 

Infinitive. Past Participle. 

wara^A to eat wartha 

husha^i^ to diy hnshtha 

Catuals. The causal is commonly formed by adding the suffix ain 
to the root ; e. g., 

thara^A, to return. 

tharainag^, to cause to return, t. «., to give back. 

OshtayA *'to stand," and nindi^A ''to sit," form their causals thus : — 

oshta^A — oshtalaina^A. 

ninday^ — nishtains;^^ (to lay, spread out.) 


Some of the verbs given in the above list are causals, the intransitive 
verb becoming transitive by a change in the radical vowel resembling the 
Sanskrit guna or vfiddhi, see — 

sushs^^, sosha^^A ; thasha^A, th&hayA ; thusay^, thosayA. 

Can^imd Verbs, Verbs are compounded with prepositions, with 
nouns and with other verbs. The most common of those compounded with 
prepositions will be found under the words j^l er " down," cA* man " in ;*' 
^ dar " out ;" and i:)^ gon " with" in the vocabulary. In verbs which 

take the prefixes hi, b, and kh these are inserted after the prepositions, as 

are also the negative particles na and ma ; e. g., 

phajy& together. Ara^h to bring. 
phajy4 iraffhf to recognize, 
phajya khirith, he will recognize, 
phajya nay&rtha, he did not recognize. 

Compound phrases of a noun and a verb are common. The verb, 
khanayA '' to do," deti^h '' to give," jana^^ " to strike," and girayA " to take" 
are most commonly used in this way ; e. g., 

sar girayA, to set out 
dem deayA, to send 

One verb frequently qualifies another, the two verbs being used in the 
same tense and person throughout. The active past participle is never 
used unless followed by another past tense ; e. g., 

ilayA deayA, to let go 

bilan dedn, I will let go 

ishtho d&^Aa, he let go 

tharayA jyA, to come back 

thar&» kh^, I will come back 

thar^Ao aArAthayAa^A^, I had come back 

32 ABVEBB. [Extra No. 

The particles i and Uh, These particles are appended to verbs and 
take the place of the pronouns of the 3rd person when not expressed 
before the verb. The singular form is i and the plural ish, but in practice 
they are used almost indiscriminately. They express (I) the agent of the 
verb in the 3rd person ; (2) the object of an action, or the instrument by 
which it was performed ; e. g., 

(1) khu^Aa, did or done 

in khu^Aa '\ 

or > he did 
khu^Aa-i, ) 

rava^Aa^Aant-i, they were going 

ja^Aa-ish, they struck 

hechi nestaf A-iy there was none of it (lit. anything it was not). 

(2) w^th gindiM4, he will see himself 
man kharan-i, I will bring it 

hark has phajya-khdri^A-i, every one recognizes him. 

Verhal Noun, From most verbs a verbal noun of agency can be 
formed by the suffix okh being added to the base ; e. g., 

gira;^A, to take ; giroM, taker, creditor 
khuflhayA, to kill ; khushoM, murderer. 


A great part of the Balochi adverbs are more properly adverbial 
phrases, only a few being original adverbs. Many are nouns in obUqne 
cases, others phrases of several words. 

(1.) — Advebbs of Time. 

now ni, nin 

then haJAen, &n-YAkhi& 

when P kha^AcA 

to-day maroshi, mar'shi 

yesterday zi 

the day before yesterday phairi 

three days ago phisphairi 

last night doshi 

night before last pharandoshi 

to-morrow bAngha, b4nghav& 

the day after to-morrow thi banghd, phi^Ai-roshe 

in the evening begahi 



to-morrow evening 

b&ngh&-begaha, naw^hi-begaha 


ninava^Ata, maroshi-nawdshi 



first, before 







^Qdh'i^hAdhkj sheJ^demd 

yet, till now, hitherto 

ddin, ddni, d&nkoh, danikari 

always, perpetually 


now and then 

y damdame, dame dame 

at one time and another , 



at once 



2Lgh, ajr^di, a^Aa/Mit 

then, again 


another time 


at last 




at daybreak 


(2). — ^Adyebbs 

OF Place. 

a. Best in a place. 


edh, edhi, hame^A, hsLmedhi 


odh, odhsk, hamo^A, hamoiAd 

before, in front of 



phaJAd, dim&, pha-dimd 


na2si, naziM 








kharyAd, burzd 


jahU, sher, bund 



on, ahead 


where P 

bakhti P 

on this side 

iftbard, shinbard 

beyond, on that side 

d^ibard, shdnbard 









in the middle 




[Extra No. 

h. Direction to or from. 




whither P 

whence P 

in this direction 

in that direction 

from this direction 

from that direction 

in every direction 

in what direction ? 

onwards, upwards 


from above downwards 



phedh, phedhA, ingOf ingwar 
phodh, jihodh&, dugo, ^gwar, 

Bhedh, shedhi, shame^^A^, shifigo 
ahodh, shoiM, shamo JAa, shsffgo 
thdngo ? 
ashkho ? 
'shin phalaw^ 
th4n-phalaw& P 

erd, sheri -pahnd<^Ad 

(3). — ADYEass OF Quantity. 

much, many 

few, little, less 

a little 

very little 



a great deal, any amount 






gwas, has 


(4). — Advebbs of Manneb, &c. 

From most adjectives an adverb of quality or manner may be formed 
by the suffix iyi, the adjective being sometimes slightly modified ; e. g., 

gandayA, bad 
jowaift, good 

Other adverbs of manner are : 




gandSj^Aiyd, badly 
jow&niyi, well 

sakid, sakiy^d 








altogether, certainly, doubtless 


how ? 

in this way 

in that way 

every way 

in what way ? 


naw^, kaizan 


mondo, be-shak 

hanchho, hachho 

chachho? chon? 

e-ranga, e-r'ga 

4»rang&, 4r'gd 



hecbi-na, 'china, mundo na 



man, mafs 


There are few prepositions, properly speaking, in Balochi, as most of 
the particles so used foUow the noun and would be more correctly called 

The following are prepositions proper and precede the noun which is 
governed in the oblique form (ablative or locative) . 

with, together with, in company with 

with, near, in possession of 

on, for, among 

in, into 

into, to, up to 

from, than 

on, into 

From the above, some prepositional phrases are formed, of which the 
first member precedes, and the last follows the governed noun. 

in company with 




on the track of 

away, from 


azh, ash, shi 

go— gon 
go— phajya 
azh — siwd 
azh — darrd 
pha — rand& 
azh — phalawi 
azh — ]plhsulhi 

The postpositions do not put the noun governed in an oblique tense 
in the singular. The force is often that of the genitive, which has no 
distinct form in the singular, but as might be expected the genitive plural 
is often used. Pronouns also take the genitive in the singular. 


coKjiwcTioirfl. [Extira Ko. 



on, upon 



nemyA^ neffhi, phalaw& 

on aceonnt of 


along with 



ny^Uni, nyinwin 

out of 



khund, gward 

before, in front of 


behind, affcer 


before (in time) 



sadL, kharyA& 





on this side of 


for, on account of 


in the presence of 


in, in the middle of 



4auli, w&jh 



khoh bund 

under the hill 

khohini sari 

on the hills 

go wa^M sardar^ 

with his own chief 

droffh pha imdnil khdt&eM 

falsehood is a blot upon honour 

dast jant avr barziyd 

she puts her hand into the bag 

eshi yd phat^M 

after this 

thai H^ingi 

on your account 

bozhi 14f4 

in the boat 


also, too 


both, and 


and, then 


and (copulative between 





dn-vaMtd-ki, har-vai(r^ti-k!y 



har-handd'ki, handi-ki 






either, or 
neither, nor 

„ (with imperatives) 
else, otherwise 

hecause, in order that 
as, like as 




lekin (rare) 

ki, hai 

hai, hai 

na, na 






ay^chi (rare) 

diSn ki •« 

cho»-ki, chachhoft-ki 




yes, certainly 



na, inn& 

see there 




yes, sir 


my lord 

Yf&zhi mani, s4in ! 

welceme ! 

biy& durr sh'aArAte, hiyithsa 

all's well 


well done 



in God's name 

saldm alaik, alaik saldm 

greetings between Musalmans 







[Extra No. 


A. Ar. 







••• Adjective. 






Past Participle. 























Note. — Tbe Arabic letters ^ vj^ (^ i> •!» a (3 are not used in this 
vocabulary, having no distinct pronunciation. They are represented bj 
J^ U" J *^ ^ *^^ * when they occur in borrowed words. 

1880.] YOCABULABT. ^9 



(Words beginning with vowels.) 

^ Ah, P. (metaphorically) honour, dignity. Not used in 

the meaning water. (Ab er-kanayA) to disgrace. 
M Abbd, A. Br. father, papa. (Used by children.) 

U UhbA, Si. north. 
jijt) Abtar, hy»na, (P. kaft4r.) 
f^ji^ Abresham, P. silk. 
-^^1 Abniikhy P. honourable, worthy. 

/^J XJbhAr, Si. raising. (Poet, in the phrase ' uchAl-ubhar* 

lowering and raising.) 
^^ Aptiyi. Only in the phrase * yak dptiy4,' among them- 
ij^jyi^ Aptirs, (P. &vran, drus) the Juniper tree. (Juniperus 
J^ Aphdn, a leather bag for flour. 
i^T Aphira^A, p.p. Aphirta, (Si. aphirj^u) to swell. 

^1 hihy was. 8rd pers. singular of past indef . of the verb 
to be. The complete tense is aMdn, a^Aei, a^A, aMun, 
a^Aei, a^Aant or a^Aan. 
Jlj^T Uch&l. S. See UbhAr. 

^1 Ach&, (Si. achho) clean. 
/^ T Aj&m, (P. anj4m) settlement, arrangement. 
U^^l Ajab, (A. vf^) wonderful. Ajab-rang, beautiful, purple- 
ir^l A*Aird, A. utterly, extremely. 

^ TOCABUiABT. [Extra No. 

V>) Adab, A. good manners. 
«»«>T Adit, 1 

oi3l Ada^&, y., to pitch a tent, encamp. 

i*<i«3T Aden, } 

y , ^ / ) a mirror. 

&jo;| Azina,j 

c>l A4» Si. a maaonij watelrcourse. 
^^5^ A4-dea^A, v., to lean. 

1^ A444» Si. Br. brother (familiarlj). 
^^5^ U4ra^A, (Si u4in?u,) to fly. 
^/1;«5; U4ohi, Si. a white ant. 

cf^Sl A44i, S. Br. sister (familiarly). 
^1; ' Aram, P. rest. 
^jI Arth (P. drad) flour. 

^j ' Urd, an army. (P. urdti.) 
ejy' Arzin, adj. P. cheap. 
,^;I Arsi, adj. Si. idle. 
^Jf ArayA, p.p. drtha ; imp. bi-Ar ; fut. khir^. (P. ivardan, 
bi-Ar) to bring. Kdrd dra^A, to use. Phajya drayi, 
to recognize. Qir-^a^A, to remember. 
^i)^j^ Armdn, pity. P. 

t J>^T AroM, bringer. Verbal noun from fcayA. 
j4j^ Arikh, gums. 

t^^ vLfl Az^b-dea^A, A. Bi. to offend, 
•3|;T Azdd, free. P. 

^^ ^y ^jl IzboA?At, the ajwain seed. 

\sr^J^ Azmdn, ) , 

i^tl . ,. . the sky. (P. ismdn.) 
^^v/«;i Azhman, ; 

iH^Ji Azmdina^A, to examine. P. 
^j^J' Azmtit^ examination. 

J^ Azh, from. (P. az. Pdzand ezh.) 
^I Azhgizh, flint and steel. (Cf, P. az^Aash.) 
M)^J^ Azhmdn. See Azm&n. 

1880.] TOCABXTLABT. 41 

SmJ^jjl izhwark,') 

J;J^ izhrak, r (Br. shark.) Bhazya stricia. 

'! izhg, J 

^^1 &a, fire. (P. dtish). 

^)J \J^f As-roiA, a platform erected where funeral ceremonies 
have been performed. 

Vlr L/*' ^s-khob, flint (lit. firestone). 
cJ^' isiai, easy. P. 

»' asp, horse. (The generic term.) P. 
■^f nspnst, lucerne grass. 
<-W^I isphulk, the spleen. Br. 


Parts of the defective verb to be, 

to exist. 
(P. hastan. Sk. As.) 

> was. 

^j/i^l asten, ) . 
» • - I V IS, are. 

Ci^J^l astant, y' 

/^^ astir, star. (P. sitira.) 
^r^l istara^h, razor. * 
tJ^T &tagh, slowly. (P. dhista.) 
Jj^l istdr, coarse, thick. 
^jti^f istin, sleeve. P. 
^j;S^l istin, a light cloud, cirrhus. 
^1 asr (a. ^ I ), impression. 
j^\ asur, dawn, morning twilight. Si. 
^T isur ( a. ^ f ), mercy. 
j|/**' isrdr, mystery, secret. A. 

f^^i Astokhy the third day of mourning. A platform erected 

to commemorate it. 
f^l 4sayA, p.p. dstha, f ut. khia&n, imp. biis, to rise. Asin, 

rising. Bosh-^n, sunrise. 
v-X-T isk, a deer (f.) (P. dhti.) 

«*^-^ ^Srn] &k.mahitfk, a kind of fly. 

l)^I asul ( a. cM ), original. 

S***! asula, from the first. Asuld gannoH, a bom idiot. 

^^ isin, iron. (Cf . P. 4han.) 

4Q TOCABULABY. [Extlft No. 

^1 ashd, a. eight o'clock in the evening. 
^' ashy from. (P. az ) 
*r O**' ash-koh, whence? 
)iiy^ yj^\ ash-mod^d (for azh hamoJ^d), thence. 
I<^i^ Vj^l ashmec^M (for azh hameJAa), hence. 
^^1x*| ashtdfi, a. quickness. (P. shitibi.) 
^i^i ashkanayAy p.p. ashku^Aa, imp. hi ashkun, to hear, 
listen. Compounded of ash-knana^A. (Ash = Skr. 
jt^l ishtha, p.p. of ilagh. q. v. 
^^) ushtayA. See ^^f oshta^A. 
pl ay A, adv. conj. again, then. 

f ' ^A, p.p. 4A?Atha, imp. biyd, fut. kh4», (P. imadan, biya), 

to come. 

phe JA iahen, ) 

- _ I IS commg. 
mana-ayAen, ) 

QT'kghf to come down. 
dar-dyA, come out. 
man-i^A, be applied, suit, hit. 
Pha^^A-ayA, rise. 
dast-4^A, get, come to hand. 
kar4-4^A, be of use. 

^^^T ^Adhi, warning. (P. ^4h.) 

4jj5*<^l ayAdi, again. Also el ayA. q. ▼. 

y^ AffhsLT, if. (P. agar.) 
'•t/^' ayAarchi, although (rare). 

J^l ayAl (a. J^), intellect. 

^' ayAmd, efEort, endeavour. 
^T if, water. (P. db, Z. dfs.) 

^^^.Ti^l df-droitA,) , , 

4 ^1./ / water-bearer, 

^I afi, ) 

^XAJ I— il af-biayA, to melt, thaw. 
c^^'*3 ^— *l df ddri, irrigation. 
Mi*^ u-j I df-deayA, to irrigate. 


cJjJt ii.^1 af.gbef, slope, watershed. 

^ ^ I &f .layAar, rapid> waterfalL 

P^^ u-iJ df-mnryA, waterfowL 

iiJ;.) uJl 4f.drik, a kind of grass. (FaBJ. manih&r.) 

^/^» ^fsin, pregnant. (Cf. P. 6bista.) "^ 

O^'T 4fshik, 8. soup. (Cf. P. Ab-xah.) I 

^j^' 4fkin, box for holding collyrium. 

I»^l Afim, opium. (A. afy^n.) 

J[SI iktar 7 

J. ' > so much, thus much. ( ? P. Tn kadr.) 

^•^1 ikar, ) 

\j^ akas, envy. 

^^) aksayA, p.p. akastha^ fut. kaksi, imp. biakas, to sleep. 
It**^' aksard, generally. 
wM' akul (a, cU^), intellect, wits. 
tt^^r' dkhan, proverb, anecdote. Si. 
j^ dkhar, buttermilk. Si. 
j;^! dkhero, nest. Si. 
^ ' ukaiyd, in that way, of that sort, 
'i^l akila (a. ^^Ijap), celebrated. 
^-^ I ag, rate of sale. 

Ij-'J ilAj, cure. (A. ^lU) 
««U)I aUhida, separate. (A. l^a^) 
^y «si, idle. Si. 

^I ila^A, p.p. ishtha, fut. kilf. imp. bil. (P. hishtan, hil), 

to leave, abandon^ ilayA>deay^ p.p. ishtho^dd^Aa, to 
let go. 

*^l ulkah, the world, the universe. 
W^^I amb, mango. P. 
\s}^^ ambdzi, embrace. (P. ham, b&zti.) 
j^ ambur, forceps. P. 

ij/^^) ambrdh, servant^ companion. (P P. hamrah.) 
t>V*l ambal, mistress, lover ; companion. 
^t^^ dmdan, income. (P. dmdan, to come.) 

M TOCABVLABT. [Extlft No. 

)j^l imar, he, this man, this. For I9 mard. 

j^^ nrnai, age. ( Ai.j^ ). 
j^) imar, slowly. 
j;^u^l amsaro, equal in age or otherwise. 

cV^' amol, mistress (see ambal). 
3^*"^' amsoJA, grief. (Cf. P. afsos). 
^li^l ann&m, namesake. (P. hamnant.) 
ji^^ amir, chief. 
c)> an, dem. pro. that, he. 

Sn ^ V Genitive of i». 

V^l anhiyi. ) 

^^^1 a»hiy&r. Objectiye and dative of in. 

fAi I Anhar I 

'it , '. r beyond, on that side. 
I;*il anbari, ) ^ 

y^^l inbari, on this side. 

j¥F^^ anjir, s. fig ; khohi anjir, wild fig. P. see hinjir, 

|;ail andar^, adv. inside. 

U^«X> I 4ndem&, adv. thither, that side. 

^^I indemi, adv. hither, this side. 

^■■U.u»»l ins&f, s. justice. (A. <JUaJf.) 

f^y\ anzi, s. a tear. P. 

SSj} i^tktar | 

>^~.'r ' } so much, as much as that. (?. P, dnqadr.) 

^« ankar, ) 

J;l^l ing&r&y Tuesday. Si. 
^^wl angane, innumerable. Si. 

^1 ^go, thither, in that direction. 

^1 ingo, hither, in this direction. 
A^^^il anm^cha, an ammunition pouch. See hanibdeka, 

j4Ji 4nmar, he, that man, that. (For 6n mard.) 
^1 And, egg. Si. 

'V' nnh&lA, hot weather. Si. 
^i^^ anisha^A, s. (P. antisha), forehead ; fate, fortune. 

j^y &w&r, spoil, plunder. 









fi^A, 8. I 

ti,8. 3 

a tank. 


&w4r, mixed. P. Awdr bia^A, to mix with, join. 

iw4z, voice. P. 

ob&si, yawn. 

obhar, east. Si. 

otak, 8. a bait ; otak khanayA,to halt, encamp. 

othar, 8. a dust-storm. 



oj^Ao, awake. Si. 

ojriy stomach. Si. Paj. See sa^Aindan. 
dvd^ri, 8. irrigation. 

avr, on, upon, into. (P&zand, awar, on, over.) 
o^d, adv. there. 
auz4r, tool. 

iwazi, revenge, substitute. (A. ij^j^-) 
awarzi) pleasing, agreeable. 

oshta^A, y. p.p. oshtd^Aa : imp. bosht, to stand, stay. (P. 

oshtalainayA. Causal of 09htag\ to post, set up. 

ogal, chewing the cud. (Si. Og&r.) 

ol4, adv. formerly. (From A. J^f.) 

olak, beasts of burden. (? Turkish wul&^A.) 

olah, west. SL 

oil, adj. former. 

ondo, overturned. Si. Ondo khanayA, to upset. 

auhs^-khata, a puzzle. 

> flame, 

aver, late. Si. 

&h, in, ah ! alas ! 

ahdr, the hot weather, the month Xair^ (Si. Panj, Ahar). 

ahs&n, mankind. (A. absin.) 

dhanja^A^ a sash, kamarband. P, 

46 VOCABVLABT. [Extra No, 

lyf ' e or i, prep, this. 

•Oi' er'gi, I 

•^ . > in this way. 

^^I eranga, ) 

Jul Q^J^ ^ 

uLi Ak^ \ ^^' ^®'^' ^^^* ^®'^^* aetadha.) 

ji^ er, adv. down, below, ^l sh'er, from below. (Of. P. aer, 
i^' er-i^h, to come down. 
Pjiy) er-barayA, to swallow. 
C^/d^ er-jansk^A, to cast down, abaso. 

jA^' er-sbafayA, to go down, set (of the sun), p.p. er-sbu^Aa. 
j^ri^ er-rava^A, to go down, 
•^-i^l er-sbaf, s. going down. Rosb-er-shaf, sunset. 
t*t^' er-kbafa^A, v. to descend, aligbt. 
fHv^' er-kbana^A, v. to lay down, place, 
il^l^l er-gw4M, tbe lee-side ; er-gw4^W, to lee- ward. 
cMjj] er-ninda^A, v. to sit down. 

^J^ esb, tbis. (Of. Zend, aesba.) 
sj^h im&n, bonour. 

^^1 in, pron. tbis. 

yi^ aiv, spot, bolt. ( A, v^^) 
^Vi' ewakbd, alone. (Panj. bekw&.) 

V B. 

»^J^ bAdsbdb, king. P, 

J^, b4r, 8. burden, load. P. 
b4r-bandayA, to load. 
bar-er-kbanayA, to unload. 
^^W barsj^A, adj. fine, tbin, lean. (P. bdrik.) 
JJ^ bAro, I 
^> bire, J '"''^- ^^• 

V^^ bAptb, 3rd pers. sing, f ut. of barayA. 

1880.] TOCABULABT. 4l7 

JV b^z, many, much. 

bizen wajbi, of many sorts. 
bazeii bardn, often. 
h&zen ranga, many coloured. 
JlXi h&z&Ty bazaar. P. 
jj;W bazti, limb. P. 
^ j^ bazigar, juggler. 
^W b&sayA, y. to low (of cattle). 
^W bd^A, s. a garden. P. 
P W b^^A, v. p.p. bai^Aa ^b, to be killed. 
^VcU bdyAitr, s. a lizard. 
^^W bdqi, adj. remaining. A. 

" JW bdl, 8. flight. 

bal-gira;yA, to fly, take flight. 
b41-deayA, to let fly. 
3)^ h61idhf figure, shape, form, 
^o'^ h&iidhijif adv. from below, upwards. 

^^ balayA, of age. A. 
^cXib bandi, s. a hostage. 
c-^W bang, a voice, sound ; cock-crow. P. 
1^^ h&Dg&, ) s. the morning. Bdngawa, in the morning 
^V? b&ngo, J to-morrow. Thi-bdnga, the day after to-morrow. 

^^W bdngohind, in the early morning. 
\iJ^^ bandan, a rough table. 
*^^y bdut, refugee. 
^y^' bauti, shelter, refuge. 

^W bdhir, s. a herd of donkeys. 
Jj^y bdhrav, s. male calves. 

^jf^ baphd, scurf. Si. bapho. 

ii^ but, self, oneself. (Si. butu, the body). 

j^ bitdr, the tw^ stars (forming the tail of Ursa major). 

jiiH bathir, better, very good. (P. bihtar.) 

^t-*^ bathlo, wooden mortar. 

5;^^ baterd, quail. Si. 

*8 VOCABULABT. [Extra No. 

^ bij, seed. Panj. 

A,|^ bachh, son. P. 

baHt, fortune. P. 

baJbAtw&ld, fortunate, generous, (used in addressing 

buHta, p.p. of busbka^ft. q. v. 
ba^Amal, velvet. (P. maJtAmal.) 
*V bad, bad (only in Persian compounds). 
^ bad-kbd, ill-natured. 
)ji2iX* bad-du&, curse. 
JXAdJ bad-sbakl, ugly, 
^J*^ badragi, an escort. 
\^*^ badi, enmity. P. 

^^ bu4ayA, V. p.p. iJ^^ buda*^, to drown, be flooded. 
(Si. bu^anu.) 

«^ baJA, s. enemy. Generally in the plural c;t<3J baJAiui. 
^j*^ baJAal, s. a debt. 
j^ bar, a time, a season. P. 
ya-bare, once. 

tbi-bare, again. Bizen-bar&n, often. 
jJt bar, s. fruit. 
ji bar, s. a desert. A. 
^]y, hirithj s. brother. Bird mani, my brother ! 
^ ]^ baraA;^, coarse grass found in the lower Sulaiman Hills. 
J«3l/? barWAar, s. brother (poet). P. 
K^J^}y. bardJAari, s. brotherhood. 
i!i^|/ir^ birdz&Mt, s. a nephew, (brother's son). P. biradarzada. 

Jyj^. bardwar, adj. equal. 
^,** m Oj^ bardast, s. shoulder-blade (used in augury). 

Jj4 burz, 1 

}jji burzd, f adj. high, upper, lofty. P. 
^^ burza^A> J 
jt^Jji burzAthir, adj. very lofty, higher or highest. Comp. of 

1880.] TOCABULABY. 4fi 

\S)j^ barzi, s. a bag. 

^ji bara^A, v. p.p. buftha *t?jH> ^^ carry away, bear off, remove. 
P. hwrdan. 
Er-baraf A, to swallow. 
Dar-berayA, to defend, save. 
i^ bura;^A, v. p.p. buri^Aa ^y,^ to cut. P. hur^n, 
*^ burqa, b. a veil. A. 
^j^ birinj, s. husked rice. P. 

jj^ baro, \ 2ad pers. sing, and plural Imperative of ravagh, 
itA>/^}ji baroe^A, ) go, go ye. P. burti. Skr. bhrti. 
*^)ji baroth, s. moustaches, (fit, Pashto bret.) 
{;^*^ bresagA, v. pp. brestha ^fi^j^, to spin. 
i^j^ buzi, s. a spring. 
y* baz, adj. thick, coarse. 
yi buz, 8, a goat. P. 
^^^ bashdm, the rains, the month of Sawan. 
^ bushk, s. a horse's mane. 

i bashka^A, v. p.p. bashka^^ to give. P. ba^Ashidan. 
i bushka;^^, v. p.p. builAtha, to dischaige a gun. 
^ ba^Ad, s. coward, runaway. 
(J^ ba^M, s. in the phrase bayAl girayA, to embrace. Ar. 
jii^, bayAair, except, without. Ar. 

bukchi, horse's mane, 
c^ bakkal, a Hindu, a trader. Ar. JlftJ. 
^f^. bakhii, where ? 

^^ bag, a herd of camels. Panj. bag. Si. vagu. 
i)^ bil, imperative of ilayA. Bil-dai ! let go ! 
J^ bal, spear. 
^ billa, s. medal. 
^jU balrd, infant. 
>^ balgo, dirt. 
S^^J baldyAat, puberty. Ar. 


50 vooABiTLABT. [Extn No. 

^^i^ billi, cat. Hindi, Si., Panj. 
^. ban, exposed surface of a stratom of rock, sandstone. 
^ bun, root, bottom. P. 
^ bund, below, at the bottom. 
«3J^ band, an embankment. P. 
y^ bundar, tbe buttocks. SL bundaf a. 
p(^ banda^A, v. p.p. bastha, to tie, bind. P. bastan. 

Saren-banda^A, to belp. 
DroyA-banda^A, to lie. 
^«^ bandiibA, thread. 
^, bunayA, ba^age. 

j^ band, an embankment round a field. Si. banc. 
\j^^ binni, a donkey's pack-saddle. 
<^^^ buny&d, foundation. P. 
yi bo, s. smell. P. 

€htnd-bo, stink. 
N&z-bo, pleasant smell. 

^s>y\ bot, vermin. 


^^ bd^ayA, T. p.p. bdta^Aa, to close (tbe eyes). 

^yi bu^Aa^A, bracelet. 

** • 
^•^^y. boHta, p.p. of bozba^A. q. v. 

^yi Ikm^A, a small tree producing Gdgal gum, Baltamodendnm 

)y\ bor, chestnut (of a horse) ; poetically a mare, horse SL 

)yi bdr, a bud. 
^^^Jyi borchi, a cook. Turkish. 

jy\ boz, the Gugal tree, also the drug obtained from it, Bal 

wmodendron mukuL See hodh, 
jji bdz, wild, savage. 
^Jj^ bozhayA, p.p. boHtha, to open, untie. (Of. p&zand, be 

zheshn, release.) 

1880.] YOCABTTLABT. 51 

sS)yi bozbi, a boat. A. 

^>? boy A, a joint in wood. 
s^yi bauf, a pillow, mattrass. 

^^ boka^A, (1) to bleat as a goat ; (2) to be proud, frisky. 
^^ bolak, a tribe. 
^y, bM, beestings. 
^5^^ boK, speecb. 
\SJ^y^* bob&n, sweeping. Si. bobari. 
JdAjj bobtdr, a best, entertainer. 
\jj^j^ bobari, in front. 
u^yi bobal, a barren, salt mountain. 
^i/^Xi bobra, a vault, cellar. 
\i bb&, 6. price. Si. bafai. bhi-girayA, to buy. 
\^ babi, y. tbe Birer Indus. 
J^^ hskh&dhur, brave, a bero. 
^^ bb^yi, ricb, well off. Si. bb^yo. 
^J^ bib4n, a filly. 

I<^V? bb&nd^ a fold, enclosure, pen. Si. hhindo, 
^^V^ bab^, sale. 
V£^ bbit, a wall. Si. 
^Vy^ bbatti) a kiln. Si. 

jYi babar, a sbare. P. Babar-kbanayA, to deal, divide. 
^jYi babarkbd, tbe montb of Cbait. P. bahir. 
Pjfi bburayA, p.p. bhuri/Aa, to be crushed, burst. Si. bburanu 
\J^^^ ^ , bibisbt, beaven. P. 
y^ bbold, monkey. Si. 
iHJxx^. bborena^A, v. to break, burst (transitive). Causal of 


Cbbam bhorena^A, to wink. 

Kbond bborenayA, to kneel. 
kS^^ bbe4i> 8. the ankle. Si. bhe^i. 
^ be, pr. without. P. 

52 TOCABULABT. [Extra No. 

^UjI 4. be-imdn, faithless. 
V«5l 4- be-adab, rude, 
^j;' 4^ be-dr^m, uneasy. 
u-jUoI ^ be-insdf, unjust. 
lP' 4* be-akul, senseless. 
^^_^' 4^ be-akuli, senselessness. 

•^^ ^ be-phAJA, a snake, (lit. withont feet). 
^U^ 4- be-dihin, thoughtless. 
^^^** ^ be-san&ti, useless. 
*-^** 4- be-sek, weak. 
^ii^'* ^ be-shak, doubtless. 
^U*». ^ be-shum6r, innumerable. 
W* 4- be-fahma, unintelligible. 
J^ 4- be-k^, unoccupied. 
*^ 4— be-gunAh, innocent. 

-^ - 4- be-mivAr, ) , 
, s shameless. 

^^ 4- be-hayA, j 
V^J ^- be- was, helpless. 

^j^ bai. Imperative. \ 

A^H bi^Aa. Past Part. / 

jiri hair, revenge. Bair-girayA, to take revenge. 
cT/i^ bairi, revenge, enmity. 
^jl^j^' berini, harm, damage, 
tlr^ ber-khanayA, to surround, encompass. 
t^J^V^* bero-dea;^A, to turn back. 
\J"^. beri, a boat. Si. 
»'^ begih, 8. evening. BegahA, in the evening. P. 
^h^. bilan, s. the small intestines. 
Jw bel, (1) a friend ; (2) a hoe. Si. 

t^. benayA, s. honey. BenayA-mahisk, a bee. (Cf . P. angubxn.) 
Pashto gabina. 

188(X] TOCABUIABT. 58 

kJ^ bing, dog. Bing, the Dog, i. e,, the middle star of the 
three f ormiDg the tail of Ursa Major, See under Gu- 
rdnd* Bing-mahisk, a horsefly. 
e;lj*? bewdn, wilderness. P. bay&b4n. 

^ y^ hiokhf possible. BioA;A-nefi^ impossible. Noun of agency 
from biayA. 
j^ bia^A y. to be, become, p.p. hithtk, 

Bia^^-rava^A, p.p. bi/Ao-shu^Aa, to become, to suffice. 


/^ p&tir, a hole dug for roasting meat oyer. 
1;^ p4rd, hog-deer. Bi. 
^^ p&rat, charge, entrusting, confidence. Si. 
*;^ p&ra, quicksilyer. Si. 
«^ pd<J, root. SL 
^^^ p&in&, a night attack. 
<^^ paky clean. F. 
|rS» p&krd, camel's riding-saddle. Si. pakhiro. 
y^ p41o, frost. P. 
(^Si p&lena^A, to strain, sift, winnow. 
^^^ pdnjdli, yoke (of oxen). Si. panj, 
l^^ p4in&^ lower, eastern. P. 
•^ pat» 8. silk. Si. 

pat, 8. confidence, trust. 
'^ pat, 8. a bare plain. Si. 
^ V P&t&fi, in the heat of the sun. 
O^ pital, brass. Si. 
^-*^ patang, s. a moth. 
V^ patsAkh, oath. Si. 
k)^ pachul, curtain or side walls of a Baloch hut. 

*v puMt, 8. the Bh&n tree (Fopuiua Suphratiea), See pbui!;At. 




64 VOCABITLABT. [Ertw No. 

,^>| pa«44.v. 8. ^ ^^ 

•^ parla, s. ) 

^Jji partita, adj. stale. 
hd)}i pazida;^A, s. a step-son, (husband's son). 

i pash&ng, s. a wild man, savage, idiot, 
pashi, s. a berry. 
j^ pakar, adj. necessary. 
J^ paUn, camel pack-saddle. Panj. 
^ri paltiti, corse. 

^l^ paK*%*, s. (p. faUta). The slow-match of a matchlock. 
^*^ pindayA, to beg. Si. pinanu. 
^>^ pindo^A, beggar. Noun of agency from pindayA. 
jyXJ panwar, (also much-panwar), the Pleiades. 
jy<* por, s. a flood. 

g;^ pdrayA, T. to bury. Si. ptiranu. 
^^Jji poriyilij wages. SL porhyo. 
vi^^ post, s. poppy. Post-4o4d, poppy-beads. 

t^Ji posha^A, to dress. P. 
C^^ poshena^A, to clothe. (Causal of posh^A.) 
tr^ pogoii, the gullet. 

V< V0^> imderstanding. (Pashto poh.) 
C^l^Vi poh-khana^A, v. to explain. 
i^^yi poh-bia^A, v. to understand. 

«t:{ pha, prep, on, upon, among. Pashto. pah. Parsipa. 

Pha-wa^Ad», among themselves. 
i^ phWA, s. foot, leg, Demi-phaJA, forefoot. 

Be-ph^A, footless ; a snake. 

P-pai. Z.pMha. Skr. p4da. 
^13^ phWA-4yA, to arise. 

i^^i phdiA-phusht, instep. 

J^J^*^^ phWA-guz&, shoes. 

A^s^^Ol^ phdJA-muchh, ankle. 

,j,10^Jlyj pyWA-murddn, toe. 

« /• 

1880.] TOOABUULBT. 55 

^^^i^ti phiJA-mard&nayA, toes. 
^Idi^ ph&JA-nali, shin. 
i^cf^ -phidhi, ring worn on a woman's toe. 
iii\i j£fh&dh2Lffh, wheel. 

j\i ph&r, leisure, 
cy^t^ ph&rat, charge. See pdrat Si. 
^yiJ^ phiurphuy^, a tree, (Tecoma undulata). 
i^j^i phfai, last year. P. p&r-s^l. 
jij^ phdrez, temperate. P. parhiz, safe. 
^^ ph&h, bare ; ph&sh-ph&<^A, barefoot. 
I2f^^j phishan, the male marHor. P. pazan. 

p^j ph&ffh, turban. Met. The succession to a chiefsbip. Si. p^. 
«0>iV^ phifizdah, fifteen. P. 
J^^v ph^ho, hanging ; a noose. Si. 
j^iri phiphar, lungs, lights. Panj. Si. phiphiru* 
«i^ phut, ^^' 
U5^f» phitki, alum. Si. 
d^ phit, prickly-heat. 


j^ phutur, original, genuine, thorough. 

C?ti phitayA, to turn sour. Si. phi^anu. 

t-M|.J phutak, short, stunted ; a dwarf. 

*-^^;^ phatrik, a bush, (Oretoia populifolia.) 

L^^ phiM, father. P. pidar. Pahl. pid. 

^2;^^^^^ phiM-phiri&, forefathers. 

^■^ phiMi, other, another. (In Eacbi.) 

d-^ti phuMt. See pu^At, (Fopulus euphratica), 

l^*ti phaji, ) ... . ... 

- ^. * J with, m company with. 

4«t< pliajyi, ) 

kjr^4^ti phajyi-arayA, to recognize. 
y^ phado, pocket. 
^*^lri phadeay*, y. p.p. phad&Ma, to run. 
^i*^ti phadimi, ady. behind. 

56 TOCABXTLABT. [Eitn No. 

I<^ j^hhdh&y afterwards. 
S^^ pha^Ai, hinder, coming after. 
jfi phar, prep, for, on account of. 
jti pbar, a wing, feather. P. par. 
,jfi phnr, full. P. pur. 
]jti pahr4, watch, guard. 
^"^Irtv pbur&f , a young female camel up to 3 years old. 
C^!/lf phar&ma^A, to deceive, deceit. 
M)^}jti pahr&wan, long coat. SL 
^\ni pbr&h, broad. P. fardM. 
;^U]^ phr4hd.A, . ^^^^ 
^In^ phrdhi, ) 

KS^Jti pharchhe, why P on what account ? 
Jjti phurz, tinder. Si. purdu. 
»L*f^ phirishtayA, an angel. P. firishta. 
^^ti phrushayA, p.p. phrushtha, to break, burst (intr.). 

Of. P. furstidan. 
tjWti pharmAn, command. P. farm&n. 
j^ phurd, a moth. 
i^jfi phuri, a musquito or sand-fly. 
»2;ti phroh, grey. 
KjS/ti phuri, a drop. Si. 
*irW phroh, a plant, (Sagaretia Theesam?), 


t^inri phirenayA, v. p.p. pbirentha, to throw, cast. Cf. P. pari- 
nidan, to cause to fly. 
Jfi phur, ashes. 
P^^IHv phizddayA, step-son, (husband*s son). 

fjH phazhm, wooL P. pashm. 
\j^ phas, a sheep or goat. Pashto psah. 
y^ phase, answer. Pahl. pasukho. 
cT/tti^^ phisphairi, two days before yesterday. P. pas -f- phairi q. v. 
t*^ phusayA, a son. P. pisar. 
*^"">j phusht, the back. P. pusht. 

1880.] YOCABULABT. 67 

'^ phoshti, a chaddar or sheet for wearing. 
^^ phasha;^^, v. p.p. phakk^, to cook. P. pazidan and 
H. pakka. 
wx^-^ phaskk, a woman's garment, boddice. 

*^j pbakka, (1) ripe, cooked ; (2) a boil. H. pakk&. 
^^ pbakki, anything reduced to powder, and taken down at a 


gnlp with water. 

9jr\i phagarayA, to melt, thaw. 
^*ftr\i phagen, early in the morning. P. pag&h, dawn. 
ij-t^ phul, a flower. Si. Panj. 
CAtj puhal, a bridge. P. pul. 
t2->t|^ phuUt, steel. P. pulad. 

f^ phulla^A, to rob, plunder, p.p. phulliMa. SL phura^u. 
«U^^ phulkand, sugar. 
j^ phalo, direction, way, side. Si. palau, edge, border. 

Pashto, ditto. 
!^*W phalwa, in a direction. 
^X'ti phuliih, nose-ring. Si. bulo. 
^^^^ phalli, section of a tribe. 
^j}ti pa^lij rib. P. pahlu. 
^jrfei phulli, the cap of a gun. 

jij^ phali^a^A, match of a matchlock. P. palita or falita. 
iJ^jJ^ phalit, unclean. P. paKd or paliz. 
^^/'^^ phimbli, eyelash. Si. pimbini. 
•^W» pahnad, side, direction. 
clWv pfthndl, flank. 


gH» phanch, five. P. panj. 

?^ phanjak, one-fifth. (The share of plunder due to a chief.) 
»ls^ phanjAh, fifty. P. panjdh. 
JV^ pahnw&l, shepherd. 

^^^ phini, calf of leg. Panj. 
yJ^ phaner, curds, cheese. P. panir. 
fi ^^Hv phanerpuch, rennet. 

58 tooabuulbt. [Extra No. 

^Wf phawM, a mountain, a peak, 
phdphi, paternal aunt. Si. H. 

tt>'*Vrt phorfhin, ) 
yj^'^J^^ni ^hodh&n^deudj the common white bindweed. 

Jj^i phor, a pipe made of clay, or a leaf of phisfa, Ohamaropi 
riiehieana^ twiated spirally. 
CU«»^^ phost, poppy. P. poafe. 

A^ phoyA, 8. chafE. (Cf. P. ptik). 
^imfyxi pl^og, 8. a bush, OaUi^onum pofyy&mideSs Si. panj. 
sJxy^^ pl^ogri, 8. a goat given as wages to a goatherd, 
ij^^ phol, 8. search, enquiry, demand. Si. 
\jrj^^ J^ phol.phurs, s. questioning. Si. P. 
CN^ Jjtv phol-khana^A, t. to ask, demand. 

^j\i phola^A, y. to search for. Si. pholaQu. 
'ry^yti pholoibA, y. one who demands, a robber. 

yj^ phonz, s. nose. (Cf. Pashto, pazah. Brahoi, bimas.) 
ijl^*^bfri pl^ed^ray^y ▼• P'P- phedishta^ to show. 
^y^ phiJA, 8. heel. 

;^^^^^^^^ Ihei^, hither, 
c;'*^ pherfAAn, ) 

ol(3J^ -phedh&ffh, visible. P. paidi. 

^lil ii^ -phedh&ghenf is coming. See &^A. 

o«H^ phiJAa^A, a plant. A small species of Euphorbia foand in 

the southern Sulaiman hills. 

jiid phir, s. an old man; phirand, an old woman; adj. old. 

P. pir. 

jiifci phir, 8. the j&l tree, Sahadora oleoide^. Si. 

\^j]jif^ phair&ri, adv. the year before last. P. pir&r-a&l. 

vlJ/^ phiruk, s. grandfather. 

kJJ^ phiri, s. old age. 

Kgfj^ phairi, adv. the day before yesterday. P. pari-roz. 

tH^ phisB;^*, 
^^ j^hidhB^h 

!a small plant. See f <Htj 

1880.] TOOABULABT. 50 

^jtA^j phish, the dwarf palm, Ohammrops riiohieana. 
^^^ phesh, firsiy before. P. pesh. 
^S'" ^ plieshi, adj. former, first. 
t&j^ phesh^ formerly, first ; pheshA, bundainagh, to forestall. 

^j^ pbi^A, fat, grease. P. pib. 
u^bfi pbifal, a busb. Daphne mueronata. 

'^ pbild, complete, fall,'perfeet. 
^H^ pbimiLz, onion. P. pij^. 
^ti^ pbeba^A, to thmst ; to enter forcibly. 8i.,peba9a. 
^cf-^ pbebi, a scaffold (for watcbing crops). Si. 
P^^ piy&^^yA, a footman. P. piy4da. 

^ .p{/^ar, a lalLOtt grass found on tbe Solaiman bills, growing 

between tbe coarse tufts or gasbt. 
^ pecb, a screw. P. 
^^^1*^^ paid&isfay produce. P. 
f^^ paiyA&m, a message. P. 

e> T. 

jld^VJ tdbidir, obedient. A. P- 
F^Jti^ t&pbura^A, V. p.p. t&pburi#%a, to stumble. Si. tfadbirja^u. 
^^ t&j, a cock's comb. 
J^ tAr, wire. H. 
ij^^ HA, clapping of bands. Si. t&fi. 
fiJ^ t^Lzim, reverence. A. 
\j^^ t&, cup, (Bare.) 
^ft^^w^ t&k-kbafa^A, to flincb, sby (of a horse). 

VJi^ tiUbU&y putting off, postponement. Si. t^Io. 

M^^ t&lan, a pusb. T41an dea;^^, to pusb. 
yU t&lo, tbe palate. Bi. t&rdn. 
*^ t&b, odd (in numbers, as opposed to dven) . 
"^ tAba, inside. 

t&ba^A, true,'rigbt, correct. 

60 TOCABULABT. [Extra No. 

tabiyat, temper. A. 

J^ tapdl, post. Si. t^P^* 
^]y trdth, a plant (called maitr in the Derajdt), AndbasU 
mult {flora. 

\^y trdn, counsel. 
*Y^y tirtba, mad. 
^j'y trash, harsh, sonr. P. tursh. 

^y tarayA, v. p.p. tara/Aa, to swim. Si. tarann. 

f^y tarka^A, p p. tarka^Aa, to cackle. 

*^y trund, cruel, fierce, passionate. 
^^y* tarhdn, a young camel. 

\^y tri, an aunt (paternal). Panj. Skr. stri, woman, 
^^h^y tri-zaMt, a cousin (paternal aunt's son). 

yy trer, dew. Si. 
O^ trit, s. bread steeped in milk or soup. 
IxmJ tushna, s. frog. 

J^ isiffhir, a small watercourse on low hills. 

«— ^ tak. ) 

. ^. * I See tak and tdk-khafa^A. 

•AySO^ tap-khafay^. ) 

^ tikk4, swift, sharp. Si. 
O^ tal, mole, 
w-^ talab, pay. A. 

t*J talayA, V. to fry. Si. taranu. 
^^ tilli, palm of hand ; sole of foot. Panj. tarL 
^U^ tamdku, tobacco. 
J^i^ tambeU, stable. A. 
jY^ tumho, a plant, Crotalaria JSurhia, 
^y^ tund, maimed. Si. tudo. 
*^ tankh, narrow. P. tang. 
i-yxi tankh, a pass through a defile. P. 
^imS^^ tang, girth of a horse. P. 
^JL^AJ ting-dea^A, to drink up. 
^-SiJ tung, a hole. See tong. 
f^ tanga^Ay to hang. Si. tangann. 

1880.] YOCABTTLART. 61 

^ly taw&r, voice, call, speech. Si. 

Ji^ taw&n, a vessel for baking bread. P. t&bi. 

Jiy tawan, battle, fight (poet). 

Wy tobd, a spring. Panj. 

^y totd, parrot. P. 
ry iokh, a valley between two parallel ridges, a path through 

^y tauA;^, voice, speech ; tau^A-tawdr, conversation. 
Jy tauzh, adj. bitter, brackish. 
jy tauzA, s. a bush, Salvadora Persica, 


l^y tosayA, V. See thosa^A. 
j^^y tosena^A, v. Causal of tosa^A. 

w-jy tof , cannon. P. T. top. 
t»xjy ttifak, gun, matchlock. P. tufang. 

^y tawakkul, dependence, confidence. A. 
imiiy tong, hole. See tong. 

^V thaM, leaf. 

J^ thar, dark. P. tir. 
V thaf , heat. P. t^b. 
i* V tihdf, waterless. (P. tah, low and 6b, water ?). 

^A|J thafayA, oven. P. tdbah. 

^^ thdsha^A, p.p. thikhihvkf to gallop a horse. P. tikhtsai, 

^^V* thdshi, s. gallopping ; Galagh-thashi, horse-racing. 

aJV|^ thala, s. a company. 

^)V|J thdit, which ? thdngo, whither P than-rang4, how p 

^t|^ than, s. a pack-saddle. 

tt^W^ thanwin, s. damage. 

^i»^ thap, wound. 


j^ thar, moist. P. tar. 

i^j\^ thursayA, v. p.p. thursi^Xa, to fear. P. tursidan. 

62 TOCABUEABT. [Extra Ko. 

ry^Jt^ thursoM, a coward. Verbal noati from tbursa^A. 
j^^j^ thursaitaayA. Causal of thursa^A, to frighten. 

P^j^ tbara^A, to return ; p.p. thar/^ ; thara^A-i^A, to come back. 
U^iX^ throngal, haiL 

«Jl^ tharaina^A. Causal of tharaf A, to give baek, send back. 

tbusi, a small bird. 
^ tbusa^A, V. p;p. tbustba,to faiikt; to-go out (of a lamp). 
^j&^ thasb, an adze. P. tasb. 

4A^ tbasbay*, T. p.p. tba**ta, to run, gallop. 'Zend. tacb. 
)yM JJf^ tba^A&rsboz, a plant. 

•3 J^ tbayilard, mattiiig made of the leaves rf the phish, (Oka- 

nuBTops ritchiana). Cf. Bashto '^^Aar, carpet. 
^Jy fever, beat. P. tap. 
yt^ thaf ar, an axe. P. tabar. 
ifi^ ihaisLffh, to become hot. 

Jy thai, a vaUey, an alluvial plain iturrounded by hilk. 
J^* thul, a fort. 
lS^^ tahl&ng, face of an exposed rock^rtratum. 

^X^ tbalta^Ay V. to stammer. 
\S^ tablisbk, broken edge of an eiposed rook-stratum. 
f^ tbam, ambush. Si. 

Tham-biagb, to lie in WAit. 
\J>^ tuhmAt, slander. A.. 
^5 thun, thirst. 
**y thana*A, thiu, fine. 
jJwyJ thango, gold. P. tanka, tanga. 
\,J^ tbuni, thirsty. 
jV than, I thou, 2nd pers. pronoun sing. nbto. P. tu. Pash- 
^ tha, j to, tab. 
}jj^ thora, quarter (in fighting). Si. 
Crn* thosayA, V. p.p. thosta (causal of thUsajfS), to extinguish, 

put out. 
^!n^ thola^A, jackal. 

1680.} TOCABUIi^BT. 63 

J^ ^y? thola^A-kunar, a bash, Zizjfpiue aai/iphjflia» 
fjt^ thorn, garlic. Si. Panj. Ar. ^ 
^^ thi, other, another. 

Thi-bare, another time, again. 
Thi-roshe, another day; 
Thi-kase, some one elta. 
Thi-bang^ day after to'-morrow. 
Thi-hande, somewhere else. 
Tbi-sal, next year. 


jh^ thir, bullet^ arrow ; thir-jana^^ to shoot. P. tir. 
^I«>*JL|^ thir-d&n, a buUet-pouohi 

^ j^ thirsi^A, horse's nose^bag; 

• ** 

t^ theyA, sharp, swift. 

TheyA&f , '' swift water," name o£ a stream. 

^5*^ they«, all. 

i>itr' thfl, age (used of animals). 

C^lr* thelsj^A, eyeball. 

\^^y^ thewa^Ae^i, all, the whole. 

'irH^ thih, a slaye (male). 

^^.j^ tirband, the constellation Orion. 

j^ tez, sharp. P. 

^j^ tezha^A, a melon. 

Vir c^T^ tezhayAi-khoh, a hone, whetstone. 

U^ teUbi) a posh, shove. Si. thelho. 

Telan deSj^A, to push. 

d> T. 


y^? tubi, advice. Si. 

j\^ t&pnr, felt, namda. Si. 

^^j* \jtkaiiby copper. Si. (ramo. 

Cj|y t^pa^A, to drop, drip. 

^j^ Xcissa^liy to drip. Si. trimann. 

^mSyy^jf frima-&f, dripping well^ or small wateifaU. 

^ VOCABULABT. [Elt» No. 

Cfy XnkAgh, to burst (used of boils). 
J*JV^ trore^dr, a firelock. 

^ tilti, a bell. 
s^^ tin^ini, fireflj. SL 
s^j^ tobi, dive. See tubi. 

Tobi dea^A, to diye. 
^y topu, bat. Si. topu. 
*^y tond, turban, met. a great man. 
•^^J tong, a hole. Si. tungu. 
t^V thdhina^A, to make, construct. Si. thdh 


y^ t^er, a mountain peak. Panj. 
tH^itr* tbi^bal, female ravine deer, 
tfit^ tbilayA, eyeball. 
M^ tHund, the bulbuL 
/tri^-^ titihar, the sand-piper, Tringa goemU. 

^S^ jdbah, quiver. 
^V j^r, net. Si. jdru. 
j^ jdr, twins. Si. jdro. 
^y^^ jdsds, spj. A. 

^ }^gK V. p.p. jii^Aa, to chew. J 

^f^^ j^rti, watch. Si jdgti. 

Jagru dara^A, to keep watch. 
f^ j4m, chief. Si. 
s^ jan, body. P. j4n, life. 

j4n-jebho, body armour. 
jdn-shoJ^ay7«, to bathe, 
jdn-khanay^, to dress. 
V^^- j4ngoh, arms and armour, when girt on the bodj* 
Jy^^ janwar, domestic animals. P. 
s^^ j^hil, lower, east. See jahl. 
j^^ jdizo, promise, engagement. A. j&iz. 





jaty camel-driver. Si. 

jathir, millstone. Si. jandru. 

ja/Aa, p.p. of jana^A. 

jukht, scabbard of a sword. 

juA;At, adj. even (in numbers, as opposed to odd). Pashto 

jar, clothes, dress, 
jarida, a poor man, pauper. 
juza^A, to go, move. 

g&m& juza^A, to walk (of a horse). 

uzokh. Verbal noun from juzayA, moving, the pulse. 

ist, zinc. P. 

a^Adal, s a Jaf. 

ayAdali, s. the language of the Ja^s, viz., Panjabi or Sindhi. 

ayAar, liver. P. jigar. 

uf t, a pair. 

I an attaek. Si. julah. 
uloh, ) 

ulgav, a crowd. 

um4, Friday. Ar. jum'ah. 

am&r&, everlastingly. Si. jam&r. 

umb, moving, shaking. 

umla, collection, total, amount. Ar. 

an, s. woman. P. zan. 

jan-gal, a band of women. 

... ^ ' (heaven. Ar. vft^. 

O^^ jantal, J 

. ^ ' J a mill, millstone. Si. jan4ru. 

jtXXA. jandar, ) 

«^^ jind, self, oneself. Si. 

w&thi jinde^Aen, one's own. 

(^^ jana^A, v. p.p. jaMa, to strike. P. zadan, zan. 




t&ri jana^A, to clap handa. 
chapol janSi^A, to slap. 

66 vocABtn.A.HT. [Extra No. 

d&pudt jana^A, to stamp. 

diy^ar jana^A, to dig. 

daf d jana^A, to boast. 

dak jana^A, to solder. 

dag jana^A, to rob on the highway. 

dil jana^A, to vomit. 

dang jana^A, to sting. 

tufak jana^A, to shoot, 
kbdtr janayA, to breach a walL 
Isidhh^h jana^Ay to kick, 
sindi jana^A, to whistle. 
tsLVikh jana^A, to cry out. 
goghrk jana^A, to snore, 
chdp janayA, to clap hands. 
gw4nkh janayA, to call out. 
AXi^A. jinkh, ) s. a daughter. Dim. of jan. Of. Pashto jinai, 
janikh, ; jinakai. 
jang, s. war. F. jung-biU, a medal, 
jo, s. a stream, canal. Fehl. j6i. P. jdL 
8y4h jo, a perennial stream. 
^ jau, s. barley. P. 
>lj^ jaw4b, s. answer. A. 
j1^ jaw&r, s. a pair, yoke of oxen mate. Hind. 
^;eV^ jawdin, good, 
^l^ jawAniyd, adv. well. 
•3^ jodh, a man, warrior. 
j^ jor, adj. well, strong, in health. Si. jora. 
jj^ jaur, poison. 

Jy^ jaur, the oleander, Nerium oderum. 
!f^y^ jozbo, a small fly. 

^^ J ^^ ) ^Q make, construct. Si. jojanu. 

• J • 

i^^ jorainayA, j 

£^^ joyA, yoke. Si. jog. 

^^ jdf A, avarice, usury, A. Si. jydfa. 

1880.] TOCJLBTTLAET. 67 

jyLlfyA, jM&khor, a usurer, 

o/f^ jogin, a wooden mortar for cleaning corn, 
j'*^iar>^ jogindar, stick or postal for ditto. 

^^^^ jauhdn, a heap of com at harvest. P. 
^j5^^ jh4ti, a peep. Si. 

jVj^ jahar, s. a flock of birds. Si. jhari. 

J^^ jabdz, a ship. P. 
^\^ jihan, the world. 

deh& jih&ndy in the whole world. 
^^^ jhapayA, to toss up. Si. jhapanu. 
^^H^ jhatkayA, to sob. (Cf. Si. jhatko, a fit of passion.) 
A^ jhur, clouds. Si. jhuf u. 
A^ jhari, of more than one colour. 
kmSf^ jhag, foam, scum, froth, bubbles. Si. 
L)t^ jhul, carpet. Si. 
i)^^ juhul, deep. 
cV|^ jahl, low. 
^^Y^ jahl&, below. 
Jj^ k/Y^ jahl-burz, ups and downs, inequalities. 
^^5^?^ jhalli, a pankha. Si. 
i2/t^ jhan, small bird (snipe P) 
lai^^ jhandA, a flag. Si. 
l;it^ jhera, a quarrel, Si. jhepo. 
^^t+f^ jebho, s. armour. 
^■Si ^i? jait, camel-saddle. 

* \ (f •) a companion, associate. 

LSJ'hf^ lediri ) 

«^i^ jidh, s. pasture. 

ij^ jiyA, s. bowstring. P. zih. Pushto, jai. Si. jihu. 

Q Ch. 

H^ ch&bar, short grass. 

w^ ch^p jana^A, to clap hands. 

Q9 YOCABVLABT. [Extra No. 

J^V chdpol jana^^, to slap. 

^^ ch&th, a well. F. ch&h. 

P)^ ch&ra^A, V. p.p. chariMay to look out, spy. 
s^J^ chiri, a guide, spy. Si. 


ctJ^ cbdji ascent, Si. charhi. 
uJ^ V ch&k-dea^^, to split, rip up. P. 
^S^ cb&dt, threshold. Si. ohdufithi. 
^t^ chabha, sandals. 
^^> L«^^ chup khana^A, to be quiet. Si. 

C^*- chap, left. P. 
^^•3w^*- chap-dust, left hand. P. 
f- chap-chot, crooked. 
\^jy^^>^ chaprdi, an English rupee. 

^S*^ cbapi, adj. left, sinister, unlucky. 
^^f chit, woman's petticoat. 
sJl^^ chat, roof. H. 
^x^U*. chat4 khana^A, to grasp, catch hold of with the arms. 
j^T chitar, matting. 

^^ chatayA, p.p. cbat^Aa, to lick. Si. Chatanu. Lab chata^if 
to flash in the pan. 
i^g^^ cbati, 8. a fine. SL 
^irf^ chacbho, how ? 

*^ char, a path hemmed in by precipices on each side, 
chur, a small hill torrent. 
*7^rf- charp, adj. fat. P. 
^ij^ charpi, s. fat, grease. 

J^ charaz, the houbara, (otit houbara). P. 
P j^ cbarayA, to wander, go about. Si. charanu. 
^ chiring, s. a spark. Si. chi^ig. 
jjf charo, merely, only. 
f^ij^ charoA;^, wanderer, yagabond. 
Jrt" ohirra, shot. 
*- charaina^A, to watch cattle, to graze. Causal of cbanyi 



'f- cbari, madman. 
^jf- chafa^A, to ascend, climb. Si. cha^banu. 
"^^ cbusbma, a spring. P. cbasbma. 
"^ cbisba^Ay p.p. cbisba^^, to sneeze. 
^M. cbiy^ird, tbe babul busb, (Acaeia Jacquemontii). 
t)*f- cboy^, a spy. 
^,3 ^/AA. cbayAal dea^^, to tbrow away. 

y^ cbiktar, |bow much? How many? (Probably for cbi 
^5- cbikar, j qadr). 

^^ cbika^A, to poll, drag. Si. chbikanu. 
^5^ cbukayA, to kiss. 
*t^ cbukb, a cbild. 
4^J^*t^ cbukbcbori, children. 
*ft ^ y- cbakha, on, upon. 

^ cbaga, testing. Gbagd-b41wary a laughing matter. 
%yt cbil, forty. P. chihal. 
^^ chilla^^, to peel, scrape. P. chalidan. 
y^ cbillur, peel, bark, scales. 
^^^ chilkayA, to shine, glitter. Si. cbilkanu. 
P*^C1^ chalguJAa^A, bat. 

^ chulumb, s. earring. (Of. Si. chombulu. ) 
y^ chalo, s. a ring. Si. chhalo. 
•^^ chamb, a spring. 
^j^^ chambara^A, y. p.p. chambari^Aa, to spring upon. Si. cham- 
jh*^ chambo, ball of foot, claw. Si 
»;♦*- chamra, bat. Si. chamifo. 
f^ chama^A, a spring, fountain. P. chashma. See chhama^A. 

^^ chan4, opinion. (Cf . P. chanidan.) Main chan^ in my 

y^X' chinjd, crowbar. 
*^^ chund, ) 

{j^ chinayA, p.p. chi^Aa, to pick up, gather, collect. P. ohidan. 

^^ VOCABFLABT. [Extn No. 

^ chang, banjo or guitar. B. 
o^j* chot, adj. crooked, bent. 

Cbot khana^A, to bend, tr. 
Chot bia^A, to bend, intr. 
Chot chham, squinting. 
yyt' cboto, a borse-flj. 

!^ chaw4, jest, 
JP!>^ cbawdgar, jester. 
^^ chdcb, little finger. Si. chich. 
jiiciy^ cbaupher, round. 
}jy^ choro, boy. Panj. 
\^^^ cbori, orphan. Si. chhoro. 
^Jy^ chdri, chicken. 

C*^ chof ayA, v. p.p. chofi^Aa, to pound, thump. (Of. P. koftan). 
^\^ chha/A, a well. P. cWLh. Z. chittha, pit. 
*rt^ chih, what ? 
Jt^" c^liil forty. P. chihal. 
^Yj* chhilav, cold weather (Jan. Feb.). 
fK^ chham, the eye. P, chashm. 

chham bhoraina^A, to wink, 
chham phusht, eyelid, 
^t^ chhatar, s. joke. 

^^ chi for if^^ hechi, anything. P. 
^^ chi, s. a thing j chle-chie, somewhat. 
J<^ chydr, four ; yake chy4r, fourfold, P. chahir. 
chydr gist, 80 ; chyir kund, four-conered. 
chy4r gist dah, 90. 
chyar phdJA, foor-footed. 
^^M^ chyirdah, fourteen. 
\^M^ chyiraml, fourth. 
j^^' chebar, news. 
£ r ^-^H^ chit drayA, to be crushed. Si. ohitAranu. 
t^ cheta^A, to repair, mend. Si. chetanu. 

1880.] VOCABITLABT. ^^ 

ivi**- che J^a^A, a cairn erected to commemorate any notable event. 
^yl^4»- chiklOy a little. 

^ Kh. 

ihizg, dirt. 
s^jj* c-TflA. jfcAazg-barokh, sweeper. 
^J^ khazgOf dirty. 
cA^ Wan, chief. See Hdn. 
^Ijjt^ Hdnddn, family. 

^ ib^idmat or Hizmat, service. 
^ kh&Tf a donkey (female). 
^S^^j^ hhsLTgoMs.^ a hare. 
^ ArAarch, expenses. 
Hamis, Thursday. 
e&u^ Handa^A, p.p. HandiMa, to laugh. Su khandayA. 

' c^^^ hho\k, eunuch. 
Sjf'j^ Hush, happy. See wash, 
ithushi, happiness. 

* . 

I^)i3 dapudt jana^A, to stamp. Si. dapho^i. 
J^ <^'b d^^^gipt, dealings. 
j\^ ddr, wood. 
p;)«3 d^ray^y v. p.p. d&shta, to have, hold, hold in. 

d^htiy4 quietly ! P. ddshtan, d&r. 
l^)«) dds, a grass-knife; sickle. 

>. I brand, spots, blemishes. P. 

Vd d&14, thick. 

ii;^i> ddn, corn. P. dana. 

untn, up tm, till when. (Cf . Si. dinf , time.) 

72 TOOABULA.BT. [Extra No. 

tjfj]d d&nkoh, 
^1^ ddnl, 

^_^^1UI«3 dAhanthi, 
- ^AJb ddin, 

^^^<3 ddhn, complaint. Si. d&nh. 

1^1*^ d^, nurse. P. 
*H^'«^ ddima, for oyer. A. 
^I^l«3 d&wdgar, s. champion. 
c^V*^ dath^y s. tooth. P. dand^n. 

dath&n-dor, toothache* 
^•^ di^A, 8. spindle. P. ddk. 
^•30 diJ^a^A, p.p. daHta, to brand. 
J^ dar, prep, out, outside. (P. dar, door.) 
^ jij^ dar-bara^A, to defend. 

t^J^ dar-khafayA, ) , 

T . ^ , , } to come out. 

fifj^ dar-a^Ay ) 

Pjh^«3 dar-raya^A, ) ^ 

. • A . , , / } w OBcape. 
fA^jO dar-shafayA, ) 

tSv*^ dar-khana^A, to put out, expeL 
^J^V"^ dar-sara^A, to protect. 
^ )H^«3 dargezhayA, to look out. 
!;*3 dard, ady. outside. 
f^J^ dr4H, s. vine. Si. (JrAkh. 
^J;»5 drAzh, adj. long. P. dardz. 
i];!;*^ drazhdiA, ) , 
cr;l;^ drdzhl, I " ^^"^*^- 

»!;•> durdh, well, in health. 
U5*!;«^ durdhl, health. 
^*];«3 dardhijd, a promise. 
^•^ durr, good, excellent. 

J^ durr, an earring worn in the lobe of the ear (P. dorr, pearl)i 
^j^ dirjayA, see dina^A, to burst. 
^J'^ dard, pain. P. 

1880] VOCABULABT. ^3 

^"*^«^ dmst, all, the whole. (Pashto drast.) 
^J'^ drisha^A, p.p. drishtha, to bite. 
^^««> drushayAy p.p. drushtha, to grind. 
0^«3 darashk, tree. P. diraHt. 

Pji) diragh. See dina^A, to tear. P. daridan. 
\srV*^ dannan, s. medicine, spirits, gunpowder. P. d&rd, darm&a. 
^ yj^ dranza^A, to go swiftly (poet). 
^^j*^ drang, precipice. 
f^J/^ drosham, front, foremost part, shape, countenance. 
^^•^ droyA, false. P. 

droyA-banda^A, to lie. 
dro^A-bandoM, liar. 
«^^j ^}j^ droyAvand, lying, deceit. 
tjljt^ drob, false. SL 
i^«3 drub, all. 
^^;'^ drubani, pistol. 

^SJ'^ darn, out, outwards. 
\J^j^ dris, a Balocb dance, at weddings, and also (called jhamar,) 
rejoicings, accompained with shouting or groaning. 
is/ijf^ drin, rainbow. 

^0 duz, thief. P. duzd. 
hjf^ duza^A, to steal. P. 
I^^'O daz-wag, bridle. (For dast-wilg.) 
bj«^ duzwahi, friendship. 
i^'i3 duzi, theft. P. 
\mJJfi dazhak, s. a snipe. 
^•/^J*^ duzhman, enemy. P. dushman. 

Cf. Zend, duzh, in duzbda, evil, <&c. 
^ji^J^ duzhmani, enmity. P. 
^'^^^^ dast, s. hand. P. 

dast-^A, \ 

^..11. T 1 1<> S^^f obtain, come to hand. 
dast-knafa^A, ) 

dast-lainayA, to touch. 

dast-lath, walking-stick. 

dast-AAatt, signature. 

^^ vocABULABT. [Extra No. 

l^^ dasta^A, handle. P. dasfca. 
jjS^ud dastur, custom. P. 
w^-*o dasht, a barren plain or tableland. P. 
^0 du*a, prayer. A. 

nekh-du^i, blessing, 
bad-du'a, curse. 
J^d di^Ur, land, ground, level country. P. dihfr. 
diyAar-wazha, landlord. 
diy^ar-jani^A, to dig the ground. 
^— ^"^ daf, s. mouth. 

daf-jana^A, to boast. 

daf-ddragh, to be silent. 

daf &.ddr ! be silent ! 

j^«i dattr, ) 

^. ^ / mouthful. 

^'^^ da war, ) 

j^^ daftar, ) , , 

^^o davtar, ) 

jmk3^ dafsar, cover, lid. 

*-/*> dak, join, mending. 

t^ viJj dakjanayA, to solder. 

V*^ dukh, needle's eye. 

^^ dukh, trouble. Si. 

^t^ti dukhya, with difficulty. 

'— ^ dag, road. Si. dagu. 

dag-janayA, to rob on the highway. 
j^^ duggav, 8. eagle. 

J»3 dil, s. heart, zeal. P. 

dil-jana^^, to retch. 
dil-shu^Ai, retching, 
dil-gir, sorrowful. 
Cf«3 dala^^, s. boiled rice. 
CW*^/^i3 dalko-dea^A, to threaten. 

y«3 diUo, an earthenpot, ghard. Si. dilo. 
dumb, tail. P. dum. 

mazdr-dumb, tiger's-tail (a plant). 

1880.] TOCABtTLAET. 76 

jj/*-fr^«3 dambiro, a Balocb banjo or guitar. 

0^^ dambul, a cairn erected in irony to commemorate a shame- 
f ul action. F. 
^;«3 dan, a tax levied by Baloch chiefs. See dan. 
jj^^J^*^ danankara, till then. 
jj«3 dinayAy ^ 

fijd dira^A, > p.p. dirtba, to tear. P. daridan, din. 
Cs^jO dirja^*, ) 

^•3 danz, dust. (Cf. Si. daj.) 
y^^ danfkar, till now. 
^^«3 duny4, the world, people. A. 
^«3 do, two. P. 
^>ii. u ^t3 do-gist, forty. See chil. 
j]^^ dawar. See daf Ar. 
^^'b*^ dw4zdab, twelve. P. 
^y*Afl»*^ dwazdami, twelfth. 
jiyf^ dobar, the chest. 
\^j^)^ dobarAn, twice. 
y^j« davtar, bard, reciter of genealogies. P. daf tar, 

idathan -dor, tooth-ache, 
kif-dor, belly^ho. 
J)'^ daur, rich. 

|;^«3 dord, double. Si. duhuro. 
'^3j)^ doroM, ill, in trouble or pain. 

rj)^ dozayfcA, ) 

S. . , , ^ \ hell. P. doza^^. Z. duzhanha. Pashto dozha^A. 
fjf>^j« dozhi, ) 

^^i^-j*^ dost, friend. P. 

^^^ doshay^, p.p. dokhtha, to sew. P. 

f**;;«3 doshayA, p.p. dushtha, to milk. P. 

^-*;J doshi, last night. P. 

^;«3 doyA, p.p. do/Aa, to fetch water. 

U^S^ dcyAin, pregnant. 

^^}^ daulat, wealth. A. 


76 TOCABULABT. [Extni No. 

Oi^^i^^ii dfimandil, with two turbans, t. e., a man of distiDctioiL 
c/>*J*^ ddho«, smoke. Si. 


»*5 dab, ten. P. 
^^J dih&n, thought, consideration. Si. dbjdnu. 
^-^•^ dhak, hurt, injury. Si. dhaku. 
C^<3 daha^A, to get, touch. 
O^^ jdhul, drum. Fanj. 4bol. 
^^5**«> dahmi, tenth. 
^•Sx^d dhing, powerful. 

jy^d dhtir, dust. Si. dhtiri. 
^^^ J dahus, bastard, a term of abuse. 
^J^^ dhdliyi, dust. Si. 

s^*^ di, also. Di — di. Both — and. 
^-*"d«3 deb, thumb. 

y«4J diMlo, mist. (P. ddd, smoke.) 
>id dikh, spindle. P. duk. 

*H<^ dedhy an earthen pot. See dez. 
' ( sight. P. did&r, did. 

^^«3^<3 didoArA, eyeball. 

jid dir, tar, apart, separate. P. dur. 

dir-zana^A, far-seeing, wise. 
/i«3 der, while, time. P. der. 
yi'^ dez, pot. 

l^iS de^^ri, large pot. P. 
^«> dem, face. P. adima. Z. daenui. 
Ki43 demd, before, in front. 
fi'^ dim, back. 
^i3 dimd, behind. 
*d«3 deh, country, land, tract, territory. Si. ie\i\i. P. deh. 

Z. danha. Skr. de^a. 
^•^ deay^, T. p.p. d4^Aa, to giFO. P. d4dan. 

dem-dea^7<, to send. 
drik-dea^A, to leap. 

1880.] TOCABTTLABT. 77 

ila^&-dea^Ay to let go. 
sar-deayA, to send awaj. 
gon-dea^A, to accompany. 
xn^-dea^A, to apply. 
mokal-dea^A, to dismiss. 

5 p. 

yli^ 4^to, dust. 

. e*^l3 dacbi, a female camel. Si. 
^^«3lO ^^di, grandmother. Si. 
iSyyi «-5'«^l«^ dadepotre, descendants of the same ancestor. Si. 
sji 4^n, desert. 
^liiW Randall, a winnowing-sieve. 
^^W dani, time, a certain time. Si. 
*'*^ dah, alarm, war news. Si. 

-. * ' (frog. Si. dedaru. 
J<iO_ 4idar, I ^ 

^30 ^adday, pony, nag. Si. 4radro. 

^J*^ 4rattayA, Y., p.p. (jlratta^Aa, to fall. Si. ^rahanu, p.p. 4ratho. 

vi/j*^ 4^^^! j^^?9 spring. 

f^'«S dirikayA, to jump. 
^^J^ i^^^^T^i carpenter. Si. (Jrakhanu. 

cf; 4i^^^^> ^ canter. (Si. <jlrak). 

*JJ/*^ droh, falsehood, lie. Si. 
^jy^ droh4, false, dishonest. 

f^«^ isissiffh, T., p.p. dasa/Aa, to show, point out. Si. 4asanu. 

J^^ dnkal, dearth, famine. Si. (jlukaru. 

*t^*^ 4igl^> pice, copper coin. * 

tt,*^ i&Tiy by force, violently. Si. cjanu. 
Jyti^'^ ^anphdr, a forcible contribution. 
jl^t^jO ^andwar, a tooth-brush. 
^S^d 4ang, sting. Si. dangu. 

4ang-jana^A, to sting. 

lOjJ 4044, poppy-heads. 

78 VOCABTOABT. [Extfa No. 

^^•^ 4o4f framework, bones. Panj. 

hushken ^o^, a dry skeleton. 
j^*^ dor, a pond. Si. ^^loro. 
Jj«^ 4ol, a bucket. Si. 4olu. 
J^*^ 4&al&> til® forearm. Si. 4or^« 
* y^*^ 4olo> cooked. 

4olo bia^A, to be crooked. 

T ' I bard, minstrel. Si. 

U*^^« (Jomb, J 

<}omb4Di-4f , I mirage (connected with a legend 

(jLomb-khushta^ft, j of a minstrers death). 

f^i^i 4cng, bottle. 

Kij*^ dunga, deep. Panj. 

*)^ 4ob, sin, offence. Si. dohu. 

s^^^ (jioi, spoon. Si. 

kjAAt^ ^hihumgh, p p. <}h4bartha, to stnmb. 

J^ «5 dhdl, shield. Si. Panj. 

^j/^*^ 4bakan, cover. Si. 

^^aX» J dhakani, knee-pan. Si. dhakii^i. 

^)^^ 4htin<ji, skeleton. Si. 

C-J^*^ 4Wng, crane. 

h^i^ did&T, muscles, biceps. 

ji*^ der, husband's younger brother. Si. 4eru. 

jji dir ) 

-f^- * ' } body, form, shape. Si. (Jilu. 
J--*^ 4il> ) 

^rk^ ielM, fruit of the khaler (capjparis aphylla). Si. ^elho. 

yt^J^ dembhd, wasp. Si. 

• yj^ dio, lamp. Si. cjio. 

y\i^ 4ibav, leopard. 


\j^^) rdchi, camel-driver. 
WJ r4z4, painter. 

J880.] TOCABIILiLBT. 79 

lS^^Ij r&st, true, P. 
^j^^J rasti, tmth. P. 
wl; rak, cheek*boQe. 
u;'; r4n, tbigh. P. 
«|t r4b, road. P. 
^a^l; rdhdi, fate, death. 
^j^^J r&hzan, head of a band of robbers. P. 
wCftl^ r&bak, coltivator. Panj. 
S?; rabb, God. A. 
*^) lapta, p p. of rava^A, used in the sense of began, begun ; its 
place in the meaning went, gone being supplied bj 
shu^Aa. P. 
*^^ riHta, p.p. of risha^A. q. v. 

^j rid, f . sheep (small- tailed). Si. ri^h. 
P«3 TtkdhtLffh, p.p. rastha, to tear up the ground. 
P«V TAdhsLffhy to be beaten, to lose (in war or play). 
fi*^j Tudha^hf y. p.p. rustha, to grow, germinate, spring up 
mount. P. rustan. 


^Jj razaina^A, p.p. razaintha, to make. 
^j^J ras, juice, sap. Si. rasu. 
j-^^j rastar, wild beasts, game. 

sj&he» rastar, wild swine. 
^j rasa^A, p.p. rasi^Aa, to arrive. P. rasidan. 
^^b^j rasainayA. Causal of rasayA» 
*— ^^ rashk, lice. 

PJ TBffh, pulse. P. rag, vein. 
f^j TSiffh&m, collection of clouds, threatening weather. 
j^J raftdr, paces. P. 
*vv rakh, s. lip. 
•i^j rikeb, stirrup. P. rikdb. 
f; rag, vein, pulse. See ra^A. 
v '^8> precipice. 
^J nXa^h, to mijCy join. Si. ralanu. 

80 vooABiTLABT. [Extra No. I 

^j ramb, a run:. 

rumb zira^A, to run, hurry, 
f^^ rumba^A, to run away, gallop, race (on foot). 
AA^ ramba, chisel. Si. rambo. 
J^ rum41, towel. P. 
^) rama^A, flock of goats. P. ramah. 
vrj; ran, married woman. Panj. ran^. 
«^ rand, track, path. Si. randu. 
sar-rand, comb. 
P*H) randa^A, to comb, part the hair. 


^) runa^A, p.p. rutha, to reap. Of. Pashto, ravdal. Skr. Id. 
^ ro, contracted from ro^A, Srd per. aor. of rava^i, will go, 

goes, may go. 
^j ro, contraction for rosh, day, sun. 
har-ro, every day, always. 
ro-t4f, heat of sun, glare, 
^^ " 'tjj; rophask, s. a fox (uncommon). P. rdbih. 
^iij ropha^A, a loud noise. 
}y,)j rdbart^, in the presence of. P. 
*^jy tofhy entrails. P. rdda. 
^^^) rodar, bowstring, fiddlestring. 

«^j)j ro^^, high bank of a torrent or stream. P. rdd. 
^^) rodh&ffh. See rndh&^h. 
Mi*^)J Todhin, madder. 
t^*^)J rodhainsLffh, to bring up, educate. 
])j ror, calf. 

rof-gal, herd of calves. 
jirJ)J rozh-gir, eclipse of the sun (from rosh and giray^). 
^jj rosh, day, sun. P. roz. 
rosh-&s^n, sunrise, 
rosh-er-shaf, sunset. 
rosh-tik&, daybreak, 
roshe-roshe, day by day. 
roshe-vel&e, from time to time. 

18S0.] TOCABULART. 81 

i^^) roshayA, a fast. P. roza. 
ii^Jj rc^Aaiiy clarified butter, gbL P. 
M ravagh, p.p. shn^Aa, to go. P. raftan, shuda. 
dar-ravayA, to escape. 
mdn-ravayA, to enter. 
biay^ravayA, to become, 
^jy rofro, a fox. P. rdb4h. 
f^-^Ji) rokhana^^, ▼., p.p. rokhu^Aa, to light, kindle. 
sj:^ p »» ^jy romast, chewing the cud. 
l;^lf rdngrd, a narrow hill path. 
^ riih, soul. A. ruJ^ 
«; rah, edge, edge of knife. 
^1^^ rahnayA, edge or bank of river. 
^^^J riband, fringe or horse's forehead. 
^J>^J rity custom. Si. riti. 
ifij reih, sand. P. reg. 

sar-reM, cold in the head. 
jij rer, ) 

ji) rez, a rope (made of cotton thread). 
(jiJ rezam, blight (of com). 

i^j resayA, p.p. restha, to spin, twist. Pashto reshal. 
i^^^j resinayA, to pursue, chase ; p.p. resintha. 
\^J rish, beard. P. 

^j^ resh, gall (on the back of a horse or beast of burden). 
i^j ilshayA, p.p. ri^Atba, to pour, spill, scatter, sow (seed). 

P. riHtan. 
^Hn^j rishainayA. Causal of rishayA. 
fij rem, grass. 

fij rem, matter, pus. P. rim. 
f^J A^h, cacare. 


g2 TOCABirLA.ET. [Extw No 

J z. 

I; s&» abuse, bad language, 
is^l; z&t, tribe, caste. A. 
^^1; z&t, coloured cloth. 
O^]; siiAt, son (in compodtion). P. z&da. Skr. j&ta. 

niit&oz4Mty nephew (son of paternal uncle). 
iiiz&kht, nephew (son of paternal aunt). 
wasarz^A^At, brother-in-law. 
•^1; z&d, many-coloured, variegated. 

pl; z6ffh, V. p.p. z&thsL, to give birth, bring forth. P. sidan. 
4J!; z41, woman. P. 
itA^^j z&m&^A, son-in-law. P. dimi^L Skr.j&mdtfL Pashtos^ 
j^]} z4mur, s. name of a tree. 
^)j z4min, surety. A. 
s^J^i^b z^mingiri, bail, security. 
^1; z&n, thigh. 
j\^l; z4ntho, a., p.p. of ziuAgh, knowingly. 
^1; z&aagh, p.p. z&ntha, to know. P. d^nistan. Z. zni 
Skr. jn&. 
j^l; zdnmur. See z&mur. 
*^|; z4ifa, a woman. A. 
f^J zikhm, a wound. P. 
fi^J z&dhsLffh, wounded. (P. zada.) 
jj zar, money. P. 
^hj zarAyA, leech. (Si. jaru.) 
*tiif zurth, jowar. (Cf. Pehl. jtir^ik, com.) 
f^jj zard, yellow. P. 
y^Jj zardo, yolk of an egg. 
s^Sj^J zardoi, bile. 
lS^^J zirde, heart (poet.) Skr. hridi. Zend, zaredhaya. 

Pashto zfah. 
JUJ zartir, necessary. A. 
l^ zirih, armour. P. 

1880.] TOCABiniA.BT. 88 

^ zirih, a welL 
^) za^lUtf, adj. fresh, qmck. 

za^i&aren shir, fresh milk. 
^j zik, a hag or '^ maskina*' f <Mr holdiog ghL (Si. jik. 

Pashto zik). 
^IXm^ zaraist&B* See zamstin, winter. P. 
^^f ixoAJchy jaws. (P. zanaH, chin.) 
ji^j zandwar, animal. P. j&nwar. 
ji^J zanjir, chain. P. 
cftXS; zinda^A, liring. P. zinda. 
fix miAghy ▼.) p.p. zitha, sintha or zi^Aa, to snatch, take awaj 

^•^' zang, 8. tomip. 

^^"^"^^ irast. 
JKi; zangtt, ) 

jjj) zor, force, might, Tiolence, wrong. P. 

jy) zivir, rough, not smooth. (Of. Pashto zig.) 

'^Jyj zor^A, powerful, violent. 

'bjiif zorwalA, oppressor, tyrant. 

H^y) zaw&iA, scent, smell. P. zah&d. 

^}) zaw&r, pehhles. 

jhj zawAr, rider, horseman. (P. sawir). 

JI4; zaw&l, s. injury. 

c^f}; zaw&n, tongue, P. zah&n* 

^J^}) zawist&n, winter. P. zamistin. 

^j zah, kid. 

zah-gal, flock of kids. 

j^) zahr, anger. P. 

zahr-girSj^A, to he angry. 
j^j zahr, hitter. 
^j^j zahrak, the gall-bladder. P. zahra. 
f^j zahm, sword. 

zahm-band, swordbelt. 


zahm-janoM, swordsman, 
zabm-hand, scar of a sword wound. 
jifij sahir, lonely, a stranger. A. 
i^J sd, yesterday. P. di-rd& 
^^ ziyAni, harm, injury. Pehl. ziy&n. 
^^ ziydrat, shrine, place of pilgrimage. A. 
i^^H) zith^ quick. P. zdd. 
^*/iH) iithefiy quickly, 
^^^* zaiH4, s. ferns, moss, <&c. 
iji} zirayA, ▼. p.p. zurtha, to raise, lift. 

wm^k'&nffhf to fetch, 
lashkar zin^A, to lead an army, 
sdh zirayA, to draw breath, 
rumb dra^h, to run, sauyikm zira^A, io svesr. 
fij zfm, scorpion. 
^^J zen, saddle. P. zin. 

zen-kana;$rA, to saddle. 

J Zh. 

f^l^ zh^ngayA, v. to bray. 
^yll zhaloA;^, adj. yellow. 
^d *J; zhala deayA, v. to let go. (See ilayA.) 
h J zbamdrA, for ever. See jam&r&. 
^^ *t^ zhinga khana^A, to erect the tail (of a horse). 

lS^J zhing, adj. erect, perpendicular. Also the name of a 
Baloch sub-tribe. 

u^ S. 

i^yS^ sib&n, soap. Portuguese. Ar. 
V^ s4th, a k&ma. Si. s&thu. 

•3^ sAd, honest. (P. sAdA, plain (P)). 

JImi sidh, rope (of mtinj or dwarf -palm leaves). 
*tV^ s^th, cold. P. sard. 
^^U girij rice growing or in husk. P. shilL 

1880.] TOCABITLABT 85 

j\m 8^.kaDa^A, to play (a musical instrument). 
A^^ sdkh, oath. Si. 
u-/^ sig, potherb. Si. 
^^U» sikgiy that very one, the original. Si. 
JU» 841, a year. P. 
fi^^ s^layA, parched corn. 
'(^^ sAlo^A, bridegroom. 
^V*^ simba^A, to favour, nourish. Si. s4mbhanu. 

ss}^ sdn, stallion, bull. SL s4nu. 
^S^^ sing, betrothal. Si. sangu. 
^j^^ sdngi, spear. Si. s4ngi. 
1^ s&h, shade. P. s&ya. 
*U s4h, breath, life. P. 

sih-zira^^, to breathe. 
^loftlMT B^hdir, domestic animals. 
^^aIm> s4hi, a pause, breathing space, fallow. 

sdhi-dea^A, to let land lie fallow. 
^Um f^n, sir, master. Si. Skr. sw4mi. 
^>^Uw s&inayA, ▼., p.p. s&intha, to shave. 

Imperative, s4, sar& sa, shave the head. 
^^5*^ subi, autumn. 
^<^ sippi, shell. SL 
'^^^ sath, a deputation to ask pardon. 
Buti, a musquito. 
sijji, roast meat. 
^ vJehy barren land. 
^«^ sidh&, straight. Si. sidho. 
^i^ sudkajrA, to sob. Si. su^ikanu. 

*Ju» Budh, ) 

,, 5 knowledge, understanding. Si. sudhi. Pashto sud. 

t^ sadh^ a hundred. P. sad. 
j*^ sar, a man. Pashto, sapai. 
^ sar, s. head, front. P. 

86 TOCABULABT. [Extn No. 

sar-girayA, to aet out. 
Bar-dea^A, to send awaj. 
)^j»^ sar-dar, bareheaded. (Paahto, sa^ar.) 

j'**-^""-^').. chief. 
j^jm sar-dar, ) 

\j^yiy^ sarpoah, covering. 

^*}jr sar-re^A, cold in the head. 

^)j**^ sar-rand, parting of hair. 

^y{t^ sar-n&vayA, the morning star (poet.). 

]/^ sar^ adv. and prep, above, upon, ahead, in front. 

sard-baiy go in front. 

I/^I/** sar&-era, adv. from above, downwards. 

%mSj^j^ sarbari, upper. 

sarbari-pahn&JU, on the upper side. 

f^ij*^ surpharfA, ) ,. • . , i. j. 

^ J 8. (Ar. Oi^), understanding. 

yftj^ surpho, ) 

surphaJA biayA, to understand. 
^/^ sarjah, pillow. 

^\^jm gursad, provisions, forage. Si. surs&t. 
P /^ sara^A, p.p. sari^Aa, to remember. 
P^ sira^A, to leap, prance. Si. siranu. 
ij*** BuitLffh, to move. Si. suranu. 
'tv^ sarakh, a kneading-trough. 
yj^ surgo, speech, song. 
ij/>^ saral, a yearling colt. Si. sarlu. 
fj*^ surum, hoof. P. sum. 
iiS^ Baring, a track. Si. suringh. 

saring-jana^A, to track. 
UT/^ sari, a woman's chadar. 
^^/i/^ saren, loins. 

saren-banda;^^, to gird up the loins, help, 
saren- bandi, assistance. 
I Jjj^ sarindA, | s. a sort of fiddle with seven strings of alieep'a 
^*>^ sarindo, ) gut played with a horsehair bow. SLsunindo. 

1880,] TOCABULABT. 87 

sarioay upper ; western. P. 
ijf» BBtxodh, mnsic. 
\^>jr sarosh, elbow. 

-^ sapik, road. Hindi. 
I/*** saz^, punishment. P. 
susii. See sutL 

sashi^A, p.p. su^ttha, to bnm. (Intransitive.^ 
^l*Mi sa^^r, adj. white-faced (of a horse). 
U Jam sBj^Mattd, a small thorny plant. 
j^ say^ar, head, 
'ir^^ sSi^Aarkha, a wild species of sinspis. 

i«l^ say^an, dnng of cattle. 
^luiAM* si^Aind^n, paunch, stomach. 
ymJmt gak, strong, stiff, hard. P. saiAt. 
y^i^ sakatar, a kind of partridge. 
OS>m gakal, beautiful. 
^i3^.»Xm» sakmardi, manliness, strength. 
^_5*^ sakani, Wednesday. 

^t^ sikha^A, to learn. Si. Sikhanu. 
j ^^ m dkhainayA, to teach. Causal of sikha^A. 
^j^ saki, extreme, excess. 

*^ I very, extremely. 

M^ saki^A^ ) ^ ^ 

kS**» sag, skiU, ability. Si. sagh. 

sj^ sil, brick. Si. sir. Panj. siL 

«^H^ silband, brick-maker. Panj. 

f^ salim, salutation. 

sal&m-alaik, (Ar. <J^UJ^ (*''«*)> salutation on meeting. 

^rt**» silhe, arms. A. sala|^. 

silhe-gal, arms and accoutrements. 

^^^^ sam^ understanding. Si. sam&u. 

samb, a hole, boring. 

sumb-janayA, to bore. 

88 VOCABULABT. [Extra No. 

^I^Atf sambarii, preparation, readiness. 
fiy!f^ BtmbBTSffh, to prepare, be ready. Si. sambhiianu. 
^Um* sumba^^, stitch in the side. 
)4XXa4« samondar, sea. 
<^^ sand, barren (of offspring). Fashto shan^. Si. shan^hL 
«^^«» sand, a joint. Si. sandhu. 
«^^^ sund, a basket of matting. Si. sonda. 
^ItXXm sindan, anvil. 
^cXtw sinda^^, v. p.p. sistha, to break. 

P. shikastan, shikan. 
^^ sanj, harness. Si. sanju. 

sanj-khana^A, to saddle, harness. 
^^A** sang, stone (uncommon). P. 
^^Lm^sm sangband, related by marriage (used of two tribes). 
^^Ixm/ Bangati, companions, following. SL 
' ^ ^ sangad, companions, escort. 
^■*^ sani, hemp. Si. si;4. 
j^r^*** sanghar, necklace. Si. 
[^** sawd, except, without. P. 
^y^ saw&d, sight, show. 
^yy*» sawarak, breakfast. 

^^1^**' saw&s, Baloch sandals, made of the leaves of the dwarf palni* 
J[^ saw&l, question. A. 
"^y^ saw4h, morning. A. sab&h. 
*tHy" sobh, victory. A^ 
•y* stid, interest. P. 
jy*^ Bor, salt, brackish, saltpetre. P. shor. 

8oren*&f, brackish water. 
'•Jy* saud&, bargain. P. 

V>^ stirah, hero, warrior. Si. Sdrihu. Z. sdra, strong. 
)y^ savz, green. P. sabz. 
^y»* sosha^A, v., p.p. soMta, to bum. P. soHtan^ see. 
%^^y^ sauy^n, oath. 


sanyAan-ziri^A, to take an oath. 
^^y» guf , apple. A. 
w^ sawakk, light (in weight). 

i}y^ sol, the kanda or jhand tree. {ProiopU »pieig&ra,) 
J^y^ somar, Monday. Si. 
yj^y^ sonaro, goldsmith. Si. 
\*y^y*» sauhan, file. 
^^j^ Bohnd, heautiful. Panj. 
j^ y ^ sohaT, guide, acquaintance. 

^jjm savav, account, reason. A. sabab. 
savavd, on account of. 

Lft^y* sawefA, white. P. safid. 
J;l|^ saharal, skilf uU 
^— ' ^^ suh^g, young unweaned camel np to six months old (f.) 
^^•H*" suhbat, society. A. 
KSrt*^ sihdri, an awl. Si. sir&i. 
^A^^^^ sah/A, jewels. 

jY^ suhr, red. P. t^akh. Pashto sdr. 
j^ sihr, magic. P. 

sihr-khano^A, magician. 
1^^ sahra, manifest, known, evident. A. 
yY*' suhv, morning. Ar. subA. 

suhv-ast4r, morning star. 
tV^^ suhel, autumn. The month Assli or Asoj. A. (Sept. or Oct.) 
^^ si, thirty. P. 
^^ sai, three. P. sih. 
sai-bard, thrice, 
sai-kona, triangle, 
sai-gist, threescore, 
^luw sydd, relation. 

J^*" sydl, relation, guest, enemy, equal. (Pashto sUl, equal.^ 
^^yljJbu- sydldari, relationship. 
*^*-» syAh, black. P. 

• 12 


. M perennial stream of water. 

BjrAh-JO, ) 

Bjih-mir, snake. 

sy&b-gwar, " black breast." Tbe black partridge. 
^fcU** sy^bi, ink. 

**^'H** sebak, wholesome. 
iiA^W^ si^A, profit, advantage. P. sdd. 
j^ ser, full, satisfied. 

serdf, satisfied. P. ser^b. 
j^ sir, marriage. 

sir-kbanayA, to marry. 
sir-bia^A, to be married, 
sir-wdjb, marriageable. 
V;4*» serab, sbaving. 

ifj^ sirmuyA, collyrium for the eyes. P. surma. 
^j^Uuoui sistdn, custom. 

^/"^ sesi, tbe chakor, also the sisi or Ammo Ferdis Boukmi. 
^j/^4^ sishin, needle. P. sozan. 
**^ saiak, one-third. 

ij^ sikun, ) 

^A*- .7 1 Jporcupme. 
4a/«- si^Aun, ) 

sikun-tir, porcupine-quilL 
y^ik^ selhi, necklace of shells worn by mares, camels, oxen, Ac. SL 
fi:**' sim, boundary. 
yX)Uju«i simdndar, neighbour, 
irf^***** simsian. See sesi. 
I^-H^ saimi, third. 
*^^J^ Bind, hissing. (Si. sinijh, whistling.) 

sindd khana^A, to hiss. 
jH*" sewz, whistling. 

senz^r jansi^A, to whistle. 
*»>>H-' sewzdah, thirteen. P. 
C^** sena^A, breast. P. sina. 


J)^|Ltf» sewal, ■. rubbish left by a flood. 

*^ fllb, spit. P. eikh, 

tufak-sib, ramrod. 

l^ sibi,lead. Si. 
jj^t^^ sehna^A, v. to bear, endure. Si. sabnu. 

ff^ siay^, v., p.p. si^Aa, to swell. P. amd-sidan. 

^J 8h. 

^ 8b&. See sbaw4, you. P. 
^V^ sb^Alo, dove, 
^t* shikh, branch. P. 
^^L* sh^Ai, rejoicing, merry-making. P. sh&dl. 
y^ sbar, (Ar.^y«A), poem. 
oUm shay a, a smsdl tree {Orewia Veatitd). 
V^LA Bhkghky guitar or banjo. See dambiro. 
i3^ shal, blanket. P. 
f^ sb&m, the evening meal. P. 
^ta» sbdn, power, powerful, honourable. Ar. 
^t« 'sb&n, for ash&n, from that. 
'sh4n-go, thence. 

'sh&n-phalaw4, from that direction. 
«Xit* shdnd, sign. 
t^jj\Mi sh4nzdah, sixteen. P. 

^^ shana;^^, backbone, nape of neck. P. shdna. 
A^U«i 8h4nkh, stony ground at foot of hills. 
*^ shah, horn. 
*^ sh^h, king. P. 

shah-murddn, forefinger. 
jXji^\.l sbdhkaptar. See shaf kastir. 

«^^ shdhid, witness. Ar. 
^^XaIA shahidi, evidence. 
^^^ shdhi, a 2-anna piece. P. 
jJ^ shair, (Ar.^U), poet. 


92 TOCABTOAKT. [Exfcra No. 

cj/^L»."^ shabcbirdyil, firefly. P. 

iSJfcX^ shiddat, disputing, argument. Ar. 
^tSM0 shaddo, a turban (poet). Si. sbado. 
P*^** shudhsLffh, v., p.p. sbustba, to bunger. 
ccX^ shudhn^hy v., p.p. sbustba, to wasb, intr. 
i^t^*^ shndhiy adj. bungry. 

j^ sbarr, good, fine, beautiful. 
^r*^ sbart, gambling. A. 
jdjMi sburdo, a small species of Diantbus found on tbe Sulairasn 

]/**' sbara, a law-case. A. 
0^ sbarm, sbame. P. 
Jj*" sburti, beginning. A. 
•i-^^ sbarik, partner, A. 
tS.^-*^ sbist, sigbt of a gnn. P. 
43«i^ sbaata^^, v. p.p. sbastdtba, to send. Cf. P. firist&dan. 
^^^'^ sbasb, six. P. 
^j" ^^** sbasbumi, siztb. 
j^^ 8b4r, poem. A. 
j^** sba^Aar, sbarp, barsb (in speecb). 
^^li** sbayAan, scorn, mockery, 
^j^i*** sbiyAin, upside down, topsy-turvy. 

sbi^Ain-bin^A, to be upset. 
^ ft ** sbaf nigbt. P. sbab. 

sbaf-cbiri^A, firefly. 

gbaf-kdstir, a plant. Sophora Qrijfftthiu 
sbaf-kbor, nigbtblind. 
S^C\Ait sbafdnkb, shepherd, goatherd. P. shabdn. 
^"^ * ^** shafak, s. iron peg on wbicb a mill stone revolvesw 
**-^^ sbakk, doubt. A 
y^ sbik&r, bunting, sport. P. 
^J^ sbikdri, bunter. 
j^ shukr, thftnks. A* 

1880] VOCABrLA^HT. 93 

t)t^ shakhal, tamarisk sugar, (The manna produced in the hot 
weather on Tamaris articulaia and Tamarix gallica). 
P. shakar. 

c>t^ shakhal, adj. sweet, fair. 

.^ \ the loose trowsers worn hy Balochis. 

jy^ shalwar, ) 

gwa^^-shalwar, puffed up, proud. 

f^ sham, boundary, water-parting. 

Ly^^A^ shamb, branch. 

f'^^^ shamusha^A, J p.p. shamushta, to forget. Cf. P. fari- 

^yAMi shamiiBhayA, ) moshidan. 

Ciy*^ shamol, water-parting. 

y^ shinz, the camel-thorn. {Alhagi Mauroram.) 

Cf. Pashto, zoz. 

V^ shanikh, kid (f.) 

^jr^j^ shav-kash. For shaf-kash, the night-expeller, i, e. Venus, 

the morning star. 

Ir* shawd, ) -^ ^ , 

, ^ } you. P. shuma. 

^- sh*^ ) 
A^Xil^ shaw^nkh. See shafankh, shepherd. 
^•V** Bhodh&gh, p.p. shustha, to wash. P. shustan. 

]dn-shoi^^ay^, to bathe. 
^y^ shorayA, saltpetre. P. shora. 
^j^ shawashkayA, v., p.p. shawa^Atha, to sell. (Cf. P. faro*^ 
^y^ shtikayA, to smell. 
fj^ shtim, miser, avaricious. Ar. 
^I^U^ shuhaz-khana^A, to like, prefer. 
j^ shahr, town, village. P, 
JXfr^ shahur, good manners. Ar. 
^^ shl. Contraction for ash-i, from this, 
sh-i phalaw^, from this direction. 
igT*^*^ shidi, a negro. Ar. 

«^ tkhedh, hence; from here. (For Bsh-edh.) 

^ TOCABULABY. [Extw No. 

'*^rt*^^ shedh'phs^hi, henceforward. 
I«^ Bhedhi, hence. 

(j/*^ shiHan, s. cloth in which the flour from the mill is col- 
j^ shir, milk. P. 

shir-wdr, suckling, unweaned. 
fihir-deo^A, milch. 
Bhir-doshoArA, milker, 
shir-ddn, bladder. 
jiA sher, under, from under. (P. zer.) 

sher-phalayA, from the underside. 
sher-gwdM, leeward. 
sher-thara^A, to be crushed beneath. 
K^}b^ shezirk, a low furze-like shrub, (Oaragana sp.) 
•— *Ji^ shef, slope. P. shib, nishib. 

Af-shef, watershed, slope of a drainage basin, 
{f*** shef ayA, pin or rod for applying colljrium to the ejes. 

^ Gh. 

0;^ gh&mLffh, to snore. 
^-^^ yAarib, poor, inoffensive. A. 
^^^"^ yAalat, mistake, false statement. A. 
f*^ yAuUm, a slave. A. 
f^ ffham, grief, sorrow. A. 
UaT y^amndk, sorrowful. A. P. 
yAami, mourning. A. 

J^ fdl, an omen. Ar. 
**^^ faida, advantage, profit. P. 
^y firishta^A, angel. See phirishtayA. P. 
Oy fark, difference. Ar. 
i>-^ fasl, harvest. Ar. 

1880.] VOCABULABT. 95 

^^Xi falisi, carpet, Ar. 

*^^ ful&Da, certain, such a one. Ar. 

ct) K. 

JJ^ kdbil, able. A. 
^^ katar, dagger. 
j^ kar, work, business. P. 

^jI^^'^^ 1 knife. P.kdrad. 
^^J^ kircha, ) 

c$V^ kdri, basket. See khiri. 

jij^ kdrez, underground aqueduct. 

j*'ij^ k&rigar, ox. 

i^j^ kazi, the Qizi. A. 

AmI^ kasa, a measure of corn, one-sixth of a harw&r. Contains 

about 6 sers, 9 cbitdks Indian weight. 

*X**K kdshid, messenger. A. 

^"^ Vfigh^dh, letter. P. 

j^^ kafir, unbeliever. A. 

^*^ ^ kdk, Baloch bread baked round a heated stone. 

\^^ kilrd, flea. Si. kdrifo. 

^U>«K^ k^mbdni, sling. 

sj^ kan, mine. P. 

s^yj^ kdnderi, thistle. Si. kin<}eri. 

^_y >t^p kanwni, cormorant. 

^%»j^ kAosh, the month of Asoj. 

yj^^ kdhi, ditch. See kh4b£. 

y^ kabr, tomb. A. 

^y^ kabtil, acceptance, agreement. A. 

«H^ kubba, a domed building. 

^^ kaptay^, v. to attack. 

(i^ kapainayA, to expend. 

96 TOCABiTLAET. [Extn No. 

kut, blunt. 
v_*-^ kut, lap. 
«JL|iU^ kutakhanayA, to adopt. 

j^ katar, string of camels. A. 

U-^ kutb, the North Pole, 

kutb-ast4r, the polestar. 

^y^ katre, a little while. A. qadr. 

f^ kuttiyA, thorn. 

^yiS kuttanoArA, thorny boshes. Two or three species of (Siftf- 


i,'^ kath, spinning. Si. 

J^ kithdrt, which ? what ? 

^^ kutti, death. 

hy^ kutrayA, to gnaw. 

f^ katay^, to dig, conquer, overcome. 

^ V\x\BLgh^ to thrash. Si. ku^nu. 

j^ katakar, sand-grouse. Si. ka^angar. 

oj^^ ki^^an. See kith&it. 

^? kaja^A, v., p.p. kaja^Aa, to cover. Si. kajana. 

l)-?^ kajal, coarse flood grass. 

^Y^ kaeh-khanayA, to measure. Si. kachh. 

KSy^ kuchtoe, a plant. 

kSJX^ kachehii, an assembly, darbar. H. 

J^oi kudal, a mattock. Si. ko^ari. 

»*^ kadah, a cup. P. 

fliw ku(/^dm, s. nest. 

^fcw ka^Ae», when ? 

j^ kur, a stable. Si. kurhi. 

1^ karrd, ring, link of a chain. S. kafo. 

^J^y karpAs, cotton. Skr. karp&sa. 

C^[r karakut, noise, rattling, clashing. 

^j^ kurt&, long coat. Si. kurto. 

^j^ kurti, short coat. Si. kurti. 

1880.] VOCABULABT. 97 

j->^ kBTthsLffh, mongrel, of mixed breed, 
w.^ kirishk, a slip, stumble. 
C^*^ kirishka^A, to slip, stumble. Si. khiskanu. 
^jri;^ karkdva^A, a thorny plant, 
^•^r itarkani, a kind of grass. 
fj^ kirm, insect, worm. P. 
A|5U^^^ karms^kb, blackguard, a term of abuse. 
^^Jir karveli, the caper bush. {Capjparis sjfinosa.) Si. kalavdri. 
See goJ^a»-din. 
sjr;> karri, an earring. Si. 
OT;^ kirri, a Baloch hut. Si. Pashto. 
*tir* kireh, hire, wages. P. kiraja. 

y kir, ashes. Si. kiri. 
^ kizay^, p.p. kishtha, to leave. 
Sj^ kas, any, any one. P. kas. 
kase, some one. 
bar-kas, q^s^x'^ one. 
^j^ kus, vulva. 

^^ ^!^'*'' i little, small. P. kih, kibtar. 
^Lu^ kisan, ) 

CfaX>U«*> kis^nak, very small. 

*tr**^ kissa, story. A. 
^ ^ ' « > kasbk, kauri. 
^^^ kshik, dog (m.) 
J^X^ kashkol, faqir's begging dish. 
\^^ kil, a wart. 
uP kull, all, the whole. A. 

kuUd-phajyd, altogether. 
lP kal, knowledge, skill. Si. 
^'i^ kil&t. (Ar. iJi), a fort. 
%S^ kaldi, tin. P. 
K^j^ kaltri, a saw. 
jloli italdar, of European manufacture, as a gun, a rupee. 

98 vocABULiiBY. [Extra No. 

uS^Ai kulishk, a kind of grass. 

^^ kuilsLgh, to cough. See khulla^A. 

^miii kulaf, lock. P. kufl. 

y*^ kulo, a small earthen pot. See khulo. 

*AS kulla, cap. 

^ kulla, a warning. 

^ kam, little, few. P. (Also kham.) 

vjus^i»> kamhaArAt, unlucky. P. 

L^^ kumb, tank, pool, rock hollow containing water. 

j^ kambar, variegated, stained. See kham bar- kambar kha- 

nay^, to write. 

f^^ kumbiyA, s. mushroom. S. khumbi. 

^^^ kamina, mean, low, P. 

^JL^M kunt, blunt. 

ff^ kunta^A, thorn. 

^y^"*^ kanjari, prostitute. SL 

kunji, key. Si. 

kunchiMa, a plant. 
* ( 
*~ kunchi/A, sesamum. See kwenchiyA. P. kunjid. 

*^ kund, near. See khund. 
^^ kanda^A, a mountain pass. See khandayA. 
uT*^ kandi, necklace. 
sS*^ kundi, a hook. Si. 

^aA^ kindayA, p.p. kinda^Aa, to spread out. Si. khiu^anu. 
j^ kunar, the ber-tree, jujube-tree. P. 
dig-kunar, Zizyphus jujuha, 
khokar-kunar, Z. nummularia, 
tholayA-kunar, Z. oxyphylla, 
^*^ kany, a virgin. Si. kauy4. 
•^7* kaw&(, a young male camel up to 3 years. Si. 

^^y kawdn, bow. Share of spoil taken in a raid. P. kamdn. 
f^!^^ kw&nfayA, to stoop. 
*^j^ kotila, young camel from 6 months to 1 year old. 


^^ kuch, s. pommel of saddle. 
^J'*^y kodi, metal cup for drinking. 
Jl jy ko4^1» mattock. See ku^^l- 
j^ kor. See khor. 

jji kaur, the phal&hi-tree (Acacia modetta), 
^)^ koro, whip. H. kori. 
%^)r korki, trap, snare. Si. 

\^y kaush, Baloch shoes. P. kafsh. Pashto, ko^ha. 
^*^ kavg, the chakor. P. kabk. 
j^y kolmir, an aromatic plant; (^Orantea^ sp.) SL 
^Ajji kontar, a bush. {Grrewia, sp. ?). 
j^^ kontar, a pigeon. P. kabt^tar. 
j^ji konar, the fruit of the dwarf palm (Ohamcsrops ritehi' 
tji koh, mountain ; stone. P. 
koh-gurd^A, raven. 
^j^j^ kohi, the female marAr^or. 

CfV kwench^A. j ^^ ^^ 
ias^ kunchi^A, ) 

samum indieum). P. kunjid. 

^ kahd, cause, reason. 
^4^^ khd^i) chin. Si. 
^j^ kh&ri, a basket. SL 
j*i/^ khariyAar, an ox. 

J^^ khal, a species of salsola. Also the sajji or barilla manu 
factured from it. 
^*V khdhi, a ditch. Si. 
»^^ khapta^A, to attack. 
KSy^ khatri, a washerman. Si. 

i^^^ S khat ) 

M f \ bedstead, charpoj. Si. 

»;^|i khatra, ) 

khat-phi^^AayA, the four stars forming the body 
of Ursa Major. 
^yptr khaji, the date palm (FhoBnix dactylifsra). Si, 

100 VOCABTJLABT. [Extrft N®. 

3^ kha4, bole, pit. Si. 
jf^ kbar, ass (£.). P. kh&r. 
jf^ kahar, auger, curse. Ar. 
j\^ khar, deaf. P. kar. 
yrij^ kbarphaz, a mattock. 
^j^ kbard, separate. 

kbard-bia^A, to be separated. 
e«3^ kburda^A, to be scattered. 
^»3^vi kbarde, some. (Cf. A. P. qadre). 
i X^ kbura^A, a colt. 
^j^ kbary^d, above. 
^^j^ kbarag, tbe 4k-busb, {Oalatrapis procera). 
j^jY kbargaz, the vulture. Pasbto, gargas. 
s,S^^j^ khargosbk, tbe bare. P. Ar^rgosb. 
4-H^^V^ kbaro-bia^A, to stand up. Si. B. 
^jY khuri, beel, boof. Si. kbufi. 

y> kbur, stable. 
y^y*-^ kbas. See kas. P. 
JUi^ khisbala, difficulty, trouble, 
jl-w^ kbisbar, cultivation, crops. 
j^^^ kbusbdr, slaughter. 

^^^ kbasba^A, v., p.p. kbasbtba, to draw, turn out, discharge, 
blow (of tbe wind). P. kasbtan. 
pbost-kbasba^A, to flay. 
pbor-kbasba^A, to smoke a pipe. 
hon<-kbasba^A, to bleed, tr. 
likb-khasba^A, to draw a line. 
gw4^A-kbasba^Ae;», tbe wind is blowing. 
^^^ kbisbay^, v., p.p. kbisbtba, to cultivate. P. khishtan. 
^-^ kbusbayA, v., p.p. khusbtba, to kill. P. kushtan. 
ff^ kbafa^^, v., p.p. kbaptba, to fall, lie down. To begin (quali- 
fying another verb in tbe gerund). 

kbai\a^7/d khafayA, to begin to do. 

18S0.] VOCABULAKT. 101 

er-khafa^^y to descend, come down, alight. 
dar-khafa^A, to come out, issue. 
darjd dar-khaptha, the river has risen in flood. 
j'^^ khakhar, wasp. (Sindhi. See gwamz). 

khakhar-ra&ndro, wasp^s nest, 
c/t^ khil, peg or axle on which a milktone revolves. 
tV khulla^A, to cough. 
J\^ khalgar, stony ground ; large stones. 
^^ khulo, an earthen pot or lo\a, 

^j^ khali, a small water skin (kid*s skin) carried on journeys. 


(Si. khali^ri, skin). 
j^Y khaler, the Capparit aphylla, 
:i/^ khalero, wild asparagus. 

m^ kham, little, less. P. kam. 
Ly^^^ khumb, pool in a stream. See kumb. 
j^\^ khambar, variegated, striped, spotted, piebald, stained, (of 

^y^ khan&wa, a sword, (poet.). Si. khano. 
«^^y^ khund, adv. near. S. A piece of ground enclosed by a 

bend in a torrent bed. 
cdA^ khandayA, s. a- pass over a crest or ridge. 
^ai^ khandagh, v., p.p. khandiMa, to laugh. P. ^^andidan. 
^H^ khanagh, v., p.p. khu^^a, to do. P. kardan, kun. To be 
able, can (qualifying a preceding verb in the past parti- 
ciple) ; tf. y., khu^Aa khandn, I can do. 
er-khanay^, to lay down, place, 
el-khanay^, to imprison. 
dwar-khanay7», to mix. 
bahr-khanayA, to divide, 
phol-khanay^, to ask, enquire. 
phur-khanayA, to fill. 
jalo-khana^A, to attack. 
kach-khanayA, to measure. 

102 vocABULABT. [ExtraNo. 

gur-khana^A, to ran awaj. 
much-kbana^Ay to collect. 
«At> kabna^A, old clothes, rags. 
^^•V|^ khanoM. Verbal noun from khanayA, doer. 

Ai|i kahna and kubna, old. P. 
^_^J^ kabne, s. pigeon. 
^j^ kubne, s. hip. 
jijle^ kbopar, skull. Si. kopiri. 

jiy^^ kboprd. The Withiana coagulant used for curdling milk. 
j^X^ khoHar, a kind of wild turnips {Brasaica, sp.) 
p«3^V^ khuda^^, a tripod for cooking. 
jy^ khaur, a large bill torrent. (Of. Pasbto Mwar.) 
jj^ kbor, blind. P. 
sSJX\^ khori, pursuit, 
v**^ khosil, fever. Panj. 
f*^ kbofa^A, shoulder. 

kbofa^A juzaina^^, to shrug the sboolderB. 
^^ji^ kbofay^d, the shoulder muscles. 
J^y\^ khauM, a fawn. 
y^y^ khontar, a bush, (Oarissa difusa). 
j^y^ khawinjar, a partridge. 
3i^ khond, the knee. 

kbon4 bborainayA, to kneel. 
^p^ khai, J who ? 

J^ijkiK^ khaiyAen, ) whose ? 
j>Y khair, ox. 
yt^ kahir, the kanda or jhand tree, Prosopis tpicig^^' 

also Sol. 
j^ kber, the penis. P. kir. 
dl)*t^ kbaizdn, perhaps, may be. 
^^io^ khisa^A, pouch, pocket. P. kisa. 
^^j^ khin, the anus. 

kbin^-pbur-bioArA, a breechloader. 

jggO.] TOCA.BiriJLBT. 

j*yi^ kbindar, naked, 
y^r^ khend, a ball. Si. kbeno. 
fH^ kitayA, a water-melon. 
y^ kai^Ao, itcb, mange. Si kbdji. 
)^t^ kilar, unripe fruit of Chamttrops ritchieana. 
•*-^*J^ kinag, envy, grudge. P. kina. 
1^ kiwa, in excbange. 

vJ^ G. 

i^«5lf gddi, pad, cusbion. Si. 
J^ gdr, lost, destroyed. 

gar-bia^A, to be lost. 
gar-kbana^A, to lose, make away witb. 
J^ gdr. See gal, speecb. Si. 
)jo gard, quarrel. 
ilf gi^h, v., p.p g&thsL, coire. 
JIf gdl, speecb. Si. galbu. 
Jj!^ gdlwar, conversation, matter of discourse, 
^yf g41i, a visit. 
Jy f gali, bedding. 
f^ gdm, a pace. 

gdmd juzayA, to walk (of a borse). 
Smm^ gap, quicksand, quagmire. Si. 
Ot^ gi^pball, a piece, bit. Si. gapalu. 
y^j^ guttani, retreating. 
^^ gitbd, cbeek. 
CSJ gat, cbasm, precipice. 
^ gMXXi^hf tbe kidney. 
J^ gattir. See gbattir. 
*t^ gutb, tbe tbroat. 
f^ gutbi, bridle. 
^J^ gatti, wooden bandcuffs. Si. 
^ gaj, a wooden arrow. 


104 voCABULABT. [Extra No. 

gp guch, the colocynth gourd, bitter apple. Cueumis Golocyn- 
At^cX? gadikh, kernel. [<*«• 

ji)^ gadobar, maize. 
^^j*^ gudi, a toy-kite. 

i^ ga4, female uriil. (See gurdnd). (C£. Pasbto, ga4 ram). 
'•^ gu4a, then, again, and. 

ciM gudayA, to chop, to kill animals, to butcher. Si. gudana. 
1^^ ga^i, the middle finger. 
*^^ guJ^, cloth. 
j^ gar, a pimple, boil. 
J gur, 8. kauri. 
j^ gur, running. 
CHv^ gur-khana^^, to run away. Cf. Pehl. girikht, fled. 

}jy gai:r&, piebald, skewbald (of a horse). 
f •^Ir gT&dh&ffhf v., p.p. gr^stha, to boil. 
*V/ir gir&rth, a span (with the thumb and 8rd finger). 
P^jr gurd^A, crow. 

koh-gur&ffh, raven, 
c^lr gir^n, heavy, dear. P. 

^Ir gurAn4, a ram. The male uri&l. {Dots eycloeeros). 
\^jr girAni, weight, dearth. P. 
y\jr grdnz, nostril. 

jir gurburd, in a whisper. Si. gurburi. 
tyijr gurphuy*, small-pox. 
J^^5 garphil, a whirling cloud of dust or *• devil." 
C?^ girja^A, to catch, seize, p.p. girji^Aa. 
f -It gardayA, v., p.p. gartha, to return. P. gardidan. 
U«?r gardan, neck. P. 
C^*^ gardainayA. Causal of gardayA. 
f ^ graJAayA, v., p.p. grastha, to cook. 
^J^ girayA, v., p.p. gipta, imp. gir. P. giriftan, gir, to take, 
accept, seize, lay hold of. 

bal-girayA, to fly. 




bo-gira^Ay to smell. 
hiA'gira^h, to hear news, 
zahr-gira^^, to be angry. 
sar-gira^A, to set out. 
fijr garra^A, to roar or bellow. 
C^ gurka^A, to growL Si. guranu. 
*i4r g'lrklij wolf. P. gurg. 

gurkh, the Wolf, i. e., tbe last star in the tail of 
Ursa major. See under Gurdndi. 
f^ garm, hot, warm. P. 
fl/ gninch, a knot. 
'^j^ garand, thunder. 
*^^^ gudLn^, (I) ram; (2) the male urial (Ovis eycloceros), 

Gurdn4> the Ram, >'. e., the first star of the three 
forming the tail of Ursa major. This is sup- 
posed to be pursued by the second, the Dog, 
which in its turn is pursued by the last star, the 
Gurdn4-drikh, the Milky Way (lit. the Ram's 
leap). This refers to the legend of the Ram 
brought from heaven to take the place of Ismdil 
when Abraham was about to sacrifice him. The 
Milky Way is supposed to be the Ram's track. 
P«^j^ garandayA, v., p.p. garanda^^a, to thunder. 
•T-v giroH, s. lightning, 

T^r gii'O^^* Verbal noun from girayA, a taker, creditor. 
*-lr giroh, s. fife, pipe. 
^S gari, speech, song. 
^j^ gari, bald. 

^Jj fS^X^i piebald, skewbald (of a mare). 
gfj^ girey^, v., p.p. girentha, to weep. P. girgan. 
*^ grih, voice, sound. 

zor-grihd, in a loud voice. 


106 TOCABTTLABT. [Extn No. 

y gaf, a precipice, sadden descent, chasm. Pashto, garang. 
y gaz, tamarisk. Especially Tamarix galliea, 

gi^A-gaz, TavMrix ariiculaia. P. 
jS gaz, a yard, 
jjS guzar, makeshift. 
M)^Jjr guzr^n, maintenance, 
e/il) gazaren, ought, is necessary. 
P^ guzay^y v., p.p. gwastha, to pass. P. guzishtan. 

guzay/i-ravayA, to pass by. 
^y gazir, miser. 
^j^ gisar, mistake, forgetting. Si. bisiranu. 

gisar-biayA, to forget. 
jy^ gasur, s. anger. 
sj^'^ gasht, coarse long grass on the hill side, not eaten bj 
i^ gushayA, T., p.p. gushtha and gwashtha, to speak, saj, tell, 
sing, recite. (Skr. yach). 
rT^'^ gnshoArA, singer, reciter. 
f^kx^ gishainay^, v., p.p. gishaintha, to choose. P. gizidao. 

C g^^^> owl- ?• ^^' 
^uAi guftir, speech, song, P. 

5f^ gufayA. See ^ji gwafa^A, to weaye. 

c^^ gal, cheek. SL gala. 

lH gal, a number, quantity. Used in composition to form 
nonns of quantity as jan-gal, a band of women. 

U^ gil, clay, earth. P. 

ij^ gul, a flower, P. 

p^ gsiligh, p.p. gaUi^Aa, to praise. 
A^^lb guldlakh, long curls woro by Balochifl^ 
\J^i, galphdn, a groom, syce. 

*"^ gala^Aa, rotten. Hindi, gal4. 

^ gullar, dog's pups. Si. guliru. 

(^ gala^A, a band of mares, or of horsemen. 

1880.] YOCABULiLBT. 107 

galayA-th^shi, horse-racing, 
t)^ gulgul> water with which the mouth is rinsed after eating. 

y^ galo, door. 

^ galla, a kdfila, caravan. Si. 

^3^ gall, a street. Si. 

fv^ galim, a rug or blanket. P. 

^^ gunds, (rare) ) r u • t> /i. 

x't / } fault, sm. P. gunah. 

»U> gunah, (common) ) 

^ gunj, crease, wrinkle. Si. gunju. Pashto gunjah. 

ganji, a measure of com. 

*^ gand, s. a branch water-course. 

«^ gand, s. filth, manure. P. 

gand-bo, stink. 

*^ gund, testicles. 

gundi, an entire horse. 

Ll«^ gandd^Ao, Indian rue (Peganum harmata) • 

9j*ys5 gandraf, sulphur. Si. 

c^id gandayA, bad. 

^aj5 ganda^A, v., p.p. gandaf^, to join. 

GtSiS gindayA, v., p.p. aIj.3 di/Aa, imp. gind, to see. P. bin, 


(j<^^ gandal, s. felt, namda. 

tk^^ gandil, a short fodder grass in the lower Sulaimdns and 

plains. Si. 

fi gandim, wheat. (P. gandum.) 

*^ gand, Adam's apple. 

ry^ ganno^A, fool, idiot. 

asuld-ganno^A, a bom idiot. 

Jr go, prep. with. P. h&, 

y go, B. race, prize. 

go-bar, a race- winner. 

*^I/ gwiUh, air, wind. P. bid. 

gT/iik-mif climate. 

103 TOCA.BULl.ST. [Eitn No. 

er-gwithi^ on the leeaide. 

gwfUA-shalwar, pu£Eed up. 

^^jr gw&thAffh, a gelding. 

y!r gw4^Ao, windy. 

gw&then h&lwar khaoa^A, to talk big. 

KJ'Jr gwirisb, rain. P. b&riflh. 

J^y gw&z, bark of a tree. 

\^'y gwdsb, ground at the foot of a hill. 

^y gw&fay/k, v., p.p. gw&ptha, to call together, summoD. 

(Cf. P. guftan.) 

^!^ gwA^Ai, immediately. 

fiy gw&isffh, packsaddle for oxen, bags. 

ganda-gwdla^A, (lit. spoil-bags), the small red 

ant. Also the name of a Baloch sab-tribe. 

\J^^^jr gwAmesh, buffalo. P. gdv-mesh. 

\,„fii^r gwamish, a small plant used in washing. 

s^y guw4n, doubt, hesitation. P. gum&n. 

hy^y gwdnza^A, a swinging cradle. 

*t^l^ gw&nkh, voice, sound. P. b&ng. 

gwAnkh-jana^A, ) 

> to call out. 
gw4n'-jana^/k, ) 

jiy go-bar, a horse that has won a race. 

^^r S^^i brid^room. Panj. 

^y goj, a large lizard, *' go-s&mp." Si. 

^y gwach, a bu£Ealo«calf. SL vaohhi. Skr. vatsa. 

'^ gokhf an ox, cow. P. g&7. 

^y gauM| nape of the neck. 
iyj!\j^y gokhr&ad, dung-beetle. 
j^jr gokho, a span with the thumb and forefinger. Si. go^ki 
jdy godur, a plant. 
c^iS^ go^y mistress, lady. 

'^y godhf menstruation. 
^^Jy gwtidh&n or godh&n, udder. 




gwai*in-din, the caper-plant. OapparU tpinosa, 
(lit. udder-tearer). 
J^r godhar, wasp's nest. 
jy gwar, adv. near. P. bar. 

gwar&y nearly. 
JJr gor, wild ass. P. 

gor-dU, Daphne mucronata (so called from its red 

,.^«^'' jtomb. 

J^X goristan, ) 

Jjr gwar, woman's breast. P. bar. 

gwar-sar, nipple. 

gwar&» dir khanuyA, to wean. 

gwar-ambdzi, embracing. 
3i!^ gor&nc}, a ram, male uridl. 
*^Jjr gwarband, path leading round the foot of a hilL 
Jti XT gwarpahar, flock of lambs. 
9jx gwan^/^y v.y p.p. gwartha, fut. 8rd pers. sing, gwdri, to rain. 

P. bdridan. 
^)T gwara^Ay a lamb. 

^Jy gorkh&, a kind of coarse grass called in Sind and the 
S. Panj&b sin or sain, good for fodder. 
f)y goram, a herd of cattle. (P. g&v, rama.) (Si. goramu.) 
)r g^r> g^^ ^' coarse molasses. 

Air gwaza^A. See e>( guzayA, to pass. P. guzashtan. 
^)^ gozhd, flesh, meat. P. gosht. 
\^r g^&^> enough. P. has. 
cT^^ goskarl, crystal, felspar ; fossils in rock. 
s^f gosh, ear. P. 

gosh-deayA, to listen, attend. 
^y goshd, s. the pan of a matchlock. 
l^y gwasha^A. See ^^ gushayA, to say. 
IrV goyArd, s. a snore. QoyArd jana;^A, to snore. 

110 TOCABTTLABT. [Extra No. 

tfr gwafa^*, v., p.p. gwaptha» to weave. (P. baftan.) 
^jr gokurd, sulphur. P. 

^^Jr gomiJAy a kind of g^ass, the seed of which is eaten in times 
of scarcity, called in 8indh and the Derajat, gam. To- 
nicum antidotaie. 

nar-gom^A, a kind of grass with star-shaped 
flowers, found in the Upper Sulaimins. 
yy g^wamz, a wasp. 
^y gon, with, together with. 

gon-deayA, to overtake. 
gon-khafayA, to meet. 
\:}r gwan or gon, the wild pistachio. JPiitaeia khinjuh. 
*^r gwand, short. 
6\*iyy gwandaJA, shortness. 
i*^y gwando, an alligator. 
^)'^jr gondosh, s. a large needle. 
t-S>^ gting, dumb. Si. 
jjjf^y giingprd, turnip. See zang. Si. 

^y goh, a large lizard. Si. 
/^JT gohir, sister. P. khw&har. 
J^r gwahar, cold. 
iji:r goil, 8. breakfast-time. 
iZ^^ ghat, inaccessible place, precipice. 
C^»^ gbatta^A, V. to smother. 

jy^ ghafur, a lamb or joung sheep suitable for eating. (Cf' 
Si. ghato, ram). 
j^ guhar, adj. See fy^ gwahar. 
cr^;ir ghuriai, s. a stranger, 
c^jtr^ ghafi, hour. Si. 
(JV^ ghal, a band, a raiding party, a raid. Si. ghali. 
^t^ gahn, a pledge. SL gahno. 
jj,^ ghofo. A band of horsen^n. (Si. ghofo, horse.) 
^^ gidnch, a small bird found in sandy purts of the ooontTfi 
called Malila in the Deraj4t. 

1880 ] TOO ABXTL ABT. Ill 

t^i^ getra, a kind of melon. 

y^y^ geth, the willow, Salia aemophylla, P. bed. 
iS^^ gethishk, the Sioetta or Bog- myrtle. Dodancoa viscoia, 
J^y^t*^ gi^A.gaz, a kind of Tamarisk. T, articulaia, 
*«^ gic^A-mahisk, house-fly. 
j'9 gir. Imp, of gira^A, take. 
j^ gir, 8. memory. 

gir-irayA, to remember. 
gir4r deayA, to remind. 
)y^ gird, dove. Si. gero. (See sh&^Alo ) 
P ''j^ gezbayA, v., p.p. giA;Ata, to bring forth dead offspring. 
^ gist, twenty, sai-gist, 60, chydr-gist, 80. P. bist. 
jp gistumi, twentieth. 
^^^^ gish, 8. a female kid. 

^ gish tar, a shrub, Feriploea aphylla. 
^ geshtar, many, more. P. beshtar. 
^J/^ geshin, a sieve. 
jIxjJ gikdr, belch. 

j*i^ gelar, a squirreL Hindi galep. 
^i^ gin, life, breath. 

do-gin, pregnant. 
\ir gehd, great, good. 
t^^Hr gieshayA, v., p.p. gieshtha, to pick out, to pay. 

J L. 

jlri^ Idphur, (Idf-phur), pot-beUied, pregnant. 
*^' li4> sport, play. Si. Iddu. 
Iddid khanayA, to play. 
/i Idr, 8. crookedness. 
^' liffh, a male donkey. 
^' IdyAar, thin, lean. P. 
Idf, belly, stomach, 
14f-band, belt. 

112 Toc ABTTL1.BT. [Extra No. 

Idf-dor, bellyache. 
Uf-ser, bellyful. 
ifl Mkhffh, to bark. 
J J 141, ruby. P. 

y) Idnav, lana, (SaUola itteda). Si. lino, 
y^'^ l&nday, adj. fat. 
v^) l&nk, a waistclotb, dhoti. Si. 14ng. 
I;j) l&ward, young of animals. 

^M^ Idina^A, v., p.p. Idi/^a, to touch, apply. Si. Uinu. 
U^ lab, the priming of a gun. Si. labu. 
lab-chafa^^, to flash in the pan. 
j^ labz, promise. 
^tV labh, obtaining, getting. Si. 
pj^ lat&ray^, to rub olP, dismiss, get rid of. Si. lat^fana. 
't^ lath, stick, rod, flail. Si. lafhi. 
^t^ lath, embankment. Panj. 
W^ lathni, bag for drugs. 
gf laj, shame. Si. 

J luch, wretch, proflgate. Si. luohu. 
^ li4) horse-dung. Si. 
i*^ laday^, v, to run away, 
p*^ lu^ayA, to move. See lodagh. Si. lafanu. 
fiSJ la^a^A, p.p. la(}aMa, to lade beasts of burden, to march, 
start. Si. Ia4anu. 
*^ Isidh, jungle. 
p«V WAayA, kick. P. la^Aat. 

la^Aa^A jana^A, to kick. 
j^ lar, a branch of a tree. 
j^ lar, a sword. 
^^ larza^A, to tremble. P. 

p.p. larzi^Aa. 
Cfy lafka^A, to hang (intr.). Si. lat*anu. 
C*^^y lapkainayA, to hang (tr.). 
yj^^ las. all, the whole. 

1880.] V0CABTJL1.BT. 118 

j^ lashkar, army. P. 
1^ layAim, horse's bit. P. lagim. 
^ layAai^, kick. See ^<^ lad^^ayA. 
^ lajfeur, Af-layiar, a rapid or water-fall, 
f;^ layAushayA, v., p.p. la^Jushtha, to slip, slip out. ( Ar. la^Az, 

)^ layAor, a^. wretched, mean, cowardly, poor. 

layAoreit diy^dr, poor ground, 
lay^oren 4&44&^> » wretched pony, 
v-^ lak, a hundred thousand. P. 
5^ lika^A, to hide (intr.). Si. likanu. 
\S)^ lakauri, butterfly, 
ft^ likha^A, to write. Si. likhanu. 
^^ likaina;^^, to hide, conceal. (Causal of lika^A.) 
aJJ lalla, s. lisping. 

lalla khanajrA, to lisp. 
Ui laram4, south. Fanj. 
\mm^ lamb, a branch. 

45^^ Iambi, s. a kind of grass, (Cenohru^ ecjimatut T) 
J^ lanj, blood. 

^•^^ lang, adj. lame. P. 
w»H lang, s. a torrent, 
t^iy law&sha$r^, y., p.p. law^shtha, to drink. 

hon-law4sh, bloodthirsty, 
mar-law&sh, cannibal. 
«->y lop, s. branch of a valley ; a small alluvial plain in the bend 
of a stream. 

fJy lota^A, v., p.p. lot<Aa, to demand, to want. 
i«3y loda^A, v., p.p. loda^Aa, to move, shake, (intr.). Si. locjanu. 
gJ^V lodaina;^^, to shake (tr.). Causal of loda^A. 

Jyi lur, s. hot wind. 

J^ lawar, s. a stick. 

^ ^ ^ VOC ABTTLABT. [Extra No. 

*--»Uy Itirah&f, 8. a stream which runs occasionally. Flood irri- 
gation as distinguished from perennial stream irrigation. 
uT^y lori, s. a minstrel. 

^y %A, 8. home, household; (met.) family, wife. 
lo^h'W&zhA, goodman, master. 
%A-bAnukh, housewife, mistress, 
UJ*^ji laundri, s. the temples. Si. laundirL 
»y loh, s. hot wind. Si. Idh. 
Ci*y lohiyA, s. a small pond. 
Jr lahar, s. a hill-torrent. 
ff^ lahm, adj. timid, bashful. 
*-^ lihef, s. a blanket, quilt. P. lihdf. 

& letayA, v., p.p. le^thsL, to lie, recline. Si. letanu. 
^jV lero, 8. a male camel (full-grown). 
*lr^ likh, 8. a line. Si. l£k. 

likh khasha^A, to draw a line. 
Ct^ lekha^A, v., p.p. lekhMa, to count, reckon. Si. lekhanu. 
n^ lekho, s. account, reckoning. Si. 
Sr^ lilha, a bush, Daphne mueronata, (See phifal, gordil). 
y^ limti, 8. lemon. A. 
-^ lev, s. play, sport. A. la'b. Pashto lobah. 
lev khanayA, to play. 

^ M. 

^ md, pro. we, plural of man. 
tt^y^ mdttin, s. stepmother. 
^^ mith, 8. mother. P. mddar. Pehl. m&i. 

mith'phith, parents. 
*^^ mdHta, adv. immediately, 
f f ^ mdJAa^A, adj. female. P. mdda. 
s:)^^ m&dhin, s. mare. P. mddiAn. 
J^ mir, s. snake. P. 

syahmar, cobra. 

1880.] TOCABULiJlT. 115 

m^r-val, a kind of creeper. 
\Jjj\j* mirifatA, prep, by means of. A. 
i^J^ mdri, a house with an upper storey. Si. m4ri. 
vt?];^ m&zHh, 8. a two-year-old camel. (Cf . Si. maj4du.) 
^j***^ masi, 8. maternal aunt. Si. 
yj**^ mash, s. ddl. P. 

^^ masha^A, s. the hammer which holds the match of a match- 
lock. Si. mdsho. 
}jj^ mdkura, s. vermin. (Cf. Si. mdkoro, black ant.) 

J^ mil, 8. cattle. A. 
j)i}S^ mdldir, cattle-owner. P. 
fiP^ milim, known, clear. A. malum. 
^^ mdm4, maternal uncle. Si. mdmo. 
J^ min, prep, in, into. 
^'sj^ m&n-igh, to be applied, touch, reach (lagnd). 
C^«3 y^^ man-dea^A, to apply (lagdnd). 
C^ sj^ min-rasha^A, to attack. 
^^)c)^ mdn-rava^A, to enter. 
t^\:)^ m^-khanayA, to put in. 
^Jj^ MT^ mdn-guzara^A, to meet together. 

C>>^ m&na^h, v., p.p. mantha, to tire, become weary. P. mdn- 

tA^ mih, 6. a month ; the moon. P. 
Uc it^ m&h-^hvan&y eclipse of the moon. 

^fcU« mdhi^A, an udder. 
^txftV^ mdhkdn, a. the moon. 

mahkdni shaf, a moonlight night. 
y^^ mdhlo, early in the morning. 
V^V/» mahi, fish. P. 

J^-^*^ matbal, meaning, selfishness. (Ar. matlab.) 
^A^^ matbali, selfish. 
*Y^ math, death. 


^Y^ mathayA, y. to shake (a churn). Si. mathanu. 

116 TOCABrLAHT. [Extrt No. 

mat, equal. Si. matiu 
C^H^ mattaina^A, y. to exchange, barter. Si. ma^^inu. 
iJ^-^ majdl, power. Used as an expression of apology or re- 
pentance. A. 
V^^^ maj&lis, society. (A. majHs.) 

^ much, assembled. (Si. muchu, a heap.) 

much-khana^/^, to assemble, bring together. 
much-biayA, to assemble, come together. 
Af** muchh, joint. 

phaJA-muchh, ankle, 
dast-muchh, wrist. 
ic«^ muchi, assembly. 
i^^^ maHta. See m&Hta, immediately. 
«^ mudd, season, time. (A. muddat.) 
1^0^ madiik, bead. 
^ J^ ma4i, goods and chattels. Si. 
^<^ mtkdhsikh, locust. P. mala^A. 

P<^ maJAayA, v., p.p. mastha, to freeze, curdle. P: mastan. 
j^ mar, man. P. mard. 

mar-khusho^A, murderer, 
mar-khushi, murder. 

mar-lawish, ) 

> cannibal man-eatinff. 
mar-war, ) 

^l/* murdd, aim, object. A. 
i-rl/-* mar&i, gums. 
sa^j^ murj&n, pepper. 
^j^ mard, man. P. 
sj'lr^ murdan, s. finger. 

shdh-murddn, forefinger. 
nyama^M murdan, middle-finger. 
C*'«^ murdilna^A, the fingers. 

"phidh^muxdijiSLgh, the toes. 
('^ mardum, a man, human being. P. 



^,4;^ marden, j ^^^^^^^ belonging to man. 
iUjj^ mardena, ) 
\j)j^ marzi, pleasure. A. 
p j^ muryA, bird. P. 
e jA mirai^A, y., p.p. murtha. Imp. mir, to die. P. murdan. 

^y* markd, s. a deputation. 
y^j^ markhay, a horse. P. markab. 
s^j^j^ margivi, curse. 

j^i/^ murvWAir or murwh&JAir, pearl. P. marvarid. 
P )yj^ marora^Ay to twist. Si. maro^anu. 
y^^yj^ marvehi, see! behold! (an expression of astonishment). 
^_^jy maroshi, to-daj. P. imroz. 

"•^I^"^*"^'! fight, battle. 
y'j^ mifdoy ) 

sS^y^ maydi, however. 

^y^ mifayAy v., p. p. mi^a^Aa, to fight. (Cf. 6i. mi4anu, to 

j^"]^ mifoM, s. a fighter. 

Pj^i/* maz&gira^A, to taste. P. 

Xj^ mazdr, tiger, &c. Pashto mzarai. 

maz^r-trap, tiger's leap! The name of a game 

resembling draughts played on a board. 

^"^ ' I great, large. Zend, mazd&o. Skr. mah4. P.mih. 

i»2)^ mazan, ) 

J>^ mizil, stage, march. P. manzil. 

j^ muzh, mist after rain. 
fij"^ mizhayA, v., p.p. mishtha, to piss. 

Gf. Pashto mital. Imp. mizhah. 
i— Tjf/o mazhg, brain. P. ma^Az. 
yy^ mizhguzh, a small plant found in the Bulaim&n range. 
\J^j^ mizhagdn. See mishish. 
^j**^ mas, ink. Si. 
r*^"*^ mastar, large, greater. (Comp. of mazain.) 

118 TOCABTTLlET. [Extra No. 


^Xm^ masta^A, curds. (From masta, p.p. of msJh^h.) 
^^^i-**^ musti, coarse sugar or molasses, guy. Si. 

I;**^ masard, in front. 
v-^«*^ misk, 8. musk. P. mushk. 
misk. See mahisk, flj. 
masit, mosque. A. masjid. 
I«3t^ mushidhi, s. show. 
^Uw« mishish, eyelashes. 
J^"*"*^ mashil, torch. A. 
O*^^ musht, 8. fist. P. 
- ...^ musht, 8. hilt of a sword. 

mashar, celebrated. (A. mashhtir.) 
t^^ misha^A, v., p.p. mishta, to suck. (Cf. Ar. mizz.) 
t^ musha^A, v., p.p. mushta, to rub. (Cf . A. muzz.) 
mashk, water-bag, mussuck. P. 
mushk. See mtishk. 
JI;^ mikriz, scissors. 
^jiK^ makhemi, fringe over horse's eyes. See riband. B. 
CS^^IU maldmat, rebuke, punishment, curse. A. 

^^ maldiM, angel. A. 
^jydxU malandrf, warrior. (Poet.) 
f^ mam, the black bear. 
^ ma», I. P. 
^ mann4, forbidden. Ar. mana. 

^^ minnd, ) 

, . . } ease, security. (Poet.) 

H^>^ mmniya,) 

\^^ mandn, to me, me. 

^" ^^ minnat, entreaties, supplication. A. 

*Wm^ mind, daughter (among the Marris). 

***^ mund, spring of water. 

c5V«^ mundri, ring. Si. mun^ri. 

^cU^ mimdo, altogether, entirely. 

Oi*^i^ mandil, turban, lungi. 


1880.] TOCABirLA.BT. 119 

du-mandil, a respectable man. 
^ ft * *^ ^ munsif , just. A. 

^^ mana^A, v., p.p. mani^^a, to attend, mind. Si. mananu. 
^jr^^ mani, my. See also main. 
\j^yT^ mavdrki, congratulations. 
^y* moth, star on the forehead of a horse. 
^l-*^ moth, moth. (Ddl). (Phaseolus AconitifoUui) Si. 
^^^y^ mochi, a leather worker. Si. 


y^y^ mokhOy spider. 

mo^Ao-lo^A, spider's web. 
jy mor, ant. P. 
*^jy^ morband, spotted. 
^jy* mozha^A, a boot, legging. P. moza. 
f^^'y^ mosim, season. A. mausim. 
^'S^y mtishk, rat, mouse. P. mtish. Skr. mtishika. 
Pashto mazhak. 
x^y* moshin, butter. 

\j^y^ mokal, leave, permission to depart. A. 
j^^y^ mokalaina^A, to take leave. Old Hindi mukkalnd, 

*^y molid, a female slave. 
y*J^y^ momrez, spur. 
*U-«y* momand, merciful. 
*t^ mah, I. See ma». 
ttj'^'* mihrv4n, friendly, kind. P. mihrb^n. 
\SJ^ muhari, foremost, in front. Si. muhdro. 

jY^ mahar, corpse. 
w^-^Y* mahisk, fly. (Of. P. magas). 

benay^-mahisk, bee. 
bing-mahisk, horse-fly (lit. dog-fly). 
gi^fA-mahisk, house-fly. 
Ask-mahisA?, blow-fly (lit. deer-fly). 
c/lr^ mahl, patience, leisure. A. 
mahU-dar, be patient. 




muhlat, time, while, opportunity. A. 
dW^ mihman, gaest. P. 
^W^ mihmini, entertainment. P. 

!/i|r^ mahaird, in welfare, all's well. Answer to the salatai 

biyd durr'sh^Hti^Aei. 
J^ majdr, shame. 

^^ mech, hint, making signs. Si. mechh. 
dast-mechdei^A, to beckon. 
Xj^sif* meHm&r, mallet. Si. 
«>^ vcadh, goat's hair or beard. 
(H^ me(fA, a boatman. 
;jb^ mero, s. assembly. 
9/^ meza^A. See mizhayA. 
<«i*-«»^ mesk, a small plant, also a kind of soap made fro*^ *** 
in cleaning jewellery. 
^^4^ mesh, sheep. Especially dumbas. 
^*i^ mai^Ai, pregnant. 
^^J^ mika^A, to mew. 
y^ megar, flock of sheep. 
Jj^ mel, meeting. SL 
jyiJJ?^ menthayA, wet. 
jH:^ mainar, a kind of grass. 
y^>^ minhav, a tree. The wild horseradish tree^ 
j»^*>« maivar, a bush, (Ghetoia viilota ?). 
}^^ mevo, a chief, leader. 
V*^ meva, fruit. P. 
AyA^ meh, peg. P. meM. 
j^Jj^ mehar, flock of sheep. 
^_5Vfe^ mehi, buffalo. Si. 
^/i-*^ main, my. See mani. 





^^^^ a^- 

1880.] TOCABTTLABT. 121 

^ n&, not, (on — , in composition). 
C^^ nd-baliyA, minor. 
*^^ na-paid, uncommon. 
»];J^ ni-durdh, ill. 
^^f^^ na-sahi, unknown. 

U«I^U ni-k&m&f helpless, under compulsion, 
^i-^s'^ n4-laik, imworthy. 
^J^ ni-wash, unhappy. 
^^;i^^ nichiken, a little. 
^i/^^ niA;Aun, nail. P. 
j^^ nikho, uncle (paternal). 
I^^^U n^hozikhif cousin. (Paternal uncle's son.) 
fij^ n&raffh, v., p.p. ndri^Aa, to groan. 
J^ ndz, s. a horn (to blow). 
J^ ndz, pleasant, pretty. P. 
j^/^ ndzbo, sweet scent. P. 
u^'^ ndzuk, delicate, tender. P. 
^j^^ n4sh, snufE. Si. nas. 
^^ n&fa^A, the navel. P. ndf. 
^J^ n41, horse shoe. A. 
f^ n&m, name. P. 

am-n4m, namesake. 
^^ n&n&, maternal grandfather. Si. 
^^^ ndni, maternal grandmother. Si. 
t%J)^ ndvarish, anything eaten as a relish with bread. 
^ nabi, prophet, A. 

^ napt, s. lightning. (Met.) a gun. (P. naft, naphtha.) 
hjyi^ niptira^A, v., p.p. nipi&ra^Aa, to wring. Si nipuyanu. 
*1r^ nuth, 8. face. 

na^MnboM, b. bedclothes; clothes given by a host to a 

122. TOOkBULAXi. [Extara No. 

^^ ^"^ naHif , slave. 

^*^ nvidhsLkh, lemon-grass, (tymbcpo^on itoaraneusay 

ji nar, male. P. 

j^ nar, fife, pipe. Si. nan. 
fy narm, soft. P. 

jfjy nirwdr, justice, decision of a disputed case. Si. nirwara. 
mMj^ narydn, a horse (m.). 

ihrj* naz-khanayA, v. to close, bring together. 

imSji nazi, ) 

} near. P. nazdik, nizd. 
^.y naziH, ) 

jLwo nish&r, brother's wife ; daughter-in-law. Skr. snushi 

Pashto, nzhor. 
^Lmo nishan, mark, standard. P. 
^^xsi«"'» nishtejani, bedding. 

^KkXm^ nisbtaina^A, to spread out. Causal of nind^A. 
^■■^*^ nasbk, mark, sign, distinction. A. naqsha. 
*^ niy^Ah, sight, show. P. nigdh. 
^j^ nuyAur. See noyAar. 
l;^ nuyAra, silver. P. nukra. 
^■^i;*^ nuyAraend, of silver. 
4y*^ nay^an, bread. P. n&n. 
J^ niyAor, side, direction. 
t**>*^ niy^osha^A. See nigosbay** 

^ nafd, profit. A. nafa*. 
j^**^^ nafusH, stepdaughter. 

ir^ nukrd, white (of a horse). P. 
^j^ nikra^A, to separate, part (intr.). 
O^ nakl, imitation, copying. A. naqL 

nakl-khanayA, to imitate. 
*f^ nakh, ) old woman. 
y^ nakho, j ditto. 
^^ nigdh, care. P. 
^u »Ki nigdhbini, carefulness. 

1880.] TOCABULABT. 123 

^jXi nigosha^^y to listen, attend. Of. Pashto, nyAwatal. 

p.p. nigoshtha. 
^^ nali, 8. the forearm. 6i. nari. 

phaJ^-nali, the shin. 

^^j*i nali, s. the barrel of a gun. Si. 
^Uj namdsh, prayers. P. namdz. 

jJ^ nambo, the btii plant, Orotalaria hurhia, 
^j;^ nambi, s. fresh feeling in the air after rain. 

^-^^ namak, in namak-hardm, traitor. F. 

*^^ nanvidna, pattern. P. 

<*-^ nang, honor, dignity. P. 

jKii nangdr, plough. 

nangar bahay^, to plough. 
c«XU ninda^A, v., p.p. nishtha, to sit, dwell, stay. 

P. nishastan, nisbin. Pashto, ndstal. 

er-nindayA, to sit down. 
^«*'ly nawds2i^A, grandson, granddaughter. P. nawdsa. 
1^ nawdshi, to-morrow. 

nawdshi-begd, to-morrow evening. 
JIyi nawi», perhaps. 
^jiyy nautire», a game resembling gobang, played on a board. 
^y no^^, new. The new moon, the moon. P. nau. 
^^ nauA:^, a bride. Pashto, nave. 


^y> nawad, felt. P. namda. Pahl. namad. 

iy^ nodhy rain clouds, rain. 

j^ nor, mungoose, ichneumon. S. noru. 

IjjJ ntira, silver. 

J^ navz, pulse. A. nafs. 

"7 . ^ ' J nineteen. P. 
**V-^ mizdah, ) 

^yi noy^ar, 

or ^ skirt of the hills. 
j^ nuyAur, 

124 YOOASiTLABT. [Extra No. 

uJ^i nok, beak of a bird. P. 
^ji naukar, eervant. P. 
^^y naukari, service. P. 
Ai nahy no, not. P. 
** nuh, nine. P. 
j^ nahar, canal. A. 
0j^ nuhram, ugly. 

nahniat, intention. A. 
nuhmi, ninth. 

S^ I now. P&zand non. Pashto nan. 
iU^ nii»,) 

o3^Ai njdJ^A, v., p.p. nj&stha., to post, establish, appoint. 

P. nib&dan. 

f^ nj&m, middle. P. mijdn. 

ny&ma, in the middle. 

K^^ nyimji, one who goes between, arbitrator. 

^VjJ nj4ma^^, middling, in the middle. 

^lyll^i nyanw^, in the middle, in (from ny&m&). 

vJ^xJ niyat, object, desire. A. 

^ ne^^, good. P. nek. 

neMen du'&, prayer. 

\^yt^ nermosh, noon (for nem-rosh). P. nem-roz. 

j^ nir, s. roast meat. 
P^ neza^^, spear. P. neza. 

Ai nestd, ) 

> was not. 

i> nesta/^. 


^jbf^^ nesten, is not. 
^ICLmOj nestk&r, poor, destitute. P. 
s^^^ nesh, tooth. (Si. Pashto, ne^h, tusk.) 
j**iJ neyA&r, in the direction of. See nemy^. 
S^ n6kah, marriage ceremony. A. nik&h. 
^^ nila^A, blue. 
^ nem, half. P. 

1880.] TOCABITLABT. 125 

nem-rdhy halfway, 
nem-shaf, midnight. 
^^ nemay^y hutter. 

^^b^ nemyAd, in the direction of, towards. 
%sjy*^ nimon, lemon. A. 

^^ nen, no, not. 
. ^^ nina, modern, belonging to the present time, 
nina-vakhat, now-a-dajs. See ni. 

J w. V. 

• \ like, resembling. 

«t^i^ wAjh, ) 

J^J w^. (In composition) eater. P. khor. 
mar-wdr, man-eater, 
shir-w&r, suckling. 
\j^jtj wiris, heir. A. MV&nth, 
I; I; w&zh&, lord, master, sir. P. Hwaja. 
diy^dr-w&zhd, landlord, 
loy^-wdzha, goodman. 
y^^ T^kgu, a large lizard, alligator. (S. v4ghti, alligator.) 
^h ^^9 that very one. S. 
^1; wdm, debt. 
^li^I^ wimddr, debtor. 
Irib^b v&nij-y&par^ give and take, buying and selling (uncom- 
mon.) SL 
1*^1; w&ndd, leisure. Si. w&ndo. 
gj'^ w&nayA, v., p.p. wdntha, to read. P. Hw&ndan. 
^'^ w&hti, outcry, the alarm. 

^^; wabdh, cholera. (Ar. wabi, pestilence.) 
^i) wapsa^A, v., p.p. waptha., to sleep. P. Hufban, £&usp. 
'^j wat, wick. Si. vati. 
V; watt^, stone. Panj. 
^^j vitthiy space, interval. Si. vithi. 

126 TOCABULABT. [Extn No. 

^j wtJhy self, ooeself . P. kkud. 8kr. swad-ija. 
^^j wtUhi, one's own, own, 
^^^^^ Ttkkht time. Ar. waqt. 

^j wa4> increase. 
C^'^J yadaina>^A, to increase. Panj. ya^iwan. 
%^)d^ yadri, leather strap. Si. TadhL 
ssA vadri, bribery. SL Ta4hL 

0; waJA. See v&j wa/A, selt P. Jchxdi^ 
^di^ wtudhif birth. 

waJM khana.^^, to foal. 
^ji)} warbariya, excellently, stoutly. 
'^j^ wardy food. 
h)) wara^A, v., p.p. wiLrtha, imp. bawar, to eat, drink. 

F. ^Aurdan. Skr. hyar. 
^j) wama, youth, young man. P. bami. 
}jy ward, beam. SL waro, rafter. 
^^J) waraina^^, causal of wara^A, to feed. 
^j^} was, strength. Si. wasu. 

be-was, helpless. 
j*^^ wasar, wild onion. See whasar. 
cMm^ wastad, master of a subject, skilful P. ustid. 
^^)j***) wasarzakht, brother-in-law. Cf* P. ifcAosar, zida. 
s^j^^ wasarik, father-in-law. P. ^Ausar. 
^J*^3 wasarij4, in front, foremost. 

f^} wasam, inhabited. Si. wasanw. 
^^j wasi, mother-in-law. P. khusii Skr. 9va9rd. 
^^ wash, sweet, happy. P. A;Aush. Skr. swddu. 
^_5^^ washki, male of any beast of chase. 
^^^ washi, sweetmeats. 

k^^ vakil, agent. A. 

« ' j creaper. Si. vali. 
^^ yaldn,) 

^} yanni, bride. SL 

1880.] TOOABITLABT. 127 

^J vanni, name of a plant. 

^j yanijayA, v. to yield up. 
pli>> vinjaina^A, v. to spoil. Si* yinjiinn. • 

c\Aj y^hAdh or wahi^A, salt. 

J^j whar, dirty, foul. P. khor. 

^J^) whan, tray, dish. P. ifc^wan. 

jU^ whdv, sleep. P. khwih. Z. qafna, 

1^} whard, food. P. 
j^*^) whasar, the wild onion, Allium rubellium. A. 
^J^^ veB, clothing. Si. vesu. 

Hj veld, time. Si. velo. 
^ti J vehi, street. Panj. 


^j^^ hdji, pilgrim. A. ^l^. 
^^* hikh, earth, clay. P. khak. 
Jf^^ hai^ir, heart. Ar. khitir, 
j^J^^ h&TB^h, dates. P. Harik. 
j)^ hdzir, present, Ar.^t*.. 
yj*^ hash, double tooth. (Cf. Pashto gUih). 

^^ ha^^d, awake. 

J^ hil, circumstances, new. A. Jt^. 

haU dai ! give the news ! 
^y^fc halwar, conversation. 
^^ h&mayA, raw, unripe, uncooked. P. kh&m, 
^J^ h&n, kh&n, chief. P. khiin, 
^*i,Iaa habasi, (ij^ 'abbdsi), an eight-anna piece. 
j^ habar, discussion, conversation. P. khsbskr. 
ff^ habka^A, v. to stutter. Si. habak. 
^^ {^ hapt, seven. P. haft. 


C^ haptayA, a week. P. haftfi. 

128 TOOABULABT. [Extn No. 

^^S {fc haptamiy seyentb. P, 

Jxx hatar, danger, apprehension. Ar. ^Aa^ar. 

Iiat, shop. SL'hatu. 

hdkth, the wild olive, Olea euspidata, P. zaitdn. 

^ huch, horse's hough. Si. khuch. 

yff^ hachho, thus, so. P. 

^«* hachi, any. Often contracted to *chi. P. hech. 
• •• 
Pji*^ hadira^A, to chop up. 

S^ ha4, bone. Si. ha^u. Pashto, ha^. 

^^<3^ hi^ki, hiccough. Si. hidiki. Pashto hafkaL 

»^'«X» hadhii, ) 



j^fcXA hvidhen, then. 

j^ hir, a young male camel up to six months. 
j^ har, every, each. P. 

har-do, both. 

har-ranga, of every kind. 

har-ro, daily, always. 

har-s&l, every year. 

har-kas, every one. 

har-ki, every thing that — , each. 

har-vaA;At&, ) 

J always, 
har-vela, ) 

har-hand^, everywhere. 

j^ hur, adv. apart. 

hur-jana^7«, to drag apart. 

Vr?r^ barb, jawbone. 

cJ^ bartil, arsenic. (Si. hart&lu, yellow orpiment.) 

ij^j^ hartel, large saddle bags. 

^^/^j^ hurjin, saddle bags. P. iAurji. 

*--^5^ hirdik, squirrel. 

oUj^ bardhdt, metal Skr. dhdtu. 

^/^* hirs, avarice. A* 

1880.] TOOASITUBT. 129 

^^j^ harsha, J 

^ j^ harra^^A, 8. an infirm person. 
^ j^ harrayA, 8. a saw. 
'*-ir* harf , letter. Ar. 
%Ci]ycj^ harmzida, bastard, ecoondrel. A. P. 
^yi^ hamoli, dhatura. 

^!^ harw&r, a measure of oom containing nearly 10 maunds 
Indian weight. P. ibAarwir. 

Y^ \ naad (of dogs), 

vi^ harriya, ) 

^j^ hazbdah, eighteen. P. 

j^j^ bizbgar^ anywhere. 

yj'^ has, an ornament, a ^* bassi*' or silver necklace. Si. hasu. 

c^^-^A hastal, mule. 

d^^^ basht, eight. P. 
y^^ bushtur, cdmel, (the generic term). P. shutur. 

Skr. ushtra. Brahui hueb. Zend, ustra. Pasbto iah. 
^^AXm^to basbtumi, eighth. 

C^* husha^A, p.p. busbtha, to dry (intr.). 
^-^A* busbk, dry. P. Husbk. Skr. 9U8hkd. Z. buska. 

busbken 4o4> skeleton. 
^j^^^ bisbki, scarlet. 
^»S^ bak, rights. 
sj^ bakal, drawing. 

^^ bakalayA, t., p.p. hakala^Aa, to drive, to urge on. 
Ja bukm, (A. ^ukm), order, 
c)^ bal, melting ; bal bia^A, to melt, thaw. 
cU bil, a kite. Si. 
^^Xa hulas, free. P. khxiMA, 
v£JiA balk, village, collection of huts. (Cf. Ar. Malk, Malkat.) 

«H^* baleJA, spices. 
^>j^ baleni, adv. undoubtedly. 
A*.U4A bamb^ha, ammunition pouch. Si. bamb^ho. 

180 TOCABiTiiBT. [ExfcraNo. 

^U^ hamb&r, a collection of corn, and enclosure round it. 

P. ambdr. 
liy^ humodhi, there, in that very place. 
IcUaA htLmedh&, here, in this very place. 
^jri^ hamesh, this very one. 

hameshiya phar, on this account. 
^* han, neighing, whinnying. 

han-khana^A, to neigh, whinny. 
t^j^F*"^ hinjri, the shoulder-blade. See bardast. Si. hanjbi. 
ji^^ hinjir, fig. (P. anjir.) 
^^tif*^ hanohho, thus, so. P. 

*^ hand, s. place, dwelling. (P. ifcAdna.) (Si. handhu.) 

handi, in place, instead, 
thi-handd, elsewhere, 
har-handd, everywhere. 
hech-hand&, anywhere, 
hech-handd nei», nowhere, 
handiyi, somewhere. 
ya-hand&, in one place, together, 
fa-hand, fire-place, 
zahm-hand, scar of a sword .wound. 
c3AA, hind, bitch. 
^jAib hindi, weapon. 
^tXXA handaina^A, to be useful. 
j^ hunar, skill. 
^Oa hinka^A, to neigh. 
^^•^ hangar, charcoal. (Of. Sindhi aft^aru.) 
^ISXA hingalo, variegated. (Si. hinguld vermilion.) 

j^ hau, yes. 
^^y^ haw4n, that. (P. ham-in.) 
^r^ly^ haw&nkar, as much as that. 
^'^ hawdngo, thither. 
»^y^ hot, hero, warrior. 

1880.] YOCABVLABT. 131 

«V* hand, tank. Ar. 

^dy^ havdah, seventeen. P. 

;b sjj^ hodaddr, official (for P. uhdad&r). 

^j^ hod, hole, cave, den. 

Jj^ haur, rain. Si. horu. 

)^ hor, ^ 

^jy^ horg, > empty. 

^j^Jy^ horgin, ) 

^jb^jiy^ horjin. See hurjin. Saddle bags. 

VJ*>* hosh, sense. P. 

C^j^ hosha;^^, 8. an ear of corn. (P. X^Aosha.) 

J^j^ hoshydr, skilful. P. 

**— *^ hauf, leprosy ; a severe illness, violent fever. 

JyA hoi, ) . . «. 

4 I } armour, accoutrements. Bi« 

Kj'Ji uy^ hol-posh, ) 

• fy^ hom, the air-plant. 

ttJ!^ hon, blood. P. Mun. 

^^/^X^ hawesh, this, this one. 

^r^ hawen, adj. this. 

^^ ^ See hi^Aishk. 

^* hai, or. 

hai hai, either, or. (P. ifcAw&h, khw&h,) 

^* hay&, shame. A. 

be-hay^ shameless. 

"^ hait, camePs pack-saddle. 

hith, green corn, khasil. P. ^Aawid. 

4*V* hech, any. P. 

^jff^ hechi, anything, 

nothing, none, not at all. 

hechi na, | 

'chi na, ) 
^ft hikh, swine. P. Hdk. 

ty^ hedhy sweat. (Skr. svid. P. pa-sina.) 
* iXjJb hidAishk, the khip bush^ Orthanthera viminea. 

132 TOCABm^KT. [Extra No 

j^ hir, a honri. (Ar, \y(a.) 

j^ hair, welfare, (Ar. £Aair.) 

hair khana^A, to salute, 
ma-hairi, all's welL 
^^/i* hirin, dish, plate. 
*tir^ hirth, fine, thin. 

*>4* haiza, cholera. 
'T^jb^ hizhoAA, a waterfall. 
^^^ hes, rust, dirt. 

J** hil, hope. 
^JJ^^ heliLk, tame, subdued, accustomed. Si. heraku. 
*^y^ hilwand, hopeful. 

}^ hinz, a leather chum. 

hinzar matha^A, to churn. 

**f* hina, weak. Si. hi^o. 

**v^ ydzhdah, eleven. P. 
i^c^^ri yazhdumi, eleventh. P. 
f*!^ jatim, orphan. A. 
^^fi:^ jakin, certain. A. 
**^ yak, one. P. 

yak.&ptiyi, one another, 
yake, only one. 
yake-chy&r, fourfold, ^ 
yake-sai, threefold, ) 
f;^^ *k yala dea^^A, to let loose. See ^d ^f ila^A deayA 
Pashto, yalah. 
|;W yamdr&, for ever. See jam4ra. 
^ ya, one. Cf . Pashto yau, yavah. 
ya-badl, at once, 
ya-bare, once. 
ya-rang&, of one sort, 
ya-handiky in one place, together. 





The Wanderings of the Rind Balochts, 

[This poem is very widely spread, and I have met with it in almost 
every Baloch tribe. The versions differ very slightly. The present one, 
as the dedication in the last two lines shows, was recited to Jaldl Khin a 
former Chief of the Le^^dris. Another version, from a Gui'chdni Dom, 
similarly brings in the name Nihdl Kh&n, The poem is probably of consi- 
derable age ; it is very elliptical in expression, many of the grammatical 
forms are antiquated, and the versification is loose and formless. It gives 
the legendary accoont of the Wanderings of the Baloches before they 
settled in the countries they now inhabit, distinguishes the tribes entitled 
to rank as Binds from those not so entitled, and concludes with a catalogue 
of their leaders.] 

Shukr All&b hamdd guz&ri 

badshdh mulka wsithen 
Thi jihan kh&k o gilo bi 

Heku nindo wash-dila. 
M4 aul^ Mir Hamzai^^-tin 

Sob dargahd gur en 
Azh Halaba iph&dh kbayd;! 

go jazizdn jheroen 
Masard Miren Jaldl H&n 

chhil-o-chyar bolak en 
Kalabald Bomptir ma-nydnwan 

shahr Shist&n mizile 
Khikht^Ln Hdrina bandd 

Kech r&sten phalawd 


Makur&nd Hot nindi 

Khosay^ man Kech-dehi 
Azh Halab& Ch&ndijeffhi 

Kalamtbi e Xo^h pha-garoM 
Jo mitdf bahr-khanana 

Kul sarddr Sbaihak en 
Ma» Nalijd Nob nindi 
Jistkdni pba-g^efi 
Phuzh, Mirali, Jatoi 

Drust ma» Sevi pba^ari 
Prisbak Khin, Maz4ri 

E go Bind^ jagsar en 
Azh bunyada Phuzh Rinde 

Bar go Mir en Chdkur en 
Golo, GopAng, Dashti 

Bind thalijd dar-ant 
Thi Baloch h&z bishdre;» 

Drust man Binda manahi 
Nashk-daur pha Gorgezdn 

E man Thalijd deh& 
Nob korii iwiren 

E go BindA yagsaren 
Bindi.n man Shor&n nindi 

Liuibar man GanddvayA en 
E mani per& o rand en 

E Balocba daptar en 
M& dedn si sal jangA 

E Balocba sbiddat en 
Sbaihak o Sbdhd^ d^ni 

Las sarddr Chdkar en 
Ghhil hazdr kb^ Mir gw^khi 
ThewayA&n ^Ade-potar en 
noI«>po8h dast-kaUyd 

Drub khawan o jdbah en 
Path pechA go khawd 

Pb^A Idlen mozbayA en 
K&rch kdtar nuy^raeni 

Past mundri tbangaven 
Bakar o Gwabardm B&mena 

Zar-zuw&l No^^A banda^A en 
Phuzb&n Jaro jaur-jawdv en 
Hadden Dine ht&dhaa en 

1880.] BALocnf XiANGUAes. 135 

Pheroz o Bijar Beh&n 

Mirdn Binddit zahm-jan en 
Sohb&, Mihan, Alf, 

Jam, Sah&k o Alan en 
Haivt&A Bivara^A man Rinddn 

Mir Hassan go Brahim en 
Shin ki sheran jori 

Mir Jalal H&n uur'phsidh en. 

Thanks and praise to God ; himself he is Lord of the land. When 
the rest of the word becomes dust and claj, alone He remains with serene 

We are the offspring of Mir Hamza; victory is in the worship of 
Ood. From Halab do we arise, there are fights with the unbelievers. 
Foremost is Mir Jalal Khkn^ there are four and forty tribes. By stages 
(we march) from Kalabald (Earba]a ?) to Bomptir and the cities of Sistdn, 
We came to Harun's band, on the right side of Eech. The Hots settle 
in MakdLn, the Khosas in the land of Kech. From Halab come the 
Ch&ndyas, near the home of the Kalamtbis. Dividing out running water 
and dry land, the chief of all is Shaihak. 

In Nali the Nohs settle, close to the Jistkdnis. The Phuzhes, 
Miralis and Jatois, all in Sevi and phddar. The Drishaks, Kh&ns and 
Mazaris are one with the Rinds. In origin the Phuzhes are Rinds, they 
were with Mir Chdkar. The Golos, Gopdngs and Dashtis are outside the 
Rind circle (dish). The other very numerous Baloches are all included in 
the Rinds. Distinguished for wealth among the Gorgezes are those in the 
country of Tliali. The Nohs and Eorais are mixed together, they are one 
with the Rinds. The Rinds settle in Shor4n, the Lashdris in Ganddva. 
This is our foot-print and track, this is the Baloch record. For thirty 
years we are engaged in battle, this is the Baloch struggle. 

In the time of Shaihak and Shdhdad, Cbakar was chief of the whole. 
Forty thousand come at the Mir's call, all descendants of one ancestor. 
All with armour upon their forearms, all with bows and quivers ; with silk 
scarves and overcoats, and red boots on their feet; with silver knives and 
daggers, and golden rings on their hands. There were Bakr and Gwaharam 
and Ramen, and the gold-scattering No^^AbandayA. Of the Phuzhes was 
Jaro, venomous in reply, and Hadde his brother by religion. There were 
Pheroz, Bijar, Rehan, and Miran, the swordsman of the Rinds. There 
were Sohba, Mihdn, Ali, Jam, Ishak and Alan ; Haibat H^n and BivarayA 
of the Rinds, and Mir Hassan with Br4him. 

It is the poet that composes the songs, and Mir JaUU Khktx compre- 
hends them. 

136 sPECTic^KB OF THE [Eztn Na 


Poems relating to Mir Chdkar. 

Mir Cliakar is the great legendary hero of the Bind Baloches. He is 
represented as having led them into the countries they now occupy from 
Makrdn, and as having founded a kingdom with its capital Sevi (Slbi). 
He waged war with the Turks under Hum&ii Chu^Aatt^ On the civil war 
between the Rinds and Lashdris breaking out, the Turks under their leader 
Zund joined the Kinds, and the Lash&ris were defeated. The Turks seized 
the Lashdri women, but released them on the expostulation of Chdkar, 
who said that Baloches would be disgraced by being accomplices in such a 
deed. At one time Chdkar was a prisoner to Humdti, who called him up 
and asked him " What is the best of all weapons ?" Chakar replied, ** Any. 
thing that a man can lay hold of in a fight.*' The king then had Chakar 
brought unarmed into a narrow street, and a savage elephant turned loose 
at the other end. As it rushed upon Chakar, he caught up a dog that wai 
lying in the road, and threw it in the elephant's face with such violeDce 
that it turned and fled. Chakar is said to have founded the old fort at 
8ibi, which he ultimately abandoned at the end of the civil war on his way 
to the Fanjdb. His name has been given to several places in Balochistin, 
among them Chdkar-mdri ' Chdkar's upper storey,' a hill near Sangsila in 
the Bugti country, from which he is said to have taken his last look back at 
8ibi. This is a physical impossibility, but Chdkar watf a ' godlike man* 
(HuJAdi mard), and could do things which the present generation is not 
capable of. Another place, named after him, is Chdkar Tankh ' Chakar's 
defile' in the Marri country. 

It is difficult to say how far any part of Chdkar's adventures are 
historical. Baloches began to arrive at Multdn and the neighbourhood 
from Makrdn in the time of Hussain Langd, towards the end of the 15th 
century. (Briggs' Ferishta, Vol. IV, p. 388.) Soon afterwards came one 
whose name is transliterated by Briggs Meer Jakur Zund, which should 
probably be Mir Chdkar Rind. He obtained a jdgir in Uchh from Jam 
Bdyazid (lb. p. 396). 

This Mir Chdkar is said to have come from Solypur, but I have not 
been able to discover this place. This was about 1520 A. D. Aboat the 
same time we find Baloches in the Pan jab as far north as Bahrah and 
Khushdb on the Jehlam. (Erskine's Baber, p. 256.) 

This irruption of Baloches into the Panjdb was probably caused by 
the pressure on them of the Turks or MuyAals who were then under the 
Ar^huuB invading Eachhi and Sindh. Shdh Beg, son of Zulmiin B<^ 
Ar^^tin, took Sibi first in A. D. 1479 and a second time about A. D. 1511- 
This occupation may have been the cause of Chdkar's emigration. Shih 

1880.] BALOoni lab^gttagb. 187 

Beg made Sibi his capital for some time, and it is probable that he and not 
Ciiakar really built the old fort there (Erskine's Baber and Humayun. Ed. 
1854, Vol. I, pp. 342, 347, 348.) There is no record of any collision 
between Humdyiin and the Baloches except during his flight in A. D. 1543, 
^hen he seems to have been plundered by them in the Boldn Pass. (Baber 
and Humayun, Vol. II. p. 266) and again fell in with them between Kan- 
dahar and Sistdn (p. 271). This is perhaps sufficient for the introduction 
of bis name into the legends. Zunti, the Turk leader, perhaps stands for 
Zulnon Beg in whose name Shah Beg fought. 

The Quarrel of Mir Chdkar and Owahardm. 

[This poem also seems from its language to be an old one. It de- 
Bcribes the causes of the division between the Kinds and Lasharf s, the two 
sections into one of which all true Baloches fall. Tlie Einds were under 
Cbakar, the Lashdris under Gwahardm. Finally Chdkar in disgust emi- 
grated to the Panj&b, and settled at Satghar in the Lahore District, where 
be died and is said to be buried.] 

Eilati Haviv. gushi : Sari Bind Ohnlim Bolak gushi : Chdkar Gwaha- 
rdm Karakutan gushi: Gohar bdutiyd kharde gdl gushi: philave;i 
d-sal-jang gushi. 

Ydd khandn ndme Ildhi 

man awwal sar-ndva^Ad» 
Haidar o phusht o phandh 

sar hazrate dMir-zamd^ 
Biyd lori go sawahd 

zir mani guftdrayAdn 
Bar gwara belan dileyAd 

no saldti hr&dhsj'&n, 
Mangehd Rinda pha Bompur 

£ech ha^he Makuran 
Mastaren lo^h Domki en 

ma^i Balochi meravdn 
Rind Lashdri dwdrd 

trdn bastha pha-wa^Ad^ 
* BiydeM, Bhedh& biladiu^j 

bilun giydfen ulkahdit 
Jo mitdfd bi-kafun 

bahr-khantin hi pha wsUh&n. 

188 8YECI1I1IN8 OF THS [ExfanNo. 

Baji rini ktuih ma lekun ' 

hiy&khth&n da» lo^h githtM 
Hukmi tonde naiS:^ifait 

nokh khu/Aantesh idimin 
Bozh borin bdra^Aena 

kotwdni andara 
Saj khane bazen bihdna 

nuh-hazari markbavan 
Bij&run bagdn g^rdayAend 

azb Nalija kbaur dafi 
Gwdnkb-ja/Aa jodhan bi ki^^ 

* er-kbafe azb Cbaju& 
Kbasb gdli o palangi 

jbul subren kamalan 
Bauf morbanden libefan 

bingaloen manjavdn 
8ikb o iis&n bijoren 

Makurani kadahiLfi 
Obakuri deb na nindi. 

ro wa^Al diren amil4». * 
PbosbiMa Bind&n wa^/ii dif 

pba kbawab o sbaddav^ 
Vhidh 14len mozbayAd» 

Eind kasa^Aant pba Derav&fi 
pba^ar o Sevi gwdftba 

Dan Jhal o Nilah4 dafi, 
Hab, Phab, Mob, Mali 

dan Nali kbaur daf4 
Gaj sbabra bastbayAend 

Dan Mar&gaho dehd 
Sangar o kbob Sulemi 

GwdftbayAcn sber-nar&n 
8ang Mundahi dhanij& 

Pan p£ bi Methir^ 
B^Acbaen Kacbo Sima 

Dan Dbari o Bbanar& 
Nangare Bijdr tbeyAa 

Jam Sulemdna lar&. 
Gobar baati ki aMtba 

gwar Nawave Chdkuri 
* M&l mani othija bag en 

hande phe-d&re manin* 


Ch&kari dir-zinayAen& 

gwash bi dturren Gohari 
' Barav o SoriLn jo& 

Kacbriki pbalavi, 
He-miund bagi^ bicbareft, 

nind be-anden ebafa.' 
Bosb azh Gwaharam sbabra 

raf fcbayAant kbarde cbari&» 
B&rayAen hor&n zawarant 

pba Bbikdr o sailabdn. 
Hir kbusbthant jafta^Aiyi 

pbar wa^^i laf-serib&it 
Baj bunda^Aant hazdii 

azb du-demi zidDeb& 
Kabravd tbek4» khawatbant 

pba hsLdhen kirdara^^an 
'Sbin-guri Gwabardm theffhi 

'sbdn-gurd Mir Cbakuri 
Pbilaven si siA jang Ath 

Gobara bir pbaiA& 
Sar galoi bdiMa^Aanti 

nesb riMtbant azb dafa 
Mard di ekbawd di isbtba 

pba Undhbi asura 
Qu^i Soltdne Balocba 

sabl kbu^Aa bi pba wa^Aan 
Cbakur azb bri/Ai gasur^. 

Gwastba Satte» Gbarte. 


Eilati son of Habib says : to tbe lofty Gbulim Bolak Binds be says i 
about tbe quarrel between Cbakar and Gwabardm be says : of the refuge* 
taking of Gobar in few words be says : of full tbirty years war be says as 
follows : 

First I remember tbe name of God, my morning-star of old ; lord 
and support and protector to tbe most illustrious prophet. 

Come minstrel at early morn, learn my sayings and carry tbem to tbe 
friends of my heart, and tbe assembly of my brethren. 

Tbe bold Kinds came to Bompilr, to Kecb and fertile Makrin, the 
greatest family was the Domki in tbe Balocb assemblies. 

Tbe Binds and Lasb&ris met togetheri they took counsel among 

140 SPECIMENS OF THE [Extra No. 

themBelves. " Come, let us inarch hence, let us leave these widespread 
lands. Let us conquer streams and dry lands, and deal them out among 
ourselves. Let us take no count of rule or ruler." 

They came to their own homes. The chiefs (turhan- wearers) ordered 
their slaves to saddle their young nuwes. " Loose the slender chestnut 
(mares) from their stalls, saddle the numerous fillies, steeds worth nine- 
thousand each. Let us hring in herds of camels from round ahout, from 
the mouth of the torrent of Nali." The men called to the women " Come 
down from Chajti, take out your wrappings and beds, carpets and red 
blankets, pillows, and spotted rugs, and many-coloured bedsteads, moulded 
cups in abundance, and Makrdni drinking vessels. Ch&kar will not stay in 
this country, he will go to his own far land." 

The Binds clothed their bodies in overcoats and turbans, with red 
boots on their feet. The Binds were distinguished for hospitality. 

They called together Dhadar and Sevi, in Jhal and the mouth of the 
Nilah ; Hah, Fhab, Moh and Mali in the mouth of the Nali torrent. They 
stayed at the city of Gdj in the land of Mar^Lgah. The tigers of men 
assembled Sangar and the Sulaiman mountains, the rulers of Sang and 
Munddhi became payers of tribute to our chief. 

In the boundaries of fertile Kachhi, in Dhari and Bhanar. There waa 
generous Bijar with his scimitar, and the leader Sulaiman with his sword. 

Gohar came for refuge with the Nawib Chdkar, saying '* Show me a 
place for my cattle, and herds of camels.'* The far-seeing Ch^kar said to 
the fair Gohar '' Go to the streams of Shorau in the direction of KachraL 
There stay at ease with your herds of camels, and have no anxietj by 

One day some madmen went forth from Gwahardm's city, they were 
mounted on fine chestnut (mares), for the sake of hunting and exercise. 

They killed a pair of young camels (of Gohar's), to fill their bellies 

The chief fell into a great rage (lit. rage of a thousand), on both sides 
damage was done. A curse falls upon the wicked, upon the doers of evil 
On this side was Gwahardm with his sword, on that side Mir Chakar. 
For full thirty years war continued about these young camels of 6K>har*& 
All the excellent youths have been slain, the teeth have dropped from their 
mouths, and God's mercy has spared us only. Then the Baloch rulers made 
peace among themselves, and Chdkar on account of this feud among 
brethren passed away to Satghar. 



CMkar'i denunciation of hi* foet on leaving Sthi. 

Chdkar Shaihak gushi : sari Bind BMshah gusbi : in rosh ki Sevi 
kkili kharde g&l gushi : GwaharamiLr phasave d&th gushi. 

BiULit mar-law4shen Sevi 
Gaure» asidhsaa margdvi 
J4me Nindavd bhattij^ 
Sai-roshan Bahar&m neghi 
Si-sill uvt o uzhmird 
J&n-jebhavdn jangiyd 
TheyA azh balgavil honend 
Chotdn cho kamdndi hoghin 
Jnkht&n na nashant Urena 
Waraaydn du-man^ilend. 
Lad ma ier&Y&n na rusthaut 
Misk ma hsLrdt&n na mushthant 
Whard dumbag^in meshani 
Karwdli shardb sbarr joshant 
Shihdn pha nish&n jakhe nest 
Drustan wdrtha^A^n hindijan 
Shartdn dithsiffhin sbimenin 
Bachaki lawar h&nziji 
Gwabardm muzhen Gandivay^ 
Singhe ma zirih phirentha 
Machiya lawdshtba lanjaith 
Ali o Wali drub-d£r£» 
Yaki kildta berone» 
Hi^A kavali Turkdnd» 
Bind bara^^en bordnan 
Gwahardm azh dude haude hi 
Ne Gor hi ne GanddvayA. 

Chdkar son of Shaihak says : the exalted Buler of the Rinds says : on 
the day he leaves Sibi these few words he says; in reply to Gwaharam ho 

sajs (as follows) : 

1 will leave man-devouring Sevi, curses on my infidel foes ! For three 
days shall the Jim Nindo from his oven (distribute bread) in honour of 
Bahrdm (slain). For thirty years, for ever shall there be war with these 
gigantic men, nor shall my sword be clean from stains of blood. I will 
bend it like jointed sugarcane, so that through crookedness it will not go 
into the sheath. 

142 IPBGIUE98 09 THi [Extra N«. 

The distinguished (lit. two-turhaned) youths do not rise np to sport 
among the houses, they rnh no scent on their moustaches, but thej eat 
fat-tailed sheep and boil strong liquor in their stills. There is not one of 
them with signs of a ruler about him. They have eaten all their weaponi^ 
they have gambled away their heads, they have children's sticks in their hands. 
Let GwahadLm stay in dusty Gand&va, a stone thrown into a well. Michi 
has drunk blood ; All and Wall are traitors. The rebels' fort has been 
surrounded, and reduced to earth by the tyrannous Turks and the Binds 
on highbred mares (chestnuts). GwahariLm (will be expelled) from both 
pUces, (and possess) neither a grave nor Gand&ra. 


Do9ten and Shiren. 

The legend on which the following poem is based is as follows : 
During the war between Mir Chdkar the Rind leader and Hami6 
ChuyAatt4 king of the Turks {%. e. the Bidshih Hum^ytin), Chikar wis 
forced to consent to give up some Rind maidens to Humid, but actoallj 
sent instead young men in disguise. On this being discovered, they were 
ordered to be kept in perpetual imprisonment in the fort of Hairand. 
Among these prisoners was Dosten. He had been engaged to marry his 
cousin Shiren, who remained faithful to him during hb many years' im- 
prisonment. At last her parents said that she must no longer remain 
unmarried, no hope being left of Dosten's return ; so they found for her 
another husband, also named Dosten. (This is alluded to in line 98, where 
she says ' Not this Dosten, but the old one.') Him she long refused to 
marry, but at last yielded to the pressure put on her, and arrangements 
were made for the ceremony. Meanwhile Dosten in prison at Harraod 
had succeeded in gaining the favour of the MuyAal or Tjfitk Governor of 
the fort, and some liberty was allowed him. His mare had died, bat had 
first borne a fine colt which had grown up, and which Dosten was allowed 
to keep. One day games and races were going on, and Dosten asked and 
obtained leave to join in the raoe« Mounting his horse, he said good-bye 
to the Governor, turned its head towards the Ch&char Pass and went off at 
full speed. Several pursuers followed him, but no horse had the endiiranoa 
of his chestnut. At intervals along the rocky pass they stumbled and fell, 
and these spots bear the horses* names to the present day. At last he was 
left alone, having wearied out all his pursuers, and travelled homewards. 
On nearing his tribe, he overtook a minstrel (Pom or lori). He asked him 
the news, and where he was going. The minstrel told him of the impend- 

1880.] BALocHi LAVatrm. 143 

iDg marriage of Shfren, and said thai he was on his way to sing at the 
wedding. Dosten then told his story and prevailed on the minstrel to 
ebsnge clothes with him. Thus disguised, he made his way into the assem- 
Uj with the other minstrels, and sang the poem which follows, bringing 
m the substance of a message he had received in captivity from Shiren. 
He was immediately recognized by Shiren, who declared that she would 
marry him and no other, and they were happily married then and there. 

In the poem Dosten first begins by saying how his mare could not 
lire in the heat of the plains, and then passes on to say how a Khoria&Oi 
merchant broaght him down Shiren's message, which constitutes the 
remainder of the poem. It begins with an animated description of a 
Nomadic Baloch tribe in the hills moving to fresh pastures after rain, and 
then turns to Shiren weeping in her little hut for her lost lover. Her 
companions try to console her, but she will not be consoled, since he is in 
eaptivity. She then describes how when she wanders over the hills with 
the other Baloch women, according to their custom, she always picks a 
flower for her lover's sake, and ends with a prayer for his safe return home 

Lines 40-44 seem to be an interpolation. They have no connexion 
with the subject matter of the poem. 

Zangi mani badero 

Gwahar&m mani j6m o bel 

Whdntk^ Shihane Shihiye 

SauyAan pha thai rish&n4 
5 'Nokhi'ikhtha^hen mas&n& 

SiyAen gor-khushen sy4b4ri 

Xfa na wiLrth Bib neyA& 

Kikh o Karjalaft Sindepkin 

Lo^i bihir^ DashteyA^n 
10 Loti wt^h-m&h&Ten j^dh&n 

PhitoM dafd m&dh^gor&m 

Pori phur kumiren 4f4 

Suti phuri khaiav4» 

Whdvd U\r& ne\&n 
15 Msfwdp jawin siviren&fi 

Marde ash Hur^n kkhthtk 

he^hir ch&dar o humboeit 

Bdr ro^^Aandni gontith 

Hurjin mai^^^ett bhang&ni 
20 Sarb&r Eandali &ri raiskant 

PhaiyA&m gon-a^Ai Bindini 

^** iPEClMENS OP THK [Extra Xo. 

Tahkiken shaUm Shirene. 

"Nodh&n shanz-ja^^ fiondr^ 

Dasht-o-ddmana Mung&char 
25 Sannija nuy^or humboen 

Por pburant-i amrez&n 

Larzant cho gwandni thikhin 

Chotant; cho kawdndi hoffhin, 

La^i minchtJhsk mildirkn 
30 Meshi buzi wh&nikirin 

Mezhddr Sahdk Yirin 

Bumbar bastha^Aan binukb^n 

Sarbdr lari^^an gwdnechan 

Bhawanar kbandayA o N^gihd 
85 Kbondin pbrusbtba^Aan zardoto 

Lokan pbashavi katariln 

Ki^in go himdre» ]ph&dh&n 

Shirena ja^Aa sr^Aen kul 
Ma Narmukh geaven rejL 
40 Mesb azh draDina ser kha^ 
Buz azb gwirighi lal pbula 
Bind azh msiidhen gandimi 
Fabnwdl azh phanir poDch^ 
Lahri azh gwan phothdM^ 
45 Qvrin* janth dilsaren dL&iy& 
Ziri kadahe metei 
Eo da shakhalen noJkhifi 
Malgor shusthay^n mabliji 
Bandf/A mushi msAgor&n 
50 Khaithi da wa^Ai chyar-kula 
Kull4 darriya bandi 
Shiakanfc thayAard niebthent i 
Jhul pbalav^ leteni 
Dast janth avr barziyd 
55 Khashi nuyAraen ideni 
Era Kamdlti sar zand 
Gindi droshamd herij^ 
Qreffh kbant humiren chhami 
Anzi riBhant pha dramd 
60 Jiffh sar katiki mend 
Much ban jan^ jedi gobdr 

Sharren somaren chhil-o-chy£r 
Bidyant o gwara er-nindant 
Sh&r pbalavi letend 

1880.] BALOCHf LATTGUAQi:. 145 

65 Phursant-i dila o hdld. 

* Pharche khunalat khordema 

8uhreft man mtJph o nil&nd 

Brikh thai bambaye^i danzend' 

GreyA hith, jan4» teUnk d&ih 
70 ' Dir bi/A, o jandn, jawdn e n& 

Dir bi^A, o janan, dir ninde 

Bil&n khunal o khor-demd 

Subrdn man mvikh o nild bant 

Bri^A o bambaven danzen bant 
75 Dost sbume pbakdr nen 

Afimar ki j4na dozwdhd 

Suhra re& darkArd 

Di^Aa barrayAen bad-duajiit 

Tnrkin azb hareb gwdzentba 
80 Ma zar-joshen Arandd sbahrd 

Sunjen isp-tah'alen 14f£.' 

Dting bant janikh Rind&iii 

Malani phadha shef ban. 

Kbdjant khargazi kr£m^n& 
85 NeHen-niyaten gwandilni. 

Maur^ii azb kurmdn sinddn^ 

Phafin gw&ray^i lalphuldn 

Nem jamaven jiyAa jant 

Nem khunal o sar-hoshdfi 
90 Nem pha sammien khaulijd 

Yakhe pha mani niyat& 

Ghi^Ao ma wa^Ai musht khan' 

Ba phusht azh htidhin jaureni 

'Shi^A daz-goh4r je^iyd 
95 Dastdn pha Hxidhi burzdre 

'Alldh ki biydr Malik Dostena 

Sauten samm&en khauliyi 

Eshiyd nd, hawdn oliy& 

Bor pha lammayAan sheriyan 
100 Baro mizilan direna 

Biyar w4zh& amireni 

'Nind'Onyidh phiM-o-md^A&ni 

Dim6 shakhalen bri^Adni 

Rozi hi Malik Dostend 
105 Did&r khasha rozi hi. 

146 ffpscncsvs or thi [Extra No. 


Zang{ is my chief, Qwabar&m my leader and friend, the owner of 
excellent mares. I swear hy your heard, by the new grown hair of joar 
face. My mare, hunter of wild asses, is sad, she will not drink water by the 
Indus, nor eat the reeds and karjal grass of Sind. She longs for the herdi 
of wild asses of the Dasht, she longs for her own pleasant pastures, for the 
female wild asses of the Fhitohh Pass, and the pools fall of fresh water ; 
the sandflies and musquitos irritate her, the vermin will not let her sleep, 
the Mdfwdfi barley is coarse to her. 

A man came from Khor&s&n, his clothes and face dirty ; he brought 
with him loads of madder, saddle-bags of fine bhang, and bales of Eandahir 

He had with him a message from the Rinds, a true greeting from 


The clouds have rained on Kon&r, on the plain and hill-skirts of 
Mungdchar, on the pleasant slopes of Sanni. 

The pools are filled to over- flowing, (the water) trembles like the 
leaves of the gwan-tree {Pistacia khinjuk), and bends like joints of sugar- 
cane. The graziers have g^ven the word to march , the owners of the sheep 
and goats, Mezhdir, Sahdk and Tdr Khdn ; the housewives have tied 
np their bundles, the camel-drivers have loaded their bales. On the hill- 
passes of Bhdwnar and N^g&hii, the yellow camels bend their knees, the 
male camels in long strings, the women with tender feet. Shiien hai 
pitched her fair tent on the wide spreading land of Narmukh.. 

Feed the sheep on dranin-grass, the goats on red-flowered gwin^kf the 
Rinds on wheaten flour, the shepherds on curds, and the Lahiis on gwan- 

She calls her beloved nurse and takes up an earthen cup, she goes to 
the sweet, fresh water, and her handmaiden washes her hair. She combi 
and smooths her hair and comes to her four-sided hut. She closes the 
door of the hut. They plait and spread the matting, and she reclines on 

the carpet. 

She puts her hand into her bag and takes out a silver mirror, rests it 
on her shapely thigh and looks at her houri-like countenance. She weeps 
with her tender eyes, tears drop upon her cheeks and on her variegated 
breast-garment. Her companions and sisters assemble, fair comrades fortj 
and four ; they come and sit down by her, they recline upon blanket^ 
they ask after her heart and condition. 

They say, ** Why are your face and earrings uncleaned, your red and 
blue clothes unwashed, your locks unkempt and dusty?" Weeping, die 
pushes the women away and says, *' Away from here, women, you are not 

1880.] BALOCHf LAVeiTAOS. 147 

good. Awaj ! sit far off ! Let my face and earrings be uncleaned, my red 
and blue clotbes unwashed, my locks tangled and dusty ; I do not want 
you for friends. He who was the friend of my heart, for whose sake I 
should adorn myself, I saw carried off from his native land by evil cursed 
Turks, shut up in the wealthy city of Harraud, within an empty stable. 

The daughters of the Binds form a band, (and wander) following in 
the track of the showers. The vultures come croaking, invoking good 
fortune. Breaking the Maur-flowers from their stems, and plucking the 
red gwdragh flowers, some place them in their boddices and breasts, some 
in their earrings, lower and upper, and some (keep them) for their true 
love's sake. Pluck one for my good luck, and keep it in your closed hand ; 
and, secretly from my bitter foes, my own sister and love says, with hands 
raised up to God. " May Qod bring back Malik Dosten, according to his 
true promise, not this one, but the old one. Swiftly, tiger-like chestnut 
mare, bear him southwards, come by long stages, bring home my noble lord 
to dwell with his father and mother and the assembly of his beloved brethren. 
May Malik Dosten appear, may he appear to my sight. 


The text of this poem is taken from two versions, one recited by a 
Shambani, the other by a Marri. There are some variations which are 
noted below, the Shamb&ni version being marked (a), the Marri version (b). 
The Shambdni version is the base of the text. A fragment marked (c) 
from a Qurch&ni Dom supplies a line or two. 

Lines 10 and 15 are supplied from (c). 

Line 11 is only found in (b) and (c). 

Line 18. For rodhtai&ni (b) reads mehlav&ni 'spices.' 

Line 27. Larzant is from (5). (a) reads drafshant. 

Line 32. For b^ukhin (b) reads godiydn, with the same meaning. 

Lines 40 ii appear to be interpolated. They only occur in (a), which 
contains several passages not in the other version. 

Lines 46^48 are from (b). The whole passage from line 45 to line 57 
is almost identical with one in the poem of Laili and Majntin. Lines 56 
and 57 are from (b). 

(a) reads : * Phullen z^n sar& er-khant 
Gindi azh ^ath o gondf4 

Line 62 is from (b). (a) reads * Hirth jedin chhil o chydr ' 

Line 68. For danzend {b) reads be-zaunk-an, * unornamented.' 

Line 69. For gTe4fh hiih ' weeps' (5) reads zahr girth ' is angry. 

^^^ SPECiiiBirs OP THE [Extra No, 

Line 76 is from (b). 

Line 77 (b) reads ' Suhrdni riir rakhi.* 

Line 79 from (b) (a) reads : 

Turkdn mugbal4i» giptha. 
Between lines 72 and 80 (b) inserts 

Ganjen ispahdn phdr hithtk 
the meaning of which is not clear. Also after 1. 81 (b) inserts, 
BaMta mir janeffhi khushtha 
Dost ispahana boHtha, 
which is equally unintelligible. 

Line 99. For pha ' towards ' (b) reads phalav ' direction.' 
Line 100. From (b) (a) reads : 

Kbosdra dehan direna 

* Swiftly to his distant country.' 

The Eise qfthe War between the Binds and Zashdris, 

[This poem is another fragment of the Chdkar cycle, giving an 
account of the spoiling of Gohar's camels by the Lashdris, and Chakare* 
vow of revenge. The episode of the refugee-lizard is quoted by one of 
the characters as an illustration of the extreme Baloch doctrine of hospi- 
tality. Rehan and JAro the Rind warriors mentioned were sister's sons to 
Chdkar. Dodd who is mentioned at the end is Dodil Gorgez, celebrated 
for the revenge he took for the spoiling of Samml's cattle.] 

NoJA Babr4m gushi : jaren Easbkdni Baloch gushf : imar Bulmat 
Kalmat karaku^an gushi : hi^hir bauti4;i gushi. 

Whazh-gushe« Lori biydr wa^Ai sh^hir 

M a sard charen bairame pbd^^dr 

Jawdn mard ddtard gire didhi 
Zi azh Sannld giydfend 
huditha. durren Gohara shodhi 
Akhth&ffhi bduti gwara Mira 
Chakurd shird zl gawar-zira 
Gohard durrend hawar dd^Aa 
" Bagavo Milahd avan danen 
Go md Ldshdri jherave mdnen" 
Gohard la^e sar-jama^A ddshtha 
Dastd Gohar man Kacharak nyastha 

1881.] BALOCHf LAXOXTAOE. 149 

Bapthay^ant Shorand phare saila 
Chakurd Miri bandane shahra. 
" Md th^hun dan bayAchaen Gdja 
Gohar 4&o)n ma beghavdn danzent 
MaiyA4 shir dan n^fay^an shanzant" 
Chdkar& phurs' azb Malaven jata, 
" Zdth khan jat, de manin hdli, 
Cho khu^Aa khai go Gohara mala ?" 
Cho jawdb dithtk Melaven jatd, 
" Ai?AthayA4 Ldsh&ri hame chindri 
Khushtha^A^ hir cho khena^Ad mardi 
Chham ja^Aa durrgoshen Maherija 
' Jat, hame g&li bile sheriji 
Phufuren Rind ma deravan dru&h ant 
Pachi pha hiran hardame zithant' '' 
BaJA bortha Behdnd Nawdvend 
Phnzh Jiirav^ jaar-jawdven& 
^* M4 phara durren Gohard hirin 
Havbar4 shdm^o janun shir^n 
Shart khantin haisi chotavd biran*' 
Bdgar Jatoi jawdb d&thA 
" Ba-khu-dn durren Gohara Sammi 
Hota pha bdutan niya^A khamf . 
Shah Hussain cheravfi rosha 
Bibari phesha nishtha ma loyAd. 
Dar-shu^Aa h&ffhir azha ged& 
Choravdn ilg& bo^Atha pha dinia (or pha randa) 
Gur-khandna dan me^ira loghi ; 
Demd dar-khaptha mardume jawdnen 
Sharr kaldnch ant cho dushthtiyAen shird 
Dholant oshishe kar&iy^n. 
Kidmahd minnate khu^Aa-i b&zen 
' Choravan, b^A^ bil, mani sh^men 
I-katar mdra phar wa^Ai n&men' 
Na-jinen joraejaven jatan 
K&Whin h&gh&T khushtha pha latan 
Odh niya' loyAa Sammaven sdlo 
Dast kaalijd phijatha danhi 
* Agh phara bd^Adra na-ro bdi 
Man thai bhen, tho mani bhii' 
Hot mirani dard aA:Atha 
Suriha pha demi jaw&b da^Aa 

150 SPECIMENS OP THE [Extra No. 

' No Ainul-m4i», no Amul-m&in I 
Yarbare bosht, gal maj& gon4. 
Man phara ba^A&ra khan^ chon& 
An diyAar shahmi hith azh hon& 
Shingurd siiast sh&ngur^ phanj&h 
Drust pha ba^A^ra blthayAiL yag-j&h 
Omard nashke ishtha pba kaul4 
Hon gire fi&14cba pbara bond 
S^rih Dod& pbara gokhin. 


Nodh son of Babrdm sings : to the fierce Rasbkdni Balocbes he sings : 
of the war between the Bulmats and Kalniats, of the lizard becomiDg a 
refugee he sings. 

Sweet singing minstrel bring jour guitar, bind a large pagri on jroor 
head, let the good man receive gifts from the generous. 

Yesterday thence out of fertile Sanni, marched the fair Gohar : sbe 
came for shelter to the Mir, to Chiikar ever- victorious with the sword. 
Then spake fair Gohar ^* The Lasbiris are set on quarrelling with me, thej 
let not my camels remains in the Milah pass.'^ 

He collected all Gobar's camp and goods and placed her in the valley 
of Kacharak. Then they (i. e, the Lash&ris) came wandering to Shoiin; 
to a town under Mir Chdkar's rule (saying), " We will gallop (oar marei) 
to grove-encircled Gaj ; let Gohar*s female camels mourn for their young 
in the evening ; let the milk from their (unmilked) udders drip down to 
their navels. 

Chdkar asked Mela the camel-herd, "Quick, camel-herd give me 
tidings. Who dealt thus with Gobar's cattle?" The camel- herd Meli 
thus replied: **The Lashdrls came down here in wrath, they slew the 
young camels as if with the anger of men. Gohar the fair cam^'l owner 
hinted to me to be silent about it, saying, ^ Herdsman, keep this matter 
quiet, let the true Hinds remain in peace, the female camels dailj bear 
more young ones.' " 

Then Behan the Nawdb became angry, and J4ro the Phuzh bitter in 
reply. " In exchange for fair Gobar's young camels we will take a seren- 
f old revenge with our swords, we will gamble with heads and hair and 
turbans." And Bdgar Jatoi answered and said, ** Where are the fair Gobar 
and Sanimi (her sister) P Wlien was a hero wanting to his refugees ? i» i» 
Sh4h Hussain's day of trouble, Bibari sat in front of her house. 

A lizard dropped out of a dwai*f-palm, and the boys pursued it, chasing 
it into the chief's house. Then the good woman came out in front to is0^ 

1881.] BALOCHf LANGUAGE. 15l 

them, wearing beautiful ivory bracelets, white as fresh drawn milk, slipped 
on over her soft arms. She entreated and implored them saying, ' Boys, 
leave the lizard alone, it is my refugee. Do so much for me, for your own 
honour's sake.' 

The boys, ignorant and boorish camel- herds, killed the lizard with 
sticks. Her husband and lord was not there. She sent a complaint to 
him by letter, saying, * If you do not go and fight on account of this lizard 
I am your sister and you are my brother !' Hot returned to his home, and 
the hero thus answered back ' Hear Amul-m^ ! hear Amul-mdi» ;' stay 
where you are, do not speak. 

I will act in such a way about this lizard that the ground will be 
filled with blood, and corpses lying sixty on one side and fifty on the other, 
all collected into one place for the lizard's sake, as when Omar was released 
on his own promise, as when Bilach took his revenge for blood, or the 
hero Doda for the cattle. 


The Competition lettoeen the Poets Sohhd and Qdht, 

Part I. Sobha addresses Gahi on the question of the LayAari refugees 
with Jawanak, and taunts his tribe on their modern origin. 

[These four poems constitute a complete specimen of a kind of exer- 
cise not uncommon among Baloch poets. Sobha a Khosa and Gdhi a 
^jAghkri draw comparisons between their tribes and chiefs, challenging 
each other's claim to have come in with the original settlers under Mir 
Chdkar, and taunting each other with failing in the exercise of the cardi- 
nal Baloch virtue, hospitality to refugees. Belan the Dom minstrel is 
commission by each poet to learn the words of his song, and to carry it 
back, and recite it in the assembly of the hostile tribe. The Lay^dris and 
Khosas are old enemies, and their hostility still smoulders after thirty 
years of British rule.] 

Sobha They^ All gushi : Jarwdrei» Baloch, gushi : Khosagh Kalol 
kardkutil gushi : JjAghkri b&utiydn kharde gfil gushi : 

Whazh-gushen Relan4 sha^Aihdni shdyU bare 
Main saUmd hi bhaii'en Gdliiyd diye 
Nishtho droi^Mni zaw4n& wash khane, 
Ewakhi serd go man&n chachhon tule ? 
Bhdchari D&14n kilat ndm gire 
Nuh-mane» hkrknrk visithkv ka^fs diye 
Jawdnak urdani ray^aza roshe khafe 

152 8PECIMEKS OF THE [Extra No. 

Ahift sbar h&tfai ra^^as^ chit artba^Ae 

Sber cbapul4 azh Kbarr& tbald guze 

Go mandn bair bi, zamina j4bi labe 

Pbesh gu4a main sailavani depdntbave 

Kgh tbard wabm bi zamind jaiz kbane 

Dav-cbareft zabmdni n^-washen j&bi rase 

'Sbing^a 'sb&ngur lasbkardn detn-o-dem khu/Ae 

Zabranen marddn noJA-diU serdfd ja^^e. 

Jaw&nak updini tawiren gosbdn khafi 

Har-cbj4r dema gborav^ni 4^to ni^^Ai 

Cho thai bachhani daf&ai gondE hushi 

NoiAi berina beghavd bij^yan thiLnahi. 

Biy^y O Lashari, azh gwareyd dar-kbaptba^fo ? 

Gu4e Zunuw£ gborav4 rosbd g£r a^Ae 

Sailai Miren Chakura pbauzb^ii rutba;^Ae 

Bind nar-bor£n azh zamind resintha^Ae 

Khusbtba^M B&men damdmo charentha^^. 

Dai man&» nashk^ tho ki^Adn rosb khard \>\th9^%9, 

Bakar O Bameni ki^Mn lada gon aMe ? 

Ghofavo ufddn pbela^Ao Turkdni rvJch aM 

Dosbi ma Jbald Turk ghofdydn granda^AiL 

An demd Gand&Ya;^A "Kyxdhk maiit dem \Athig\i 

Turk&ff sb&d kdmd Bind *Rbame<^M zabr giptha^Aant 

Hon azh cham&ni cbimdkd dar-khapthayAant 

Gwasbtba Nay&niyd ^ Main huJAabund go-khaptba^Aani.' 

Lajavo, Sbordni dhaniyin grdn bi^Aa^Aant 

Bijar, Fhuzb, Chdkar ShabiAdr dMtbayAant 

Allan o Misk^ni Sahdk Mdd&n aMant 

Bagavo lajjdni sara katdr da/Aa^r^ant 

Asp go Bondcn zany a bashk&^Aa^^ant 

Bind azh noA;A-zenen biband er-kbaptha^&ant 

Vi^kdhd^ghi, Bind azh taHt Shoi*dn4 kkhihs^liMA 

Thorave Bindara oli Lashari war 9dh 

Mir go Pbula azh Kaward drikhentha^^ant. 

Whazh-ghashen Beldn shaJ^ibdiii sb^Adr bizir 

Mard pha bdutan choshaut, sarddre mani 

G&hwar o Hdnen Sdbibdna jag-sabi 

Gwar Nawdv Han kuk burtba bdzen bari 

Gorishdniya sangat o Kdhan Marri 

Burzd go Summenzdijd brd^Aargari 

AHtha gwar Hdnen Jawanakd bdut&i thai 

* Khosa^Aan, ki man neyan LayAdri khaJM' 

Go mi chyir sdla nishtbay^d bduia shari^A 

1881.] BALOCnf LANGTTAaE. 153 

Bandave kbohen nashkato hapt phusbti guzi 
Manik \o^h& har-khasa ome^^Aa durdh 
Manik kato bibiaht jo sar4 
Qadi sammd, kotai pabr^e pbaJAi 
Do Balocbdni ikhth&^h&nt w&kjii sard 
Do sbafan bi^Aa gwar tbei kbanen MethirL 
Cbbam anziydn raptba^Aant gribdna pbaJAa 
Dobaba dkthen markbave, paiddisb khuthen 
Lajji b4nukba» pbar watbi sbdna basbka^/ien 
Doda tbei ndmuz man jibdnd masbbar ^then 
Qixii drdbije bastbai go Hanen Sbakald 
Ttimi gwa^Aentba wa ganjen Bakara 
Jawanak pbauzbdni sara Gaji barbard 
Sbab mdriyd gonekhi go sberen Haidard 
Ki ki ikhthsk dan Siri Mitbdwand 
"Nij&mqhi Zibdr main sbari^Ain bar do sara 
Jabl-burzijd bek-byd resintba jardn 
Detini reba er-kbafi jabiyd bund 
Sber ki gwdmesb pbmsbi lorbiyd dard 
Banz ki simuryA jbafiM maiddnd sard 
HdDen Arziyd gwditkb be ambrdya ja^d 
KbosayAd Ddl bastba gala^Ad kurkd kbuMd 
Laj wbdntkdrdn pbil-a^M simuryAid burtba 
Ispar o savzen nezay^dn Basbkyd sdb kbu^Aa 
Hdnen Dilsbdd mardiyd berd tbara^Aa 
Sbdi pbiMa asbk en ki sbawdr paidd kbu^Aa 
Har do nrddni iiydma^Ad sdmi subr kbu^Aa 
Dodd Hdnen^Jawdnakdr zi^Aen bair kbu^Aa. 


6obba son of Tbe^A Ali sings : to tbe Jarwar Balocbes be sings : of 
tbe figbt between tbe Kbosas and Kalois be sings : of tbe La_^Adri refugees 
he sings, as follows : 

Sweet singing Beldn take away your guitar from tbe assembly, give 
^y salutation to tbe poet Gdbi (saying), Sit down and make clean your 
"*Dgue from falseboods. How can you weigb single seers against maunds. 
You mention tbe forts of Bbucbari and Ddldn, you are placing nine-maund 
^cigbts upon yourself. In tbe face of Jawdnak's armies you will fall in a 
^y> beneatb tbat elepbant's foot you will be crusbed, beueatb its blow 
you will pass away from tbe valley of Kbarr. Make peace witb me tbat 
your land and place may remain to you before you are again terrified by 


164 8FECTMKNS OF THE [Extra Xo. 

vnj sword. If jou are anxious, then legalize (the possession of) jonr 
land, for when swords are biting you will be in an unpleasant place, when 
on this side and on that armies stand face to face, and angrj men are 
satisfying tlieir swords' hearts (with slaughter). 

When the shout of Jawanak*s hosts falls upon your ears, and the dost 
of the horsemen rises on every side, so that the moisture of your sons* 
mouths dries up, and the cloud-like (mares) come gallopping (loose) to 
their stables in the evening. 

Come O Lashdri, where did you originate from ? You were missing 
on the day of Zunu*s horsemen ; did you reap (a harvest) of Mir Cb4kar*fl 
army ? did you chase the Bind chargers (lit. male chestnuts) from the 
land ? When Bamen was killed you played the drum. Give me your 
tokens (to show) when you became separate from us. Did you march 
away with Bakar or with Biimen ? Did you accompany the horsemen or 
the army to meet the Turks? That night when the Turkish csTalry 
thundered in Jhal, or towards Ganddva when Qod was on our side, when 
the Turks rejoiced and the Binds became angry ; blood issued from their 
eyelids, and the women said '' our lords have met them." 

The rulers of Shordn became heavy with shame ; Bijar, Phozb, 
Ghakar and Shah JAar arrived there, Allan and Sahdk Miskini were there ; 
they gave a string of camels to ransom the shame-faced ones (»'. e., the 
women taken by the Turks), horses they gave and bright gold, the Binds 
alighted from their newly-saddled fillies, and on foot (having given up 
their horses) the Binds returned from the throne of Shordn. Formerly the 
Lash^ris also showed kindness to the Binds, when they let Mir (Chikar) 
gallop away from Kawar on Phul (the name of a mare belonging to 

Sweet-singing BeUn,take up your guitar of merry-makings, (and declare) 
what sort of man my chief is towards refugees. Gahwar and the Chief 
Sdhib Kh&n are the most trustworthy of men ; many times did they com- 
plain to the Nawab, that the Gurchanis had made a union with the Eihan 
Marris, and a brotherhood with the upper Summenzais. Your refugees 
came to our chief Jawanak, saying, " we are Khosas, we are no longer 
LeyAdris." Four years did they stay with us, sharing in our protection. 

The marks of their dwelling on the hills shall remain till seven gene- 
rations pass. In M£nik*s house every one lived in great hope ; (for this) 
Manik (shall have) a dwelling on the streams of Paradise. 

(To your chief), in his latter age after the stage of deceit (in hii 
second childhood ?) came two Baloch women seeking for refuge ; two 
nights they stayed with your mighty lord. Tears fell from their eyes and 
they cried aloud. He gave them the mares for twice their value, he made 
a profit of it, to his own shame he gave them to the shame-faced womeo. 

1881.] balochI language. 155 

Doda jour chief became celebrated in the world ! Then he made an agree- 
ment with Shakal Khdn, and made them pass on to Tumi and wealthy 

The helper of Jawanak's armies is the Pir Giji Barbar. The saint 
accompanies us, riding on a swift camel, with the lion-like Ali. Now that 
we are come into the Sir! and Mith&wan (names of torrents on the Der^jdt 
frontier). Zih^r is the arbitrator between the parties on both sides. Up 
and down did the two bulls pursue each other (hek-hyd a Punjabi 
phrase). Let us deceive them that they may descend to a lower place. 
Just as a tiger strikes down a buffalo outside its hedge, or as a Simur^A 
strikes a hawk on the plain, so did the Khin call Arzi and his compa- 
nions. The Khosas shod their horses, the troop made a rattling. Your 
chiefs were ashamed, as when the SimuryA carries off an elephant. 
With shields and grey spears Bashkyd made a shade. Dilsh&d Khin 
heroically encompassed them about, honour to the father who bore you ! 
Between the two armies they made their graves red. Doda then quickly 
made peace with Jaw^nak Kh&a^ 

Part U,-^ Oahi replies, praiiin^ bravery and taunting Sohha with being a 

coward^ and not a true Bind. 

Gabi Gorish gushi : Kaloi gushi : Sobh^r phasave du^A gushi. 

Whazh-gushen Rela» sh^Aih^ni sh^Aa biyar 

Kaunsh bdngaviL gwar mani h^kdhk bid&r 

Chambare sak jan, malgi dild glwm guzar 

Jangi katdra dil machande : jawanan bis&r 

Nishthay^e sat4 whash nish wkm(kdh'\Bkvrke 

Azh waliydni khashtha^Ae rand o kissawdit 

Hair phae^Aa : tkyhkn rosh ant, jang syahen shaf ant, 

Jang phaJAa mard o markhavdn jawain rosh nayant 

G^hwaren hindi bingaven hotdn charant 

Dhauraven kotani sawdda zel khanant 

Chandean wamd pha dafd gozdn janant 

Jangavo ninja hi, phacfAd pahndiA girant 

Bingaven hotani T2Lghkm& ambr^h nayant 

Azh phaJAd gucla nishtho BxxuBodh warant 

Go doen dastin sar o zdnd janant 

Jang^ni ^ahkd har-chyar khunddn phirant 

Gwadilefi mar go g^nda^A^ goriy^ trahaut 

Ashik^ k&ren me^A&ni ravant 

156 sPEcnrENS of the [EitraNo. 

Taukal beriyd dil&rtel^nka diant 
Malgi dila pba zirih o zirih-phosh kbanant 
Kadabdn zahren4 sbardbi nosb-kbanant 
Ma ssi^h&rini tbaftbayAen jbordn kbafanb 
Gdbwaren tbeyAa pbar W9,thi namtiJA janant 
Go wtithi kbanen 'NLethiri miski zar ant. 

. Whazb-gusben Bel4n Bh&dhih&ni sba^Aa bare 

Main saUmd bi sbdiren Sobbdr dije 

Me^Aira rand4 zir ki Bompuri kbai e 

Man dila z4n ki tbo Kbosagba m&thi bra^A naye 

Sov labdn nyamayAi d&ran susbe 

Arm^D^ ! z&nant azb saJAen sdlan gwastbay^e 

Hai gannoArA e bai zba tbiLna kistba^Ae 

Bakar o Rdmeni sbayAdna mdra jane 

Tbo kbi^A^n rosbi Rind Lasb^ri bi^Aa^^. 

Ki man darj^j&ni labravo cbal^n gir-a^^ 

Begbav& miren Cb&knr^ cbaukidir a^^ 

Ma wa/Ai sban cbo mastbaren Rindiln pbola^^ 

Ewakbi ser go man&n bar-ro tola^Aa 

Man tbai batbi inayAaz& sbon dian 

Bijd medhini cbambavd simuryA bidn jan^n 

Arava marddn S&wano labri rastba^Ae 

NoA;A-nocban pbi^A pbi^M mardum bastba^Ae 

Mark ndsentbe, pba cbiban rosbe sbddebd 

Sbdn pbirentbe, ganda^Aen gin dostebd 

Man dild zdn ki maut tbara neli d^sard 

Doddi ddng bi^Aen man bawren cbdi^ara 

Medh Macbiya Hamzaba jori na be 

Kbosa^Aa Rinda manavo mdniya dare 

Pbu^uren Rind&n cbo kbu^Aa bdut pba^Aa 

Gobare birdni sara cbo kbu^Aa Miren Cb&kura 

Sammiya goik^ani pbaiAa Doda lurd 

Kbob sardemd kebaren mdnd lur& 

Sar wa^Ai d&th&i garimen mal sara. 


Gabi son of Gorisb sings; tbe Kaloi sings; in reply to Sobhi be 


Sweet-singing Relan bring bitber tbe guitar of rejoicings ; bring in^ 
my life tbe fresb breeze of tbe morning ; strike powerfully with your 
fingers, drive out grief from tbe brigbt (coloured) body. Do not frigbten 


the heart with battle-array ; praise heroes ! Thou hast sat in the assembly 
with an ever sweet song of praise, and from our forefathers hast drawn 
forth our tracks and legends. 

After greeting : The chief is the day, battle is black night ; after a 
battle for men and horses there is no blessed day. The glittering weapons 
devour youthful warriors, and make populous forts empty of display. 
Some youths boast with their mouths, " We will be bold in the fight," but 
afterwards they turn their backs and are not in the company of the 
storm-cloud of young heroes. And afterwards they sit and lament and 
strike their heads and thighs with both hands. 

At war's alarm they wander to all the four quarters. Cowardly men 
flee like wild asses, at mere sight (of a foe). The business of strong men 
is to go to the battle-field : they give their hearts a push oS (from the 
shore) in the boat of confidence : they clothe their bright bodies in helmets 
and armour : they drain cups of fiery spirits ; with burning white brands 
they fall upon the crowds, they wield their glittering blades to their own 
fame ; with their own Lord and Chief they become like a sweet odour. 

Sweet-singing Eelan, take away your guitar of rejoicings ; give my 
greeting to the poet Sobha, and say ' Examine the tracks of our Chiefs, and 
see who was at Bompur. Know in your heart that you are not whole 
brother to the Khosas. A venal awarder of victory, you will be burnt 
with wood. Wretched man ! They know that you have past a hundred 
years, that you are either a fool or have abandoned your home. And in 
that you cast scorn at me regarding Bakar and B&inen, when was it that 
you became a Bind or a Lashari ? 

For you were lost in the waves of the river's flood, you were Mir 
Cbdkar's attendant for your (daily) evening food, while we, like mighty 
Rinds, sought for glory and every day weighed our single seers against 
maunds. I will explain things to your elephant's brain. Come into the 
battle-field, and, becoming a SimuryA, I will strike you down with my talons, 
as in Sdwan (the rains) the torrent sweeps away the men of Aro. You 
bind on the new and fine pagri of other men ; you are gasping in death, 
when can you have any pleasure P You have cast away honour and made 
yourself a friend of worthless life ; know in your heart that at last death 
will not spare you. There was disgrace on your head in the matter of 
Bodib. MeJAs and Mdchis are not fit companions for Hamzah. You are 
excladed from home and food with Khosas and Binds. For how did the 
true Binds act with regard to refugees ? How did Mir Cb^kar act with 
regard to Gohar's young camels ; and about Sammi's cattle, how acted 
Bodd with the sword ? when, like a tiger on the mountain tops, sword in 
hand, he gave up his life to protect the cattle of the poor. 

158 SPECIMENS OF THE [Extra No. 

N. B.— Doda here alladed to is DodiL Gorgez, a l^ndary hero, not the 
Dodi Ealoi mentioned in the former poem. 

ULSohha's rejoinder, going over the legendary adventures of the Bindi, 
and asking what share the Kahis took in them, 

Sobh4 TheyA All gushi : Jarwiren Baloch gushi : G4hiy4 pbasaTe 
diith gushi. 

Kadir nkmk bar sawahd yad khandn 
Sag-sataren banda^Ai ardase mandn 
BeUni Lori bij^ hadisani durr-gehan 
S^z-khane ^kghi gwash Baloch&ni nugdah&i 
D^ima nykdhe hithen go Sultani sar4n 
Bind o Lash4ri ma bun^ hr&thkn d4im& 
M^ kbuMa Lash^ri Baloch khaptba pba sha^AiLn 
Mebna e zdnki ro^A Panjgura deh4» 
Kech Panjgur kissavan gosh ddr ki gusban 
M& hawdn Bind un, azb Halab4 pbdi/A-aX;Atha^Au» 
Dubar&n jangi go jaziz^ mdn-d^Atha^Aiii» 
Dem rosh-ds&n sarind er-kbapthayAtin 
Hamzai aul^d sobh rasula basbkd/AayA-iiit 
Hdri malbana rdhi shab-daga kbapthayAdn 
TJngari dastd thibare jang& giptbayAtin 
Pba Karim sdz kuzratan shoc^^a gwastba^Aun 
Shabr Istdmbol go Im^m^ wa^A cbar^AayAuit 
Ma JayAina gwar Shams-din Sb&b kkhih^ghikn 
ShoJ/id Harina pba tura jangi khasbthayAui» 
XJnguri Kech Makurdn^ babr hith^ghun 
Shabr Sistdna o kbam&n4 babr hithd^hdn 
SheJA pba demd md Baloch tald bithayAdn. 
Sbe(/A pha demd tho waMi nasbkdn de mandn : 
Bind md» Kecha ; Kech than dem4 nisbtbayAe ? 
Cbil cbjar balkan ; go kbai la44 gon-a^Ae ? 
Ni ki ladana khauri sarbaddd dA;AtbayAdfi 
Las-Beld o Kalraatiyd giwar-tbayAun 
Habb Baraiia pha muvdrik she-bi^AayAtii» 
Phesha Ndhani azb Naliyd er-kbaptbayAant 
Jistkani ma G&j sibdf dArAtbayAant 
Lak Saldri Chdndeh azb Kdchd khaptbyAant 
Bind Lashdri Narmukh rej buA;AthayAant 

1880.] BALOClrf LAKGUAOE. 159 

Rinde Dhd^ard sariod er-khaptha^^ant 

Lash4r pha QancUlTayA sardera hitha,gha,ut 

Jalik4i» Loi tho khitMn joa» bahr a^Ae ? 

Gind ! naw^ Qahi tho rsLdhiyi gon khaptha^Ae 

Ama Hdrin basthayAeit balden gon Me 

Tho haw4n roshe be-mayari ikhthB^he 

Sahib rosh zurthay&en, zardn artha^Ae 

Sheri man-d4^Aa pha do-handa khard hithsL^he 

Zinda^A o dru^ha min diyAdrd sar-bi^7»ayAe 

Phurse Gahiy4, tho chi maskifi zinda^Ae 

Waptha^Aeii mardaDi tafdArAdn go man gane? 

Tho go dah loyAa ^Mtho b^ut bi^Aa^Ae 

Han miriyd pha bar^tan chari aMe 

Tiipak daste Umar Hdn bashkafAay/ie 

Man dila z&n ki tho mazain shdn mat nije 

Tho raj dhan-e, dn thai sultani sar-ant 

Gwar mani miri aA?Atho bdut hithskghe 

Har chy^r khundan bar hamd Raj an diMa^Ae^ 

Kumbhi gokhini shagh&nd mdra jane 

Khoh phish-buren, ambarini sifat khane 

Gwashtha^Adn g41an Gdhi, tho sahardl na be 

'M.edhiT& randd zir pha Bompurd khdyant 

Mdnika halkd hon avo lajjan nA;AthayAant 

Dan pha^A-o-pheshi cheJAayAi nashk oshtd^ayAant. 


Sobha son of TheyA * AH sings ; to the Jarwar Baloches he sings ; in 
^swer to Gahi he sings. 

Every morning I remember the Creator's name, my trust is in the 
service of God. 

Come, minstrel Relan with your beautiful legends, play on your guitari 
chant the praises of the Baloches. You have ever been a dweller with 
HngS) Binds and Lashans from the first have ever been your brethren. 

I who called the Lasharis Baloches am scorned by you. Know that 
the scorn will travel to the country of Panjgur. Attend, then, while I tell 
you the stories of Kech and Panjgur. We are those Kinds who arose 
fn>in Halab, and twice joined battle with the infidels. Setting our faces 
to the rising sun, we descended from the west ; we are Hamza*s offspring, 
the Prophet gave us victory. Leading our strings of camels, we pursued 
our way along the highroad. Coming in this direction we fought again, 
^d by the might of the Merciful we passed on thence. At the town o£ 

160 SPKCIMEN 07 THE [Extra No. 

Istdmbol we rode with the Imim himself; In Ja^Ain we met with Shams, 
u'd-din Sh^h. 

Thence we rapidly drove out H4rin in fight. Hither Keeh and Malnr&n 
we distributed, we divided the cities of Sist&n by kham^ns (t. e. bows, a 
bow representing a man's share). Henceforward we Baloches separated, 
henceforward do you give me information about your track. The Binds 
were in Kech : in what part of Eech did yon settle ? There were forty- 
four settlements : with which camp were you P Now when marching on 
we arrived at the torrent boundary, at Las-Bela and Ealmati we separated, 
and we settled in prosperity at Habb and B4r4n. First the Nuh&nis 
descended by the Nali pass. The Jutk&nis came to the running water of 
Gdj. The Ghandehs descended from K&ch by the Lak and Siliri passes. 
The Rinds and Lashdris pitched on the irrigated lands of Narmukh. The 
Rinds descended from the west to Dh&dar, the Lasharis came from above 
down to Ganddva. In Jalikdn and Loi what streams did you share in ? 
Look ! Gahi, perhaps you were with us by mistake. Or perhaps when 
Harin was defeated, you were among the captives. You came shamelesslj 
on that day, when, having robbed S&hib of life (lit. day), you carried off 
his wealth. Having attained the low -lands you separated into two parties, 
alive and well you lay down (hiding yourselves) on the ground. Ask (and 
find out), O Gdhi, in what disgrace you are living ; will you compare withns 
the dreams of sleeping men P You came with ten wives (lit. houses) and 
became a refugee, you posted yourself on the look out for our Khan's 
charities ; you received a gun as a gift from the hand of Unkar Kyun ; 
know in your heart that you are not worthy of great honour : You are 
their chief, and he is overlord of your chieftainship, for you came to our 
chief and became a refugee, and it was seen by all the chiefs in all four 
directions. You taunt me about the cattle at Kumbhi P You are bat a 
cutter of phish on the hills. (The leaves of the phish or Ohamaropi 
ritchicana are cut to make matting.) You extol servants (not chiefs) 
My song is sung Gahi, though you may not understand it. Take up tho 
tracks of the chiefs who came to Bomptir. In M^nik's village blood has 
been shamefully shed, and formerly and lately cairns have been erecied in 
memory of the slain. 

IV. — Odhfejinal answer, following up the Bind legend, and tauniing 

Sobha with cowardice. 

G4hi Gorish guslu: Kaloien Baloch gushi: Sobhar phasave UA 

Biy& ReMn sbi&dhih&ni 
Sh^h^^&zi charav&ni 

1880.] BAIiOCHf LAHGUAeE. 161 

Majlis jaw^Den sardni 
Zir man! gnf t4r.g£Uit 
Bar gwar jang-doeten Bj&i&n 
Band-bozb g&l&n dahena 
Fhasav4n sar pha sareaa 
Qondal4ft serin manena 
Bar dan Sobh&en ni^Aoshi 
Oli guf tirdn shamoshi 
Ziri randi phinike^A4 
Bahr khant milkd phitheghi 
Chi gushan mai» shiir4ra 
Dil-harifef> su^Aardra 
Khashi EindiLni shayAana 
Y&d khan' oli jihina 
Gosh sobha mangih&ni 
Daftiri e Khosa^Aini 
Rand zurthe Makur&ni 
Rind Ldshdr dehdni 
Bind Lishdri iwir& 
Raftha^Aant azh Kech shabri 
AkhihsL^hant H&rin mal&na 
Mulk mitdfd girdna 
Bdk^A-jdri bahr-khan&na 
Bi^Aa^Adn bahr kham&n4 
Md ki Jatoi jagsar aMd» 
Sim jod pha-do sdhAn 
Mulk shahr4 nemayA sdhin 
Roz bahr pha thir-d&rai» 
Chydrakhe ma pbd^^r aMant 
Sermd ma Khinpur aMant 
Hand ma Rej deh a/Aant 
E mani per4 o rand-eii 
Phutureii Rindini hand*en 
Ndm ma r&j&n baland-en 
A^A thard itibdr na-bif Aa 
Khasd go chaman na-diMa 
Khatte kahne gwar nijithen 
Gawdh sh&hid kaJA nij&then 
Kissavdni kissay-iMant 
Har-khase 'sbi hanchosh-a/Aant 
Man sahij&n Sobha, kdp k&iQ 
Ne pha rand perowafe 

162 BPEcnrEMfl of the [EitraNo. 

Soy drapi Jawdnake^Ai 
Jufo jhafa yr&thiy6, 
Dro^h bande zihmy& 
H&Bt gusha^A T&at riw^h-en 
Dro^A pha imini khata-en 
Ar pha g^ft4re taiyar be 
SheJA-demi gawdhij^ de, 
Khatte m&ra khash phe-de, 
Bijd, azb shairan karar khan, 
Oil Rind&n pha-pbai^Aa khait 
NiaavaA^Ata kissava khan 
Surpha<^Aeni pha-gwar£ khan 
Main hadisan man dil4 khan 
Sobha khaptha^Ae azh drikh-b&14n 
Thai niyAw&ri sher naldn 
Sunja thai l^dvi ^iAin 
Zurthij^ jang^ manijd 
Zulin-zor& sahibijd 
Phrushtha^Ad be-rona^Aij& 
Zurtha^Ae mardan gihen^ 
Chandehd jahl-khena^Aen^ 
RuDghan B^or yar4n 
Sanghar l&di mazardn 
Sh4n hil&len khohistand ! 
Muhammad Han druh-gihana 
Zeb Buzddrd hil&l-an 
8hadday o khes go khawdhdn 
Nind-nyaJA gwar Umarahdn. 
Hal kh&rthdn hinskin 
Gwar man! Sarddr Hdn& 
Gwar m& bduti ki &^Atha 
Azh thai janga rahe^Aa 
Runghan o KaiKJLor Bd^oi^ 
Shdngo Sanghar dan Siriyd 
Band B^en Bdkhariyd 
Raj a^Aant simdn dariyi 
Drust khaMtha^Aant whazh-diliyi 
Gwdnkh Le^Adr chariy& 
Fhurs, Sobha shair&ra 
Su^Aar o lekhi waf A4ra 
Whdzhd 'shi mehi^Airdra 
Whdzh& thai dem ma shostai 


Lashkar^ J&me ma khusbtai 
Shakula ber shamushte 
Mangebi sbair pba hisdv-ant 
Gdl pba uzbmdr o kit^v-ant 
Majlise ma meravdn bant 
Dan m^hoshkn nisbtba^Aen sat 
AkhihsLghen b^ut ki kb&iyant 
Gird sardar&» gibend 
Dostant cbo cbbaman doen4 
Azb bacbb-brdtb&n bingoend. 
Sh'A pba bauta« yfAthiji 
Lajj nesbtba pba-pbaJAijd 
Bakboen sbwdi mangebo sb^ 
Kadh na kbant cbho ma Balocbdn 
AHtbayAe lajjan wa^Mya 
Ebasbtbay^ant gudr lavil^n 
M41 madi go galim&» 
Bastb-kbdrtbant main yakil4 
A^b tbai kofd ga^bend 
Tbai mehdhiri dir-zinagheni 
DithvL go cbbaman doena 
Gosb Sobba o niy^zf 
Esb man! guftar-bdzi 
Tbo ki guf t4re kabiMa 
Man di pba gosban suniMa 
Tupaka ddnga gs,mihsk 
Obi ma sbdnd sar-aA;^tba ? 
Fburse' sarddra wa^Aiyd 
Jawdnakd be-dmilend 
BaA;Amal o bor go kbawdbdn 
Dithaghen main Umar^ Han 
H4n Balocb&na Naw4va 
Nukari bo^Atba azb tb4n& 
Diktha boten Jawdnakara 
FbolaMi oli ba-nindan 
"Biihsghe bdut go Bindan 
Kbob pbisb-buren nibengan' 
Fbisb pbara kbob4 shagkin nest. 

Gkibi, son of Gorisb, sings to tbe Kaloi Balocbes : in answer to Sobba 
ke sings : 

164 8PXCIHEN8 OF THB [Exbra No. 

Come, O BeUft, to the assembly, king and hero of song; In this 
assembly of young chiefs, take my speech and song, carry them to our ww- 
loving foes. With propriety utter these few (lit. ten) words, answers 
given categorically, (head on head). They are arrows, of which a ser 
weighs a maund. Take them to Sobha, that he may listen to them, and 
forget his former songs. He will, he says, take up the track of oar 
ancestors, he will distribute the paternal inheritance ; what shall I saj to 
the poet, to the cunning poet ? Let him give up mocking at the Binds 
and remember the former world. Say, O brave Sobha, you are the bard of 
the Khosas ; you took up the track in Makr&n, the lands of the Binds and 

The Binds and Lashdris together set out from the city of Kech. They 
marched upon Hdrin, taking the land of the country and dividing it 
among the brotherhood. We divided it by bows (i. 0. a share to every one 
armed with a khamdn or bow). We and the Jatois were united. At the 
border stream we separated into two parts, town and country we divided 
into halves, distributing our substance by arrow-stems. One-fourth were 
in DhdijLar, we got our satisfaction in Khdnpur, our dwelling was in an 
irrigated country. This is our track and trace, the abode of the true Hinds, 
a name exalted among chiefs. If you do not believe it, no one has seen it 
with his eyes, there are no ancient documents forthcoming, there were no 
witnesses to attest it, but there are tales upon tales, every one says that so 
it was. 

I am right, Sobha, you are blind and deaf, nor is your footprint to be 
found on the track. Fear to speak of the victory of Jawdnak, take yoni 
bribe quickly, for you are manifestly inventing falsehoods. To tell the 
truth is the true custom ; falsehood is a blot upon honour. If you are 
ready with a song, henceforth give your evidence, bring forth and show me 
your documents. Come ! desist from any further poems, let alone the 
Binds of bygone days, and tell stories of the present times. Surround 
yourself with' men of understanding and lay to heart our traditions. 
Sobha, you have past the time for leaping and flying, your youth is under 
your feet, bare are the branches of your Tuba-tree. You were carried 
away in battle with us, by the fury and force of our chief, you were 
broken in gloriously. 

You were defeated by brave men, by the deeply-hating Chandvas, by 
our friends of the Btinghan and Vidor torrents, by the mighty tigers of 
Sanghar. Honour to the faithful hill-country, to the perfectly-brate 
Muhammad Khdn, jewel of the loyal Bozd&rs, with silken turbans and 
garments, dwelling with Umar Khdn. 

A sure message I brought to our chief ' Those who have taken refuge 
with me, have ceased to be with you in war. Hie Btinghan, Eandor and 

1880.] BALOCHf LANOrAOE. 165 

Vidor territories, from Sanghar to the Siri torrent, the Band Baz and 
Bakbar, who were outside your chief's territories, haTe all oome of their own 
accord and mount at the call of the La^Adris. 

Ask, O poet Sobha ! reckon yourself up in your mind and call our 
chief ' Lord.' If our chief has not washed your face, then you did not kill 
Lashkarin and J^m. Have you forgotten the reyenge taken for Shakul ? 
An account is kept of good poems, their words are enduring and are 
vritten in books, they are recited in the assembly and they remain firm in 
the (recollection of the) listeners. Whenever refugees have come or shall 
come to worthy chiefs, they are dearer to them than their two eyes or than 
yoong sons and brothers. Tou, for those who take refuge with you, have 
not given up shameful conduct for the future. Where is your great 
honour ? No one does so among Baloches. Tou brought your disgrace 
upon yourselves (by the way you acted towards the refugees). They 
displayed anger and rage. 

Their cattle and property had been seized by the enemy. Our vakil 
(demanded them) and brought them back bound from your fort ! Your 
far-seeing chief saw with both his eyes then ! Listen Sobha and attend. 
This is all my song. The song that you sang I also have heard with my 
ears. I have counted your gun-barrels. What honour is left to you ? Ask 
your own chief, the unworthy Jawdnak. Velvet and chestnut mares and 
silk did our chief Umar Khdn give him. The Baloch Khans and Chiefs 
unloosed their white mares from their stables and gave them to the valiant 

Ask of your forefathers how refugees fared with the Binds. It is the 
I^ish-eutters on the hills that are the tigers. There is no disgrace in cut- 
ting phish on the hiUs. 

VI. — A love-song, 

(Said to be by Jim Durrak a Dombki, a celebrated poet who lived in 
the reign of Nasir Kh4n of Kalat in the last half of the eighteenth century. 
He is said to have undergone great persecution from the Khdn on account 
of his love for a lady of the zanana.) 

O Samin be-phursi bihishtiye 
Azh latifd nema^Ad khaiye 
Man gul4 dema mail khu/Ae doshi 
Bairamo dsi a&r khu^Ao mdtos 
Bo azh hrikMn rapthayAan whashe^i 
Hijr manan momin janant pdsdn 
Oho kahirdni Graven &8&n 
Be-karar-&n ma nemshafi p&sdn 

166 BPBcncBNB OF THE [ExtnNo. 

Pha whaslii o dort habbo iklUut 
ZillaUn 8&hs£re deie j&n^ 
' Nab* Da khan^ pba dost pbarman^ 
Cbo ispariii demp^n mani j^uie 
Cb4buk o chashm did paik4ne 
Kabr amiil4ni g^rgiren ndzant 
Dadame g&r^tnt dadame biz-ant 
Nain daf & gir ki g&i khaniit rosben 
Naiii mandii kursat mas4l chosb-en 
Pha dafd mahliji di j&n ij&n 
Nishtho dai go haw&» rosbe 
Wa hudhi mof hdn man dili sbeff 
Er-khafi dost azb tbangavefi tha^iU»i 
Biii rodh&a% obo chyirdabi mih&n 
Masarofi bi cbo Akbare Sbibiii 
Ga^i azb dorr-cbiren dafi pbursiii 
< O badbasbkini grin babi l£ien 
Mira tbai lo^Awiren sarefi sanyAan 
Irmiri gon.kbaptoit annigibi 
Pbar tbai sab^^ sakalen nj&dhfM 
Hon bafai ban pha sakalei» khuHkin.* 

Another Song by Jdm Durrak. 

Dosbi dil-ravibefi jini 
Bartij o samand kbadini 
Gwasbtbom pba dafi pbanini 
Osi tbau maebar haivini 
Gird-i iravin pbirwini 
Gbandi isbkdftri zijini 
Eulfo pbrasbtbay^ifi sbakini 
Isbk o mani^Aa bakini 
Gwasbtbom ke^Aa^^Aen siziri 
Durcbino basir niziri 
Pbulkand o sbakar guptiri 
O bil i fakire esb-an 
Zirde azb pbiriJAin resb-an 
An ki milik dozdir-an 
An azb munkirin bezir-an 
Jim jimavin kbiksir-an 
Harzati dardd kir-an 


Sb&hen kirdagar isaivaii 
QwafSshe nem-shafan n&l-an. 


The rain that un-asked for falls from Heaven comes from the direction 
of the beloved one. Last I met a love face to face. The lightning springs 
forfchy it is my love that has awaked me. The scent of her locks has sweet- 
ly seized me. The pain of separation sharply stings me in the night-watches, 
I spring up like the flame of Kahir-wood (Frosopis tpicigera), I am with- 
out rest in the midnight watches, for the sweetness of meeting with my 
love. Give my body some breathing-space from pain, I will not say * No' 
to my loves command, my body is as a shield stretched forth. Let my 
eyes be gladdened by the sight of my fair one, let the pain caused by 
my lady be a little appeased ; sometimes it disappears, sometimes it increases. 
I eannot use my mouth to speak by day, I have no strength, she is so strong, 
to come to meet and speak to her. 

I sit and pray for that day : ' O Gk>d, be merciful, and incline your 
heart to me.' Let my love come down from her golden throne, let her 
come growing like the waxing moon on its fourteenth day, let her be in 
front of me, and I shall be king Akbar. Then I shall ask from her pearly 
mouth ' O priceless ruby like the bae^Aashk fruit, make me your husband, 
bound by oath, my heart has been irrevocably taken possession of, I will 
live for the sake of your jeweMike beauty, I will spend my blood for you, 
fairest of beings.' 

Second Song. 

Last night I saw my heart-enchanting love, the crown and ornament 
of women. I spoke to her with my lips and said ' Do not behave foolishly, 
like the moth flying round a flame, O bane of many lovers.' The locks of 
hesitation are burst open, I have obeyed the call of true love. I said to 
mj beautiful love, * O fair one of a thousand wiles and sweet sugared speech, 
this poor wretch's state is this, his heart is galled with his complaints, 
be who is a chief and true friend is apart and averse from the avaricious 
The heart of J^m is covered with dust. It remains but to say bism'il- 
lah in the divine presence, to remember the King and Creator, and to pray 
through the cold midnight. 

Riddles^ Froverhsy Sfe. 

The Baloches are very fond of riddles, which are always in rhyme. 
They are of a primitive type and generally defy solution. The more 
far-fetched they are, the more appreciated. Those first given are by 
BdUiim a Shamb&ni who died about two years ago. He was celebrated 
for his riddles as well as for more serious compositions. 


1. Bujhdrat. — Ya shai jawain ulkahd asti 

Duzbmane4 resentha-ish khashtha 
B&Dghavd pahre r4h sar& gwasfcha 
Qo minnat me^hdn nija^A dast^ 
E bujhdrat Br&himd baistha. 

Bozh, Wamai. 

Biddle, — There was one good thing in the world ; an enemy has pur- 
sued and turned it out. In the morning watch it passed along the road. 
Neither begging nor praying will bring it back again. Brabim composed 
this riddle. 

Amvoer, — Youth. (The enemy is old age.) 

2. Bujhdrat — "H-iidhii kurzat o k&r& 

Zamin nesta^A o diyA&ri 
Be khishtha^Aen kbish&r& 
HuJAdi kurzat o k&rd 
Sabz o phul bahdrd 
Pha phashayAi di taiydrd. 
Siddle. — By God's might and power 
With neither ground nor soil 
Without a field being ploughed 
By God's might and power 
A green plant has flowered 
And now its fruit is ripening. 
Answer. — This was composed on seeing an ear of corn growing on tb9 
beam across the mouth of a well. 

3. Bujhdrat, — Brdhimd pair! gwashtha^Ad gdle 

Di^Aagh^n 'chie rangd be hdle 
Bangen kojha andaren 141e 
jBo;2?A.— ifskhohe. 
Riddle, — Last year Brabim said * I saw something of an indeacribable 
sort. Its appearance was foul, but there was bright red within. 
Amwer, — A flint. 

4. Bujhdrat. — Ya shai jawain ulkaha yak& 

Go jherave jangdn saJAbare sak& 
Har-khase khdlM, ja^M wa^M chak4 
Man na ginddni jagahe dhakkd 
Gosh dandhd shara bozh wa hakka 
J9(?;»A.— Chhd^A. 
Biddle. — There is one good thing in the world, a thousand time 
attacked with disputes and quarrels ; every one comes and thro^ i^ ^'^^ 


1880.] BALOCHf LAKOUJLGB. 169 

himBelf, yet I cannot see anywhere a sign of hurt. Let the wise ear at- 
iened and guess it right. 

Answer, — A well. 

5. Bujhdrat, — Ya drashke jorentha pdken hxxdh&jk 

Ma zamin phushtd pha jinden raz&yi 

Bund yaken-i Umh-en duAyd 

Yake r%kh bi^Aa, yake saw&y& 

God has planted a tree, of itself it has grown up on the face of the 
earth ; the root is one, the branches two ; one is dust, the other ashes. 
Asuwer, — The tree is mankind, the branches Musalmdns and Hindds. 

6. Talabi naukarant kharde ajab bhat 

Kadam pha lekhav-ant-ish kar o khidmat 
Hame fauj dhurd be hathy&r en 
Phi^Ai phoshindayAin ydk o tawir e» 
"QAmodhk lashkar khosh o khush&r en 

A few servants of strange forms 
They step by calculation on duty and service 
They are an army bare and unarmed 
Moving at the voice and caU of other men 
And there the army meet death and slaughter. 
Amwer. — The pieces at chess. 

7. Nishtho dithom pha na^Aar 
An shahr be s&h watan 
Ah&ni aJA jang o jadal 
Ny&mji nawant yake digar. 

Sitting I saw with my sight 
A city and masterless country. 
There was war and strife between them 
And no umpire betwixt the one and the other. 
Atmoer. — A game at chaupar. 

8. WiUyat tharsen, dost bar-kardr-en 
BavayAd gohdr kisdnaken taiydr-en 
Na ro^Al m&thy bachh old sawar-en 
Phi^A nestenl, phiruk haiy£t-en 

The country (in) fear, the mistress in comfort 

The little sister ready to start 

The mother will not move, the son is already mounted, 

The father does not exist, the grandfather is alive. 



The above contains a series of puns on the names of a family, pvtlj, 
in Sindhi. The name of the country P&(jlar contains in the last syllable 
' ^r' the allusion to fear. The name of the mistress Begam, read as * be- 
yAam/ is the equivalent of ' bar-karir.' The sister's name is Hauri, the 
mother's Gauri, meaning in Sindhi light and heavj« The son's name Shah- 
sawdr, the fathers Ohkxhiy and the grandfather*s Haiy&t explain themselves. 

9» HMdhk pakko kuzraten band& i^k]xth 
Busdl Muhammad en ummatwdli 
Haz&reit banda^A yaken thdli 
ChamoJAd khas no roth horg o kh&li 
Hamot^Ad giptho harohi di wdrtha-ish 
Ham& wh&n zurtho \oghk di drtha-ish 
Qu4d jaiAo bhorentho thdli uj&rtha-ish 

After an invocation to God and the prophet — 

There are a thousand men to one dish. 

No one goes thence empty-handed 

There they take and eat everything 

They take up the dish and carry it home. 

And having thrown it down and broken it they leave it bare. 

Ansfioer, — ^This contains a pun on th&li, which means the hedge round 
a threshing-floor as well as a dish. After every one has carried away the 
com he wants, the hedge also is torn down and carried away. 

10. D&nVi sh4h4 parwaren khaptha man \ogh bun4 
Ni ki bandayAan razentha bi^Aa pha husn o pharin 
Wash hadiM o khush lis&n 
'Roth go phulen ambaldn 

As long as God had charge of him he lay at home ; 

Now that men have constructed him he has become fresh and fur. 

With sweet discourse and pleasant speech 

He walks about with his fair companions. 

Answer, — A man with a wooden leg. 

11. Pydl&e phuren di^Aa m&j4i 
NishthayAa l&lo nesta^M dai 
Pydl^ wdrtho l&l shahid bi^Aa 
Chondn ki kullen dlimd di^Aa 

T saw a cup in a certain place 
A bright one sat down without an attendant 
This ruby like one drank up the cup, and then died 
So that all men saw it. 

1880.] BALOCHf LIKOUAOB. 171 

Answer, — The flame of an oil-lamp which goes out after haying drunk 
up the oil. 

12. Do gohdr&n df/Aa ambdzi 
Ajab khush ant gwar amb^i 
Naini suratd khami 

Take khor digar chami 

I saw two sisters embracing 
Very happy at the embrace 

There is not the slightest difference in their appearance 
One is blind and the other has eyes. 
Ansfoer. — The reflection in a mirror. 

13. Phairi kh&khi&n pha ^dh£x 
Man Bakri shahr gwara 
Boli a^i washen tawdr 
Dastaii gipthi nar-maz&r. 

Yesterday as I passed along the road 
In the town of Bakkar 
I heard a very sweet voice 
But when I seized it, it was a fierce tiger. 
Answer. — A snake. 

14i. Proverbial sayings. 

Kahne litir o phiren zU 

Wam4 sard sdr-bdr. 

Old shoes and an old wife 

Are the burden of a young man's life. 

Savzen cho hlMen, charpi cho meshi dumhaffh&n. 

As green as young com, as fat as long-tailed sheep. 

This saying refers to the Gwar or wild pistachio (Pistaeia khinjuk). 

Khatyn soHtha &fd phdki w&rth. 

One burnt by hot milk will not drink even water without blowing on 

This corresponds with the Hindustani proverb *Dtidh kd jalyd chdnchh 
lii piwat phdnk,' or the English. ' A burnt child dreads the fire.' 

M&1& sar-dai v&rd dosh. 

Let the cattle go and milk the hedge. 

This answers to ' Fenny wise and pound foolish.' 


Page 3, line 8, read jfirj 

„ 6, „ 88, „ pronounced ybr pronounod. 

„ 7, „ 9, „ nj&nw4n^ ny&nw4n. 

„ 7, „ 40, „ rasidaybr rasdda. 

„ 8, „ 19, „ naiAar for naiAra. 

n 10, ,» 2, add and jawarab after zik. 

„ 13, „ 18, read phalo for pbale. 

„ 13, „ 29, „ limu, a „ Kmtia, 

» 16, „ 88, „ BhikU „ sh4kh4. 

„ 17. „ 8, „ marde „ mard4. 

„ 24, „ 18, „ kithsiQ, ihiu for kith&a thig. 

„ 25, „ 86, „ biydr }br nj&r. 

„ 82, „ 14, „ see it himself for see bimself. 

o« ^ (nowbere bizbgame©, 

„ 83, „ 38, troMpoae | ^ig^wbere tbibandi. 

„ * 37, „ 26, read welcome /or welceme. 

42, „ 20, „ ^[ihidh^^h for F&dh-igh. 

43, „ 24, „ biU/orkili. 

44, „ 7, „ axnxi&m for anndm. 
44, ,,10.14,,, 4n— „ as— 

46, „ 16, „ leeward „ lee-ward. 

47, „ 12, „ ^^. b4ki „ j^"4 bAqi. 
47, „ 84, „ bateri „ bateri. 
49, „ 5, „ baray^ „ bera^A. 
49, „ 10, deie P. burd, Skr. bbrd. 
49, 91 10i ^^ ^Ji^' l>aroeM add siAjji barwdn, s. tbe eye-brow. 

P. burd, Skr. bbru. 

54, „ 13, read panwar/or panwar. 

57, „ 4, „ pbasbk „ pbaskk. 

64, „ 21, add cf. Pasbto jowal after to cbew. 

66, „ 23, read oxen, matey&r oxen mate. 

66, „ 27, add Pasbto after joru. 

67, „ 9, „ P. „ world. 

71, „ 26, read ^kgh for ddgb. 

72, „ 88, „ tear „ burst. 







Page 74, 

line 12, 

„ divK^h far daragh. 

„ 85, 



„ 8ar& s^ „ sard sa. 

„ 87, 



„ Bumb „ samb. 

„ 93, 



„ Maurorum ybr Maaroram. 

„ 95, 



„ sixtietb „ sixth. 

» 98, 



„ kbambar. Kambar^br khambar — ^kambar. 




»9 ^Jfor AJf/ 

„ 106, 



„ giTjin „ girgdn. 

„ 108, 



after ^^\yi gw&nkh imeri ^^ gw&uech, a camel drirer. 

« 108, 



read oii^ for ^\jy^ 


• » 


„ flesh „ fiesh. 

„ 110, 



,1 i^>f „ ^^J 

„ 110, 


84, a/3(^ ^Uf gi&nch »ft««r^ si^ &J^9 fertile, eztensiTe. 

„ 111. 



read Salix for Salia. 

„ 114, 



„ mait „ mau. 

„ 115, 



„ mkn-diQ^i^'k for man-deay^. 

„ 116, 



„ m£hk&ni „ mahk&oi. ' 




„ leap. y, leap ! 

„ 119, 



„ mahisk „ mahisA;. 




„ Ujj neghk „ j^ De^Ur. 




„ nikah „ nekah. 

„ 126, 



,, vakhtd „ vakhat. 

„ 126, 



„ P. Mwdja „ P. hhwz,]^. 

„ 127, 



after oIaj wh&n insert j^^^ wh^ntkir, master, owner. 

„ 127, 



read ^^for ^^ 




after ^^^^ haleni insert jUa him&r, tender, delicate, 





PART II. (Natural History, &c.) 
(Nos. I TO IV.— 1880.) 


The Natural History Secretary, 

« It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science 
in different parts of Asia^ will commit their observations to writing, and send them to 
the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such communications shall be long 
intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall entirely cease." Sir Wm. Jones. 








BLAsroM), H. P. y—On the High Aimospherie Freesure o/1876-78 in 

Am and Auetralia in Relation to the Sun-spot Cfjfcle, (Plate I.) 70 
Blahtobd, W. T. ',—On a Species of Trocbalopterum from Tra- 

vaneore, ... ... ♦•♦ 142 

'■ ; — Ckmtrihutions to Indian Malacology^ No. XIL Descrip- 

tions of new Land and Freeh-water Shells from Southern and 
Western India, Burmah, the Andaman Islands^ Sfc, (Plates II 
w IIX*^ ... ... ... ••. ••. lol 

; — Description of an Arvicola^ewi the Fanjdb Hima- 

•**5' ^* I ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• SdJaM 

DE Nics'yillx, Lionel, and Mabshall, G. F. L. Captain, R. E. ; 
— Some new Species of Mhcpalocerous Lepidoptera from the 
Indian Begion, ... ... ... 215 

, and Wood-Mason, J. ; — List of Diurnal Lepidop- 

tenkfrom Fort Blair, Andaman Islands, with Descriptions of 

some new or little-known Species and of a new Species ofHestia, 

from Burmah, (JPhite XIU,) ... ... ... 223 

Godwin-Austen, H. H. ; — Notes on and Drawings of the Animals 
of various Indian Land Mollusca (Pulmonifera), (Plates X 
and XI)... ••• ... ... ... 151 

Ltdekkeb, R. ; — On the Occurrence of the MusJc-Deer in Tibet, 4 

■ — ; — Note on some Laddh Mammals, ... ... 6 

• ; — A Sketch of the History of the Fossil Vertehrata of 

Jnata, ••• .•• ••• ••• ••• o 

; — On the Zoological Fosition of the Bharal, or Blue- 

Sheep, of Tibet, ... ••• ... ... 131 

■ ; — Notes on the Dentition qf Rhinoceros, (Plate VII). 135 

Uabshall, G. F. L., Captain, R E., and j>e Nice'villb, Lionel ; — 

Some new Species of Bhopalocerous Lepidoptera from the 

Indian Begion, ••• ... ... ... 245 

Netill, Geoffbet ; — New Species of Brackish-water Mollusks, 159 

PEDLEBy Alexandbb ; — On the past and present Water supplies 

of Calcutta, ... ... ..• ... ... 85 

ScHWENBLEB, LoiTis ; — On a Simple Method of US tng an Insignificant 

Fraction of the Main Current produced by a Dynamo-Electric 

Machine for Telegraph Furposes, 


IV List of Contributors, 

ScHWENDLEB, Louis ; — Oti softie Eaperiments instituted to supply 

all the Lines terminating at the Calcutta Telegrt^h Office with 
Currents tapped from the Main Current produced hy a Dynanto- 
electric Machine, ... ... ... ... 167 

Tennakt, J. F., CoLomEL, R. E. ; — Account of the Verification of 
some Standard Weights^ with Considerations on Standard 
Weights in Oeneral, ... ... ... ... 41 

Wood-Ma80N, J. ; — Synopsis of the Species of Choeradodis, a 
remarkable Oenus ^Mantodea common to India and Tropical 
Ajnericay ... .«. .«• ... ... 82 

» ; — Description of a new Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera 

belonging to the Genus HehomoiA, ... ... ... 184 

■On a new Species of Papilioyh>m South India, with 

Remarks on the Species allied thereto, (Plates VIII and IX). 14^ 
— ; — Description of the Female ^Hebomoia Roepstorffii, 160 
; — On the Lepidopterous Genus ^mona, with the 

Description of a new Species, (part of Plate VI). ... 175 

; — Description of a new Fapilio from the Andaman 

Islands, (part of Plate VI.) ... ... ... 178 

; — Description of Parantirrboea Marshalli, the Type of 

a new Genus and Species of Bhopalocerous Lepidoptera from 
South India,. ,» ••• ... ... ... 248 

•, — andj)^ NicEViiLE, Lionel ; — List of Diurnal Lepi- 

doptera/r(>m Port Blair, Andaman Islands with Descriptions of 
some new or little-known Species and of a new Species of 
UestiA from Burmah, {F\&te XllI). ... ... ... 228 

Date of issue of the different numbers of Journal, Part II, 1880. 

No. I. — Containing pp. 1 — 84, with Plate I, was issued on June 

26th, 1880. 
No. II. — Containing pp. 85 — 134, was issued on August 30th, 1880. 
No. III.— Containing pp. 136—180, with Plates VII— XI, was 

issued on December 14th, 1880. 
No. IV.— Containing pp. 181—260, with Plates II, III, VI and 

XIII, was issued on March 7th, 1881. 


I. Annual Variation of Barometer and Sunspots. 
^•r j' [ Indian, Burmese and Andaman Mollusca. 

y' [ Not issued. 

YI. New Papilio from the Andaman Islands, &e. 
YII. Abnormal Dentition of Rhinoceros. 

IX. t ^^^ Papilio from South India. 

■Yj I The Indian Land MoUusca. 

XII. Not issued. 
XIII. New Species of Hestia from Burmah. 


p. 14. Bones of fishes from the Trias of Tibet referred to under the head <* Cretaceous," 
shoxdd have been mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 

p. 24. At the time of writing the notice of Siwalik Camiyoras I had not seen the 
paper by Mr. Bose on that subject, • and consequently was not aware that Felts 
graneUerisiata and Oani* eauikyi are merely provisional species. It should 
also have been mentioned in treating of the genus Urtmy that there is in the 
collection of the Indian Museum, a canine-tooth from the Irawadi Siwa* 
liks probably belong^g to this genus. 

p. 81. In treating of the Pleistocene Proboscidia it should have been mentioned that 
the first described teeth of JUastodon pandionU are said to have been obtained 

rui CU.1 


Page 182, line 27 from top,y5>r Five read Two. 

186; fj 8 from top, „ " angulata-lunariB'^ read " angulato-luna- 





„ „ 2 from bottom, omit ''it is figured here''. 

190, „ 19 from top,ybr " contingens'^ read " contingentihu8'\ 

191, lines 24 and 26 from top and in footnote, for " Situla" read 

" Sitala'\ 

192, bottom line, /or "ponsa*^ read "pansa**, 

216, line 4 from top,ybr " specimen" read " specimens". 
221, „ 4 from toipy for " I have described the species" read " I 

have never described the species." 
The mistakes on pp. 182 and 221 are important. 

+ 0-O20194 Ri s 0-275 R| 

Should read 

+ 0020194 Ri SB 276 R, 

• Q. J. G. S. Vol. XXXVI, p. 119. 




Part II.— PHYSICAL SC;£'Sl3dM i/"\ 

No. I.— 1880.' 


'^rr'■^\:'^ -y 

I. — On a Simple Method of using an insignificant WrdM&^^-^ihe Main 
Current produced hy a Dynamo-Electric Machine for Telegraph I^itr- 
poses. — Jiy Louis Schwenblee, M. Ijtst. C. E. &c. 

(Received 29th October ; read November 6th, 1 879.) 

The currents which a dynamo-electric machine is able to generate 
throngh a small external resistance, are so enormously strong and also so 
constant and exceedingly cheap, that I have always thought it would be 
of technical as well as of economical importance to use them for signalling 
purposes. The difficulty only was how to solve the problem practically. 
Manifestly, the currents could not be produced through the telegraph lines, 
in the ordinary manner of applying dynamo-electric machines, for, in the 
first place, telegraph lines offer high resistance, and, in the second place, 
the use of the closed- circuit syste^n would become imperative. However, 
some time ago a very simple method occurred to me which appears to con- 
tain the germs of practical success, and, having lately made some experi- 
ments on the subject, I do not hesitate to communicate the result. 

Suppose we have a dynamo-electric machine, the two terminals of 
which are connected by a resistance r through which^any kind of useful 
tcork is to be performed by the current. 

For instance, during the night, r may consist of an electric arc, and the 

useful work done by the current is given out as light for the signalling 

office; or during the day-time r may consist of another dynamo-electric 

machine which acts as an ordinary electromagnetic engine, performing 


2 L. Schwendler — Telegraphy with Fractional Currents, [No. 1, 

some useful mechanical work, i. e,, pulling the punkhas, lifting messages, 
producing a draught of cool air, &c. ; or the current may he made to pass 
through a galvanoplastic apparatus in connection perhaps with the Surrey- 
or General's Office, &o. 

Now connecting the negative pole* of such a dynamo-electric ma- 
chine to earth, the positive pole to all the lines terminating in a telegraph 
office, while the two poles are permanently connected by the resistance r 
through which the current produces the useful work above-mentioned, then 
it will be clear, without demonstration, that all the lines so connected can 
be provided with signalling currents (which are exceedingly weak as com- 
pared with the strong main current) by simply tapping the main current, 
and that without perceptibly reducing it, i, e.y without affecting the useful 
work performed by the main current through r. Supposing that the useful 
work performed by the main current repays all the expenses connected 
with the erection and working of the dynamo-electric machine, then 
obviously this would be a method which would supply the signalling currents 
for nothing. This might be an inducement for telegraph-administrations to 
introduce the electric light, since they would get the signalling currents 
into the bargain, and the costly and cumbersome galvanic apparatus might 
be dispensed with. 

An example will show this more clearly. A Siemens dynamo-electrio 
machine of medium size can easily be made to produce through an 
electric arc a current of 30,000 milli-oerstedts, of which not more than 
8 milli-oerstedts are required to work the Siemens's polarized relay with 
engineering safety. Suppose that the sent current is made equal to 
twice the current which is required to arrive, we have the following calcu- 
lation for Calcutta office : — 14 long lines terminate at Calcutta, hence 14 X 
6 = 84 milli-oerstedts would (as a maximum) have to be tapped off from 
the main current of 80,000 milli-oerstedts. This represents a loss of onlj 
28°/^, , — which is so small that not even the most sensitive eye would he 
able to detect any variation in the light. 

Hence in this case we would feed the Telegraph lines with currents 
which actually cost nothing, as the electric light alone would repaj all 

During my recent light experiments in London, it was experimental- 
ly established that the current in milli-oerstedts which a dynamo-electric 
machine is able to produce, can be expressed as follows : — 

C = E ^ 1 1 C X 1000 

♦ In India we use positive signalling currcnta. 

1880.] L. Schwendler — Telegraphy with Fractional Currents, 3 

E and k are two constants for any dynamo-electric machine. E is an 
electromotive force in volts ; e is of such dimensions that v >/ k repre- 
seDts an electrical resistance ; m is the internal resistance of the djnamo- 
electric machine ; r is the external resistance through which the useful 
work bj the main current has to be performed. 

m and r are to be expressed in ohms. The resistance of the leading 
wires has been supposed nil. 

If we call R the resistance of a telegraph line, which we wish to feed 
from the main current, then the signalling current passing into that line 
when the main current is tapped would be 

K-fr 5 r-fw C R-fr 

and this current, in the case of the Indian lines, should not be less than 6 
milli-oerstedts. Hence we have the following equation : — 

^{ 1 — e V+m/ ^ 1000 r ^ 

E I ^~ > X — = 6 

) r + m \ li + r 

from which r can be calculated, since E, k, wj, v and R are known. 

1 need scarcely point out, that as R is invariably so large that r can 
be neglected in comparison with it ; the current in one line only depends on 
the resistance of that line, and not on the resistance of the other lines in con- 
nection with the dynamo-electric machine. Hence the signalling through 
one line is not influenced by the signalling on other lines ; and in this re- 
spect the method is on a par with signalling through different lines by 
separate batteries. 

We will take a special case. — For a Siemens's medium machine, making 
r = 3, we have a main current of about 17,710 milli-oerstedts, and the 
current passing into a line of 8000 resistance (800 miles of 5^ wire) would 
be 6*6 milli-oerstedts. Supposing that all the 14 lines at Calcutta office 
are to be supplied with 6*6 milli-oerstedts each, the current carried off 
would be 6'6 x 14 = 92*4 milli-oerstedts, or 0"6 7o o^ ^^^e main current. 

It is best to make all the lines equal in resistance by adding to the 
shorter lines some artificial resistance. This measure would prevent a dead 
earth (occurring on one of the lines and close to Calcutta) from having any 
effect on the working of the other lines. In Europe, where the lines are 
much shorter, the signalling currents supplied by a given dynamo-electric 
machine, working through a given resistance r, could be much greater than 
6'6 milli-oerstedts. 

4 K. Lvdekker— On the Occurrence of the Mush-Beer in Tibet. [No. 1, 

For any given R (resistance of the line) the currents can be increased 
by selecting a dynamo- electric machine with the right internal resistance. 

The advantages of the method appeared to me suflSciently great to 
justify a practical trial : — 

Experiment, October 11, 1879. With a Siemens's dynamo-electric 
machine (medium size) I produced a powerful electric light ; and between 
the poles of the dynamo-electric machine 1 connected up four- artificial 
lines, each of 10,000 units resistance, with relays ranging between 500 to 
1000 units. These four parallel circuits worked very well, singly and 
simultaneously. No variation of the electric light during telegraphing 
could be noticed, even when the line resistance was reduced to 1000 units. 
Further, the resistance of one line was increased to 20,000, and the 
signalling currents were still sufficiently strong (1-6 milli-oerstedts). 

Experiment, October 14, 1879. Same as above ; but a branch current 
was conveyed by the store-yard line (from the store-yard where the dynamo- 
electric machine with its electric light was put up) to Calcutta signalling- 
office (4 miles), and one of the Agra lines (850 miles in length) worked by 
this current. 

The sent current, measured at Calcutta, was 9*6 milli-oerstedts ; the 
received current, measured at Agra, 1*85. The great loss was due to the 
exceedingly low insulation of the line near Calcutta. It is now the break- 
ing up of the monsoons, when the climate in lower Bengal represents almost 
a hot vapour bath. 

Several messages were sent to Agra, but no variation in the electric 
light could be observed. 

II. — On the Occurrence of the Musk-Deer in Tibet. 
By B. Lydekkeb, B. A. 

(Received November nth, 1879.) 

Some degree of doubt seems, hitherto, to have prevailed among natma- 
lists whether the Musk-Deer (Mosohus) occurs on the Tibetan plateau, or 
whether it is confined to the wooded districts of the Alpine Himalajti 
Thus in a paper contributed by Mr. W. T. Blanford to the * Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society of London,'* the author says that he has grave 
doubts whether the Musk-Deer occurs anywhere on the Tibetan plateau. Ia 
a paper published by myself in the Society's Journal,t I mentioned that 
from having seen skins in Laddk, as well as from the fact of the Ladikis 

• 1867, p. 634. t 1877, Pt. II, pp. 287-8. 

1880.] R. Ljdekker — On the Ocewrrence of the Musk-Deer in Tibet. 5 

having a name for the animal, I was of opinion that the Musk-Deer must 
occur somewhere in Tibet, though I had at that time no positive proofs to 
offer. Lately, however, I have obtained such evidence as seems to leave 
no doubt that this animal should be reckoned among the fauna of 

Firstly, it will, I think, be generally admitted that the musk-pods of 
the Musk-Deer are an important article of export from Tibet to India.* 
Although this afEordsj?rJffi4^ci« evidence that the Musk-Deer occurs in 
Tibet, yet it might be objected that this musk was first taken from China 
to Tibet, and thence exported through Nepal or Ladak to India ; I, there- 
fore, now proceed to bring forward the more direct proofs of the occur- 
rence of the animal in Tibet proper. 

The earliest evidence which I have to notice, is that of the great tra- 
veller Marco Polo.f That writer mentions the occurrence of the Musk- 
Deer at a place which he calls Ergiul, which Colonel Yule locates to the 
north of Tibet, and south of the great Gobi desert, in latitude 40". From 
Marco Polo's description, there can be no doubt of the identity of the ani- 
mal referred to with the Musk-Deer, though he commits the error of men- 
tioning a pair of lower as well as upper tusks. Again, the same traveller ;( 
mentions the occurrence of the same animal iu eastern Tibet, probably 
somewhere near the longitude of Lh^sa, and also that the Tibetans call 
the animal Gureri. 

A later traveller, Mr. Bogle, the envoy of Warren Hastings, describes§ 
most circumstantially the hunting and capture of a Musk-Deer (or, as he 
calls it, Musk-Goat) at Einjaitzay, which is situated north of the Tsanpd 
river near Shigdtze in Tibet. Mr. Bogle describes the animal as being 
hornless, coated with stiff hair, and with tusks depending from the upper 
jaw of the male : he also mentions that the Tibetan Musk-Deer is of a 
lighter colour than the Musk-Deer of Bhtitan. This description leaves no 
possible doubt as to the animal referred to. 

General Cunningham || mentions that the Musk-Deer (known to the 
Ladakis as La) is found in Tibet as well as in Kashmir. 

During the past summer, I met in Lahdl with a Tibetan who had 
formerly occupied a high official position at Lhasa, and who informed me, 

• Markham, * Tibet.' Int. p. cxxii, p. 197. 

Hodgson 'Trade of Nepdl.' 

Oimningliam. * Ladak,' p. 242. 
t Yule's * Marco Polo,* Vol. I, p. 267. 
i Yule, loc. cit., Vol. II, p. 37. 
4 Markham, loc. cit., p. 114. 
i Loc. cit., p. 202. 

G R. Ljdekker — Note on iome LadaJc Mammals, [No. 1, 

that the Musk-Deer was of common occurrence on the Ts^npu river in the 
neighbourhood of Lbitsa. 

Mr. W. H. Johnson, the Qovernor of Laddk, informs me that the 
Musk-Deer is found in the country below and to the east of Lhasa, along; 
the course of the Tsanpu river. The musk brought from this district, Mr. 
Johnson says, has wrongly acquired the name of Khoten musk ; this seems 
to have originated from the fact that when Khoten was a large Buddhist 
city, and important trading place, the musk was carried there from Lhasa, 
and thence to India. Mr. Johnson also observes that the Musk-Deer occars 
only where the birch tree grows. 

The whole of this evidence taken together appears to me to afford 
abundant evidence as to the occurrence of a species of Mosckus in Tibet, 
though I have no means of knowing whether it be the same as Jf. moseki- 
ferus. The Musk-Deer is of common occurrence in Bhutan, and it appears 
to me to be probable that it extends north of that district in most of the 
open countries up to Tibet, and thence across, or round^ the Gobi desert into 

The occurrence of the Musk-Deer far in on the Tibet plateau is a fact 
of considerable importance, as it is the only instance of any of the large 
mammals of the forest clad Alpine Himalaya extending its range into the 
dry and desert regions to the north. 

In my former paper, quoted above, I thought it probable that the 
Musk-Deer occurred in Lad&k ; this, however, I now find is not the case ; 
I can find no evidence of the animal occurring anywhere in the upper Indus 

III. — Note on some Laddh Mammals, — Bt^ R. Ltdekkeb, B. A. 

Otter, — In his report on the Mammalia of the second Yarkand Mis- 
sion* (p. 32), Mr. W. T. Blanford mentions that the late Dr. Stoliczka, in 
his notes, referred to the occurrence of a small species of otter (LiUra) 
in the Indus at Leh, but was unable to procure a specimen. 

During the past summer I purchased at Leh a flat skin of an otter, 
said to have been obtained from the Indus at Shushot, near Leh. This skin 
is of very dark colour superiorly, and the length of the body-part is about 30 
inches ; the tips of the hairs are paler. Unfortunately, neither the skull 
nor the claws remain in my specimen, so that specific determination is quite 
impossible. The skin, however, seems to be very like that of the European 

• * Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand Expedition,* Mammalia, by W. T. 
Blanford. Calcutta, 1879. 


J 880.] E. Lydekker — Note on some LaddJc Mammals. 7 

otter (i. vulgaris)^ and the animal, therefore, may very possibly belong to 
the same species as a skin obtained by Major Biddulph in Gilgit (? from 
the Indus), and which Mr. Blanford, in the above-quoted note, thinks is 
Tery like i. vulgaris, 

I learn from Mr. Elias, the British Joint-Commissioner at Leh, that 
otters are said to be of common occurrence at the bridge which span» 
the Indus below Leh ; these otters live in the stone- work piers of the 
bridge. I may add that Mr. Elias has promised to endeavour to procure 
a specimen of the skin and skull of one of these animals. 

Dr. Stoliczka speaks of the Leh otter as being a small species ; since, 
however, he never procured a specimen, and as my specimen is a large skin, 
it is probable that Stoliczka's estimate of size was not exact. 

Marmots. — I cannot quite agree with Mr. Blanford* in calling the 
Bed Marmot (^Arctomgs caudatus) the common marmot of Ladak, as it 
appears to me that the species is only found on the outskirts of that region, 
I have procured specimens of that species on the range between Kashmir and 
Tilel (Kishenganga valley), on the pass between Tilel and Dras, and on both 
aides of the Zoji-La, separating the latter place from Kashmir. I have, 
however, never seen this species in the more interior parts of Laddk, 
where it appears to me to be replaced by Arctomys himalayanusy or the 
Yellow Marmot, which appears to me to be entitled to be called the 
" Ladak Marmot" par excellence. I have seen or procured specimens of the 
latter species, from the mountains above Khalchi, on the Indus ; on the 
pass separating the Markha river from the Gia river, to the south of Leh ; 
and, still further south, on Kiang-Chu Maidan, in Rtipsu ; to the north 
of the Indus in Ladak, on the Chang and Kai passes, forming the water- 
shed of the Indus and Shyok rivers ; around the Pangong lake ; and in the 
Cbarg-Chenmo valley. Arctomys caudatus seems to me to be confined to 
the country on the confines of the rainless districts, while A. himalayanus 
occurs only in the inner, and thoroughly Tibetan, districts. 

In the field, the two species can be at once distinguished by their re- 
spective cries. The cry of the Eed Marmot is a peculiar long screaming 
whistle of great shrillness : the Yellow Marmot on the other hand utters 
a short chirping bark. It is not easy to convey an idea of the two sounds 
to the reader, but when they have been once heard in the field, they never 
can be mistaken for one another. 

I should be much inclined to doubt the suggestion of Mr. Blanfordf that 
the marmot said by Dr. Stoliczka to range up to a height of 17,C00 feet 
in Ladak is A, caudatus ; it is much more likely to be A. himalayanus, which 
I have killed above 18,000 feet ; the former I have never seen above 14,000 
feet (Drds and Tilel pass). 

* Loc, cit. p. 37. t Log. cit. p. 39. 

8 R. Lydekker— ^ Sketch of the [No. 1, 

IV. — A Sketch of the History of the Fossil Vertehrata of India,— 

By K. Lydkkkeb, B. A. 

(Received January 6th ; read February 4th, 1880.) 

As far as I am aware, there has not hitherto been written a complete 
history of the whole Fossil Vertebrate Fauna of India, as far as it is at present 
known to us, and I have, therefore, thought that it may int<erest many 
members of this Society, as well as others, to know something of the extent 
and affinities of this fauna, without the labour of wading through the 
various works in which its history is recorded. The history of the Fossil 
Vertehrata of India is, indeed, intimately connected with this ancient 
Society, since some of the earliest workers in this branch of enquiry were 
formerly among its members, and many of the results of their labours are 
to be found scattered through its earlier records. Pre-eminent among those 
workers will always stand out the names of Baker, Durand, Cautley, Colrin, 
Falconer, Hislop, M'Clelland, and Spilsbury. And it must always be 
remembered, to their honour, that these workers in this most interesting 
department of palaeontology were solely amateurs, and that in their time 
the study of vertebrate palaeontology in this country was encumbered 
with difficulties of which we, at the present day, can have no adeqoate 
conception. The labours of Mr. Hislop were mainly expended in searching 
the Gondwana rocks of the Central Provinces, from which he obtained 
many interesting remains of reptiles, batrachians, and fishes ; Col. Sjket' 
collections were chiefly made among the fossil fishes of the Deccan ; while 
the field of labour of the other workers lay mostly among the mammali- 
ferous beds of Northern India, and the Narbada (Nerbudda) valley. 

I very much regret to say that since these illustrious workers, no 
amateurs in India seem to have entered upon this interesting field of 
research, and during the five years which I have been upon the staff of the 
Geological Survey of India, we have not, I believe, received, in the Indian 
Museum, a single fragment of a fossil vertebrate from a non-prof essionsl 
worker. It is partly in the hope that this paper may reach the eye of 
amateurs interested in natural science, and especially of those who lead s 
wandering life in India, and induce them to endeavour to collect specimens 
of vertebrate fossils for the Indian Museum, that it has been penned. 

Apart from members of the Geological Survey of India, to whom I shall 
refer presently, there are other workers who, though not members of 
this Society, have contributed largely to the history of the extinct verte- 

1880.] History of the Fossil Vertehrata of India. 

braie life of India. Noticeable among these are the names of Buekland, 
Crawf urd, and Clift. Crawfurd, on his return from his mission to the court 
of Ava in 1826, brought back son^ Tertiary mammalian remains from the 
valley of the Irawadi, which were among the first obtained in Asia by 
Earopeans,and which were subsequently described by the late Mr. Clift in the 
* Transactions of the Geological Society of London.'* In the same volume 
of the ' Transactions,' a m^noir was also published by the late Dr. Buekland 
on the Ava bones. Another memoir also appeared in the same volume by 
Mr. Fentland, on certain nuunmaUan remains from the Siwaliks of Sylhet, 
ooDected by Sir T. Colebrooke. As you are doubtless aware, the fossil 
vertebrate fauna of the Siwaliks and the newer Narbadas, were subsequently 
fully illustrated, and in part described, by our former illustrious associates. 
Falconer and Cautley, the results of whose labours are abundantly dispersed 
through our Society's publications, and displayed- in that now classic work 
the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis.' 

Dr. Charles Murchison, the editor of the ' Palaeontological Memoirs' 
of Dr. Falconer, has rendered one of the most impwtant services to the 
cause of vertebrate palseontology in this country, by collecting and publish- 
ing the scattered notes and memoira of that distinguished palaBontologist. 
Professors Owen and Huxley have contributed largely to our knowledge 
of the fossil Reptilia and Batrachia of India ; while the fossil fish have 
l)een enriched either by the discoveries or the writings of Messrs. Egerton, 
Miall, Sykes, and Walker. 

A yaluable memoir on the extinct Siwalik genu? Sivatherium was 
contributed to the * Geological Magazine' by Dr. Murie ; another on j&m- 
matherium, by Mr. Bettington and Professor Owen, to the * Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society.' A few Siwalik fossils collected by the Messrs. 
Schlagintweit were described in the German ^ Palseontographica' by the 
late H. von Meyer. The late Dr. J. E. Gray also determined a few of 
the Indian fossil reptiles. Professor A. Milne^Edwards determined some 
Siwalik bird-bones. Some mammal-bonea from the Tibet Tertiaries were 
determined by Mr. Waterhouse. 

Among the later contributors to* our knowledge of the fossil verte- 
brata of India must be mentioned Professor Eiitimeyer, who has afEorded 
valuable information on the Siwalik ruminants in the British Museum ; 
and Mr. P. N. Bose, who has described some of the fossil Siwalik Carnivora 
in the same collection. Mr. Davies, of the British Museum, has also 
contributed to the ' Geological Magazine' a valuable paper on Siwalik 
birds. Professor Leith Adams has published some notes on Mophas namO' 
dictu in the Palseontographical Society's publications. 

The above names are only the chief among the workers in Indian 

• Scr. 2, Vol. II. 

10 R. Lydekker — A Sketch of the [No. 1, 

vertebrate palaeontology who are unconnected with the Geological Smrej 
o£ India. Of the former or present officers of that department, 
I must mention, among discoverers, the names of Messrs. W. T. and 
H. F. Blanford, Fedden, Foote, Hacket, Hughes, Medlioott, Theobald^ 
Tween, and Wynne, and, among writers, Messrs. W. T. and H. F. Blanford, 
Foote, Oldham, Stoliczka, Theobald, Waagen, and, lastly, myself. 

Minor contributions, in the way both of specimens and papers, have 
been made by other gentlemen, all of whose names it would be both tedi- 
ous and difficult to bring together, but for whose exertions the workers 
in this branch of enquiry have, none the less, good cause to be grateful 
Among these names I may mention, Bell, Dr. (Ichthyolite from Kacb); 
Blyth, E. (Siwalik Mammals) ; Burney, Col. (Ava Vertebrates) ; Burt» 
Lieut. ( Jamna Bones) ; Cantor, T. (Siwalik fish-skuU) ; Carter, Dr. ; 
Colebrooke, Sir T. (Tibet Tertiary Mammals) ; Dawe, W. (Tertiary Verte< 
brates) ; Dean, E. (Jamna Mammals) ; Everest, Bev. R. (Siwalik Verte- 
brates) ; Felix, Major, (Narbada Mammals) ; Foley, Capt. (Diodon from 
Bamri Island) ; Fra^er, Capt. (Narbada Mammals) ; Fulljames, Gapt. 
(Perim Mammals) 5 Godwin- Austen, Col. (Siwalik Mammals) ; Gowan, 
Major {Archegotaurus from Bijori) ; Hiigel, Baron (Perim Fossils) ; £wer, 
W. (Siwalik Vertebrates) ; Lush, Dr. (Perim Vertebrates) ; Ousely, CoL 
(Narbada Mammals) ; Pepper, Miss (Perim Mammals) ; Phayre, Sir A. 
(Ava Mammals) ; Prinsep, J. (Tertiary Mammals) ; Rivett-Carnac, H. 
{Archegosaurm from Bijori) ; Royle, (Siwalik Mammals) ; Sim, Lieut 
{Archegosaurus from Bijori) ; Smith, Capt. E. (Jamna Mammals) ; Stra- 
chey, Genl, (Tibet Tertia?;y Mammals) ; Trail, Dr. (Tibet Tertiary Mam- 
mals) ; and Verchere, Dr. (Siwalik Mammals). 

The extinct vertebrate fauna of India, with the noticeable exception 
of the mammalian upper Tertiary fauna, is generally remarkable for its 
extreme poverty ; a poverty which may be due in some cases to the want 
of adequate research, and in others to the small number of fossils preserved 
in the different strata. Only here and there, in the great Gondwana 
series of India — which, as far as regards its higher and fossiliferous part« 
in serial position, in mineralogical composition^ and in its fresh-water 
character, seems to correspond very closely with the Trias-Jura of the 
Connecticut valley in America, — do we find fossils locally abundant, as the 
reptiles of the Panchet group, and the fish and reptiles of the Kota< 
Maleri and neighbouring groups. With the exception of a few Cretaceous 
reptiles, the fossils from the above-mentioned groups, which are really very 
few, are the only representatives of the Pre- Tertiary land and fresh-water 
vertebrate fauna of which we have any traces in India* 

In place of the numerous and gigantic dinosaurs of the secondary landa 
of Europe and America, we have in India only here and there a few bones^ 

1880.] History of the Fossil Vertebrata in India. 11 

indicating the former existence of a small number of species ; while of 
the more specialized and bird- like dinosaurs of those countries, we have as 
yet no trace in India; neither of the toothed birds, which present so 
remarkable a feature in the secondary epoch of America, are there any 
vestiges in India. The numerous species of the volant and toothed 
pterodactyls of Europe, and of their toothless representatives in America, 
are also totally unknown from Indian strata. 

Of the gigantic estuarine or marine saurians, so characteristic of the 
secondaries of Europe and America, Indian strata have hitherto only yielded 
a few remains of a single Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, Of the lower 
batrachians, only a few species are known from the (probably) Triassic 
rocks of India, and the great number of species so characteristic of the 
Carboniferous and Trias of Europe are almost totally unrepresented in this 
country. The marine fish fauna is likewise remarkable for its general 

It must, however, be observed that many of the vertebrates which do 
occur are only known by a single skull, or a tooth, or a few bones or 
scutes, and it, therefore, seems probable that many otGer species must have 
left similarly scattered remains through the strata of India, which from 
their extremely local distribution have hitherto escaped detection. 

No distinctly recognizable traces of mammals have been as yet de- 
tected in India below the Nummulitic rocks, and in the latter only by a 
few generically undeterminable bones ; indeed, we meet with no well- 
developed mammalian fauna till the period of the Upper Miocene and 
Lower Pliocene, when we suddenly come upon the evidence of the former 
existence of a vast and varied fauna which is, probably as numerically 
abundant in its species and genera as any known fossil fauna in the world. 
Previous to the Tertiary, the whole history of mammalian life in India 
is a complete blank. The bird- fauna of India, with a few exceptions, is 
almost totally unknown previously to the present epoch. 

The above remarks have an important negative bearing on evolution. 
We know that the greater part of the peninsula of India has existed as land 
for an incalculable period of geological time, — at all events from the Triassic 
epoch, and we further know that in other regions mammals have existed on 
the globe since the Triassic, and birds since the Jurassic, period. As regards 
the above two groups of vertebrates, India throws not a single ray of light 
on their origin. We have not a trace of any one of the curious generalized 
forms of the Eocene mammals of North America in the strata of India, 
and yet we cannot think that ancient India was almost without mam- 
malian life till the upper Miocene. It is indeed probable that the lost 

* Marine rocks are absent over most parts of peuinsolax India, though present in 
force in Trichinopoli, Kach, Bind, and the Himalaya. 

12 R. Lydekker— ^ Sketch of the [No 1, 

mammals of Secondary and early Tertiary India may have filled many a 
puzzling gap in the animal series. 

It is the same with the reptiles, which were douhtless the dominant forms 
during the epoch of the Trias- Jura, and which have only here and there 
left a trace of their former existence in this country. Why may not many 
forms of those half -hirds, half -reptiles have inhabited Secondary India of whose 
existence we have ample proofs in other countries; and why may not many of 
such Indian forms have still more closely bridged the gap which even yet exists 
between birds and reptiles ? Great and numerous as are the advancements 
in uniting the scattered links of the broken chain of vertebrate evolution, 
it must ever be borne in mind that, while we have evidence of a large Secon- 
dary land-surface like India, which has hitherto yielded scarcely any links 
to this wondrous chain^ we must never despair if we find that other coun- 
tries are still of themselves unable to make the chain extend across all the 
gaps, owing to the want of a few links. Who shall say that such missing 
links never inhabited Secondary India, where their remains either still lie 
buried, or have been for ever lost beyond recovery ? I, indeed, imagine that 
early India must ha/e teemed with reptiles, and perhaps with higher forms 
of life, for it is inconceivable that this country was once mainly a mere 
forest of plants, of the existence of which we have such ample evidence in the 
Trias- Jura, unenlivened, except in one or two small spots, by vertebrate life. 

I now proceed to sketch what is known of the fossil vertebrates of 
India, commencing with the lowest class, and tracing it through the various 
formations from the lowest in which it occurs to the highest ; and similarly 
with the higher classes. I must premise that very many of the Indian 
fossil vertebrates are only known by extremely scanty remains, and that 
their affinities are consequently obscure. Of others, again, only very slight 
preliminary descriptions, without figures, have yet been published, and con- 
sequently foreign palaeontologists have not yet had the opportunity of 
comparing them with other species, by which their affinities might be 
more fully illustrated. 

Fossil Fishes. 

(hrhoniferot$8, — The earliest fishes of which we have at present any 
record in India are only known by some few teeth and fin-spines, collected by 
Dr. Waagen and Mr. Wynne of the Geological Survey, in the Salt-Range of 
the Punjab, and described by the former writer in the ' FalsBontologia Indi- 
ca.'* These fish remains were obtained from strata termed by Dr. Waagen 
the " Productus-Limestone," corresponding in the main to the Carbonife- 
rous. Sigmodus duhius is a fish belonging to a new genus founded upon 
a single tooth ; this tooth is of an elongated conical form, and much resem- 
* Ser. XIIX, parts 1 and 2, 1879-80 ; the latter part in the press. 

1880.] Hisiory of the Fossil Vertehrata of India. 13 

bles the teeth of some saurians ; it is referred by Dr. Waagen to the 
ganoids. Another tooth, referred provisionally by Dr. Waagen to the genus 
Foeeilodus, under the name of P. paradoxus, is of the flattened cestraciont 
type. Fsephodus indicus is a species formed upon the evidence of another 
tooth. Both these genera belong to the Ooehliodontida, which Dr. Waagen 
classes among the Dipnoi, though they are more generally referred to the 
Elasmobranchii. Of the undoubted Elasmobranchii (Selachii), Dr. Waagen 
describes four species, belonging to three genera, from teeth, and four 
species, belonging to two genera, from fin-spines (ichthyodoruHtes). Of 
the teeth, two are referred to a genus (Helodopsis) allied to Helodus, 
under the names of S, elongata and H, abbreviata. A fragment of a 
tooth is referred, without specific determination, to the European genus 
FsammoduSy characteristic of the Carboniferous. A fourth tooth is refer- 
red to the European genus Petaiorhyncus, with the specific name of P. 
indicus : it is extremely doubtful whether Petalorhynchus is really distinct 
from Petaiodus of the Carboniferous. Of the spines, or " ichthyodoru- 
lites,*' three specimens are referred to the American Carboniferous genus 
Xystraoanthus, under the names of X. gracilis and X. major and X. gigan^ 
tens. If I rightly understand Dr. Waagen*s notes, he thinks it possible 
that these spines may belong to Helodopsis. A third spine is referred 
to a new genus under the name of Tkaumatacanthus blanfordi. 

As far as the evidence of these fishes goes, we find that the cestraciont- 
toothed sharks were the dominant forms in the Indian, as well as in the 
European and American Carboniferous. 

Trias- Jura. — In the upper part of the great Gondw&na system of In- 
dia, which, as I have said, probably corresponds as a whole to the Trias- 
Jura of other countries, remains of fishes have been found in some abun- 
dance, all of which, as far as determined, are of fresh- water types, and belong 
to the Ganoidei and Dipnoi, no traces of the more modem Teleostei having 
yet been found in these rocks. The earliest groups of rocks in the 
Qondw4na system in which fish remains have been detected are the Mangli 
and Sripermattir groups ; but these remains have not yet been even generi- 
cally identified. In the Kota-Maleri* group there occur nine species 
of Ganoids and three of Dipnoi ; the former from the Kota beds have been 
described under the genera Dop^c^itM, LepidotuSydkxA Tetragonolepis by Messrs. 
Egerton and Sykes ;t many of them show Liassic affinities : the three genera 

* Mr. King has lately shown a distinction between the Kota and Maleri beds ; 
oonfirmingthe original distinction as to the Liassic affinities of the fossils of the former, 
and the RhsBto-triassic of those of the latter. 

t Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. of London, Vols. VII, IX, X. Palaeontologia Indica, 
Ser. IV, part 2. 

14 R. Lydekker— u4 SJcetcli of the [No. 1, 

hare a united range in Europe from the Lias to the Eocene : Ltpidotm is very 
characteristic of the Wealden of England. Of the Maleri Dipnoi, teeth of four 
species of the living Queensland genus Oeratodus were named bj the late 
Dr. Oldham, three of which have lately been figured bj Professor Miall,* 
who does not admit the fourth species, O. oblangus. 

Cretaceous. — A. few fish-remains have been obtained from the Lameta 
rocks (of middle Cretaceous age), but are not yet determined. The next group 
of rocks in which fish-remains have been obtained are the upper and middle 
Cretaceous rocks of Trichinopoli ; these remains have been described by tbe 
late Dr. Stoliczkaf and Sir Philip Egerton4 They comprehend seventeen 
species of elas.nobranchs, ranged under the genera Coras, JSnehodu9^ Ziamm, 
OdontaspU, Otodus, Oxyrhina, Ptychodus, and Sphosrodus, and one ganoid 
doubtfully referred to Fyciiodus. No Teleostei have been described, which is 
very probably owing to the less facility with which their remains are pre- 
served ; it being almost certain that they must have been represented in ikt 
Indian Cretaceous seas. The above-named genera are mainly characteristic of 
the Cretaceous rocks of Europe : two species are common to Europe and 
India. Bones, apparently of fishes, have been lately obtained by Mr. Gnes- 
bach from the Trias of Tibet. Mr. Griesbach tells me that these boD» 
are not uncommon in the Trias limestone, but that he has not jet been 
able to extract any specimens in a determinable condition. 

Eocene, — From the probably Nummulitic rocks of Port Blair, in the 
Andamans, and Ramri Island, off the Arakan coast, there have been obtain- 
ed the oral teeth of a large species of Diodon, which I have lately prori- 
sionally called Diodon foUyi, after Captain Foley, the discoverer of tbe 
E4mri Island specimen. § The living Diodon^ystrix is now abundant off 
the coasts of the Andamans and Arakan, where the genus has doubUess 
lived since the Eocene. From Nummulitic rocks in the neighbourhood of 
Thyatmyo, cycloid fish-scales have been obtained, || but are not genezically 

From the Nummulitics of the Punj&b, some fish-scales and the dental 
plate of a species of ray (Myliohatis) have been obtained by Mr. Wynne.^ 
From strata immediately overlying the Nummulitics of Koh&t, Mr. Wynne 
has obtained the incisor of a sparoid fish belonging to the genus GapiioduSj 
which has been recently described by myself as C, indicus;** the genus 

• Palaaontologia Indica, Ser. IV, part 2. 

t Ibid., Cretaceous Fauna of 8. India, Vol. IV. 

J Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. Lon. Vol. VII. 

} R. G. S. I. Vol. Xni, part I. 

I Manual of Geology of India, p. 716. 

H R. G. S. I. Vol. X, p. 43. 

•* Ibid. Vol. Xin, part I. 

1880.] History of the Fossil Vertebrata of India. 15 

Oapiiodus was previously only known from the Miocene of Vienna and 
Silesia, and is allied to the living genus Sargus, 

MiO' Pliocene. — From the Siwalik rocks there were, I believe, a consi- 
derable number of fish-remains procured by Falconer and Gautley, but these 
were never described : the collection of fossil fish-remains from the Siwaliks 
in the Indian Museum is but snudl. Among the Teleostei, we have the 
sUuroids represented by a very perfect skull, originally described in the 
Society's Journal* by Dr. Cantor as the skull of a huge frog : subsequent^ 
ly this skull was referred by M*Clellandt to the siluroid fishes. The lat« 
ter writer describes the skull as being remarkable for its great breadth, and 
as carrying teeth on the jaws, but not on the palate: M'Clelland also 
thought that the skull might belong to a species of Fimehdus : this deter- 
mination is, I think, certainly erroneous, because the latter genus, with one 
African exception, is entirely West Indian, and it is unlikely that a fresh- water 
genus of fishes should be found in the Pliocene of India, and now only in Africa 
and the West Indies. Many of the living Indian siluroids {Olarius, HeterO' 
hranohusy Silwus, Siluriohthys) have palatal teeth, and the fossil cannot, 
therefore, belong to any of those genera. The Indian genus CAooa, on the 
other hand, is characterized, according to Dr. Gunther,^ by its exceedingly 
broad and depressed head, and absence of palatal teeth, and I think, therefore, 
it is not improbable that the fossil may belong to that genus, though, in the 
absenoe of specimens for comparison, I cannot be sure. Detached vertebrae, 
from the Siwaliks, also indicate the existence of teleostean and, probably, 
fresh v^ater fishes, but of what group is uncertain. Of the Elasmobranchii, 
a few teeth indicate the former existence of a Siwalik Lamna, which proba- 
bly inhabited the larger rivers : a single tooth from the mammaliferous beds 
of the Irawadi belongs to a speci es of Oarcharias, and large squaline vertebna 
have been obtained from Perim Island. From the Siwaliks of Sind and 
the Punjab, we have some crushing palatal teeth of an undescribed fish, 
which I have lately^ sent home for determination. 

Scales of teleostean fishes have been obtained by Col. Godwin-Austen 
from the Tertiaries or post-Tertiaries of Kashmir ; they are not, however, 

The above notes indicate the extreme poverty of the fossil fish-fauna 
ef India — a poverty, I think, in great part due to the want of sufficient 

• Vol. VI, p. 583, 

t Calc. Jour. Nat. Hist. Vol. IV, p. 88. 

X Brit. Mas. Gat. of Fishes, Vol. V, p. 2d. 

16 R Lvdekker— -4 Sketch of the [No. 1, 

Fossil Batbachians. 

Trias-Jura, — We now come to the history of the fossil Batrachia 
(Amphibia), where we shall find an equal poverty of species and genera ; such 
as are known being merely, in all probability, a few relics left from a large 
fauna. The oldest Indian batrachians, like their European and American 
contemporaries, belong to the labyrinthodont order, characterized by the 
peculiarly infolded structure of their teeth. The oldest form of the order 
in India is only known from an undescribed skeleton obtained from a group 
of the Gondw&na system at Bijori, hence named by Mr. Medlicott the 
Bijori group.* This skull was originally exhibited before our Society in 
1864, and commented upon by Mr. H. F. Blanford, who thoi^ht that it 
should be referred either to Archegosawrus or Lahyrinthodofiy'^ adducing some 
evidence to shew that it belonged to the former genus. Subsequently, the 
specimen was alluded to as a true Archegosaurus by the late Dr. Oldham^ 
and still later by Mr. Medlicott. § I cannot discover what has become of 
this most interesting fossil, which is certainly not in the collection of the 
Indian Museum, where it is only represented by a cast. Judging from this 
cast, I think it not improbable that the specimen really does belong to 
Archegosaurus : it much resembles a skull of that genus from the European 
Carboniferous figured by H. von Meyer. || The European species being frcwa 
the Carboniferous rocks does not at all preclude the Indian species from being 
of Triassic age, since there is considerable difference in the range in time of 
the Pre-Tertiary land faunas and floras of the two countries ; genera having 
very frequently survived to a later period in India than in Europe. 

From the Panchet group of the Gondwdnas, we have two labjrintho- 
donts, to which the generic names Faehygonia and Ooniogfyptui haw 
been applied by Professor Huxley ;% these genera are only known by frag. 
mentary skulls and jaws ; they were slender-jawed forms and allied to the 
labyrinthodonts of the Keuper. They are classed by Professor Miall is 
the group Euglypta with Mastodonsaurus and Oapitosaurus, The fossils on 
which the two above-named Indian genera were founded are in the collection 
of the Indian Museum. From the nearly contemporaneous Mangli group, we 
have another labyrinthodont, Brachyops laticeps of Owen, also belonging 
to a genus otherwise unknown, and allied to European Jurassic, and African 

• M. G. S. I. Vol. X, p. 169, (art. II, 27.) 

t J. A. 8. B., Vol. XXXIII, p. 337. 

t R. G. S. I. Vol. IV, p. 70. 

§ Log. cit. 

li PalflBontographica, Vol. VI, pi. XI, fig. 5. 

H Pal. Ind. Ser. IV. part 1. 

1880.] History of the Fossil Vertehrata of India, 17 

and Australian (probably) Triassic forms. The skull on which the genus is 
founded was described by Professor Owen.* The European Jurassic genus 
to which it is allied is Bhinosaurus, the African (Triassic ?), Micropholis, 
and the Australian, Bothriceps; the genus seems to me to be also closely 
allied to Taditantts radiatus of the American Carboniferous. Brachyops 
belongs to the short-jawed group of labyrinthodonts ; and, with the first 
three above-mentioned genera, constitutes the group " Brachyopina** of 
Professor Miall. The skull of Brachyops is, I believe, in the collection of 
the Geological Society of London : it is represented by a plaster cast in the 
Indian Museum. 

Tertiary, — From the Trias to the Tertiary is a long leap, but hitherto 
no batrachian remains have been found in India between these two forma- 
tions. In the lower Tertiaries of the island of Bombay, there occur a lai^e 
number of the remains of frogs belonging, apparently, to two species. Tlie 
smaller of these two species was first described by Professor Owenf under 
the name of jSa7»a pusilla ; subsequently, however. Dr. Stoliczka,J from 
the absence of vomerine teeth and from the structure of the limbs, referred 
the species to the genus Oxyglossus, at the present time living in China and 
Siam, and, possibly, in India. A larger frog from the same beds, noticed by 
Professor Owen in the same paper, has not yet been generically determined. 
I believe that these Bombay frogs are the oldest representatives of the 

Fossil Eep tiles. 

Trias- Jtt/ra, — ^The oldest members of the class Reptilia hitherto found 
in India belong to the orders Dinosauria and Dicynodontia (Anomodontia), 
and occur in the presumably Triassic rocks of Panchet near B^niganj, in 
the horizon known as the " Panchet group.'* The Dicynodon was origin- 
ally described by Professor Huxley § under the vl^loiq oi D, orient alis ; 
additional remains have subsequently been described by myself, || which 
show that this species belonged to the sub-genus Btychognathus of Profes- 
sor Owen. Other remains noticed in the latter memoir, seem to indicate 
the former existence of a second and larger species of Dicynodon, This 
group of reptiles seems, on the whole, to be characteristic of the Trias of 
India, Russia, and Africa. The dinosaur has been named Ankistrodon 
indicus by Professor Huxley,^ and is the only known representative of the 

♦ a J. G. S. L. Vol. XI, p. 37. 
t Ibid. Vol. V, p. 173. 
X M. G. S. I. Vol. VI, p. 387. 
§ Pal. Ind. Ser. IV, Vol I, part I. 
II Ibid, part 3. 
% Loc. cit. 

18 R. Ly dekker— ^ Sketch of the [Xo. 1, 

genus. The teeth of AnJcistrodon, of which only two are known, hare 
laterally compressed crowns, with serrated edges, like those of the dino- 
saurian Megalosaurus and the mammalian Maehcsrodus, and are implanted 
in distinct sockets. The genus is allied to the Jurassic and Cretaceous 
Megalosaurus, and to various Triassic genera. 

From the Denwa group of the Gondwdna system, a large crocodilian 
scute has heen obtained by Mr. Hughes,* which seems to belong to Pro- 
fessor Huxley's undescribed genus Parasuehus. 

From the neighbouring Kota-Maleri group, we have the crocodilian 
Tarasuchus and the lacertian Hyperodajpedon, The genus JParasuchui 
has never been described, but only incidentally alluded to by Professor 
Huxley t ; it was formed for the Kota-Maleri bones : it seems to have been 
closely allied to the Triassic Belodon and StagonolepU, On labels attach- 
ed to the bones of Farasuchus, now in the Indian Museum, there occurs 
the specific name of hislopn, in Professor Huxley's handwriting. Mypero- 
dapedonX is closely allied to the living genus Hatteria (Sphenodon), represen- 
ted by two species in the New Zealand Islands, and, according to Professor 
Huxley, to the Triassic JEthynchosauruSt though this is doubted by Profeaair 

From the undoubtedly Jurassic rocks of Each (Cachh), there has been 
obtained (Cbari group) a vertebra which I think very probably belongs to 
JParastichus, though I cannot be certain ;§ and (Umia group) a fragment 
of a lower jaw of a I^lesiosauruSy which I have named P. tndicus : || the 
specific affinities of the latter cannot be fully determined from the 

Cretaceous. — From the Cretaceous rocks of India, we have, among the 
Dinosauria, a species of Megalosaurus, certainly from the Trichinopoli, 
and probably from the Lameta rocks (middle Cretaceous) \% this genus is 
only known in India by detached teeth ; in Europe, it ranges from the 
Jurassic to the lower Cretaceous (Wealden). From the Lameta rocks, there 
have also been obtained the remains of another gigantic genus of dinosaur, 
allied to the Wealden Feiorosaurus and the Jurassic Ceiiosaurua^ which I 
have named, from the great size of the bones, Titanosaurus ;** from the evi- 
dence of the vertebise, there appear to have been two species, T, indicus &ud H 

• Pal. Ind. Ser. IV. part 3. 

+ Q. J. G. S. L. Vol. XXVI, p. 49, XXXI, p. 427. 
J Ibid. XXV, p. 161. 
{ R. G. S. I. Vol. X, p. 3o. 
II Pal. Ind. Ser. IV, part 3. 
% Ibid. 
♦• Ibid. 

1880.] Ekiory of the Ibssil Vertehrata of India, 19 

hlanfordi, Titanosaurus was a gigantic and, probably, land reptile, but whe- 
ther bipedal or quadrupedal is not known. Remains of another, but much 
smaller, reptile have been also obtained by Mr. Hughes from the Lameta 
rocks ; the remains are, however, not sufficient for generic determination, 
but I think it not impossible that they may have belonged to a dinosaur. 

Of the Cretaceous Crocodilia, we only know of one species by some 
amphicoelian vertebra and scutes obtained by Mr. W. T. Blanford from 
the upper Cretaceous rocks of Sind * As far as I can judge, from these 
imperfect remains, they appear to indicate an animal allied to Suchosaurua 
of the Wealden of England. 

The Chelonia are only known to have existed in India during the Cre- 
taceous period by the evidence of some broken plates, in the collection of the 
Indian Museum, obtained from the Lameta group, from the intra- Trappeans 
of Bajamahendri (Rajamundry), and from the upper Cretaceous rocks of 
Sind. These remains are in far too imperfect condition for even generic 

A large species of Ichthyosaurus, which I have called /. indicus^f is 
known solely by a few vertebrae collected by Mr. Foote in the middle 
Cretaceous rocks of Trichinopoli. Ichthyosaurus, in England, ranges from 
the Lias to the Chalk. 

JEocene, — The only specifically known Eocene Indian reptile vnth which. 
I am acquainted, has been referred by the late Dr. Gray;|; to the genus 
Sydraspis belonging to the family EmydidsB. The specimen on which the 
determination rests is a carapace, from the intra-Trappean rocks of Bombay, 
originally named by Mr. Carter Testudo leithii. The genus Hydraspis is 
DOW found living exclusively in Tropical America. From the Nummulitics 
of the Punjdb, remains of Crocodilia have been obtained by Messrs. Theo« 
bald and Wynne, of the Geological Survey, but are not generically deter- 

Jkfio-Pliocene and Pleistocene. — From the Mio- Pliocene Siwaliks and 
from the Pleistocene Narbadas, a considerable number of reptilian remains 
have been obtained, but, in many cases, have not yet been described. 
Hemains of Crocodilia have been obtained in considerable numbers from 
the Sub-Himalayan Siwaliks and from the corresponding rocks of Burma, 
Perim Island, and Sind ; and many of them have been named by Falconer. 
Of the genus Crocodilus, a Siwalik species has been identified with the 
living C. palustris {bombifrons, Gray).§ Remains of a crocodilian have 

• Pal. Ind. Ser. IV. part 3. 
t Ibid. 

t Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. IV, Vol. VIII, p. 339. 

f Cat. Fobs. Vert. A. 8. B. p. 200. The cranium there named C. palauidicut seema 
to belong to C. palustris. 

20 R. Lydekker— ^ Sketch of the [No. 1, 

also been obtained from the Irawadi and the Narbada, but their speci- 
fic determination is difficult. Of the genus Oharialis {Leptorhynehut)^ 
one Siwalik species has been identified with the living Q, gangetieu$; a 
gharial from the Mancbhars of Sind also belongs to this species. Ado* 
ther long-jawed Siwalik crocodile with slender teeth has been named 
Oharialis leptodus ; and another with much shorter jaws and teeth, G. 
crassidens ; the latter has been obtained from the Siwaliks and from 

Of the order Lacertilia, only one Siwalik representative is known, be- 
longing to the genus Varanus, and named by Falconer V. sivaleiuit,* 
This determination was made on the evidence of a distal extremity of the 
humerus, now in the British Museum. 

The Ophidia are only known by some vertebrse, much like those of the 
genus Python, obtained from the Siwaliks of the Punj&b and Sind : th^e 
vertebrse have not yet been geuerically determined. 

The Chelonia are known by a considerable number of Siwalik, and two 
Narbada, species. Of the land tortoises, we have, firstly, the gigantic extinct 
species, Colossochelys atlas of Falconer and Cautley, from the Siwaliks and the 
Irawadi. Falconer says that the fossil species is mainly distinguished from 
the living genus Testudo by the thickening of the anterior (epistemal) por- 
tion of the plastron ; this character was considered to be only of subgenerie 
value, and I think the species might well be named Testitdo atlas. The length 
of the carapace, according to Falconer's restoration, is 12 feet 3 inches, 
and of the entire animal, with the head and tail extended, 22 feet. 
In addition to ColossochelySy there is good evidence of the former existence 
of other gigantic tortoises in the Siwalik period. In the Indian Moseom, 
there are several specimens of the ankylosed episternals of tortoises belong- 
ing to two distinct species. These bones are as thick, but not so elongated, 
as the episternals of Colossochelys ; they have diverging but shorter exiz«- 
mities than in the latter genus. The animals to which these bones belonged 
must have been, I think, two-thirds as large as Colossochelys, and may not 
improbably have belonged to Testudo. A broken epistemal indicates a 
third, but smaller species. A fourth species is indicated by three episteroali, 
which are not bifurcated at their free extremities : these bones indicate 
a smaller animal The epistemal bones, from their solidity, seem more 
frequently preserved than any others. A single carapace of a small 
tortoise in the Indian Museum, from the Siwaliks, seems to belong 
to the genus Testudo, Among the hard-shelled emydine tortoises. 
we have, from the Siwaliks, a species of Bellia described by Mr. 

♦ Pal. Mem. Vol. I, pi. XXXII, figs, 4-7. 

1880.] Histori/ of the Fossil Vertehrata of India. 21 

Theobald* under the name of B, sivalensis. This species, according to 
Mr. Theobald, is very closely allied to B. crassicollis^ which, according to 
the same writer,t inhabits Tenasserim, Siam, and Sumatra. The other 
living species (B, nuchalis) inhabits Java. Another carapace of a Siwalik 
emjdine, in the Indian Museum, seems to belong to a second species of 
Bellia. In labels on the casts of Siwalik fossils from the British Museum, 
a three- ridged carapace of an emjdine bears the name of JSmi/s hamiltonoides 
(Falc. and Caut.) : this name was doubtless given from the resemblance of this 
carapace to that of the living Damonia {Emys) hamiltoniij now inhabiting 
Lower Bengal : the generic name of the fossil should probably be Damonia. 
An imperfect carapace, collected by Mr. Theobald in the Siwaliks of the 
Punjab, and now in the collection of the Indian Museum, seems to belong 
to Urnya proper. Mr. Theobald has lately described, J under the 
name of Cautleya annuli^er, a gigantic Siwalik emydine, from the evi- 
dence of a single marginal bone ; the genus is said to be distinguished 
from all other emydines by the cartilaginous, in place of osseous, union 
of the marginal with the adjoining bones. In the family Bata^ 
gnridcd^ Dr. Falconer determined the identity of a Siwalik emydine with 
^angshura {JEmyn) tectum of Bell§ ; subsequently, the species was 
shown by Dr. Stoliczkaj| to occur in the newer Narbada deposits also : 
Fangshura tectum now inhabits Lower Bengdl. Of the genus Batagur, a 
part of a plastron from the Narbada has been thought by Dr. Stoliczka^ 
to belong very probably to B. dhongoha, now found living in the Narbada. 
Remains of a large Batagur, from the Siwaliks, are contained in the collec- 
tion of the Indian Museum, but have not yet been specifically determined. 
A small carapace, with a ridge on the vertebral plates, lately presented by the 
Hurki Museum to the Indian Museum, very probably belongs also to Batagur, 
Of the soft-shelled river-tortoises, a Trionyx from the Narbada has been 
thought by Dr. Stoliczka** to be not improbably identical with the living 
T, gangeticus. Plates of an undetermined Trionyx'hdi^e been obtained in 
considerable numbers from the Sub-Himalayan Siwaliks, and from those of 
iBurma and Perim Island. A carapace of an Emyda in the British Museum, 
from the Siwaliks, has been identified by Dr. Gray with the living JSmyda 
vittata (ceylonensis, Gray). This species, according to Mr. Theobald, inha- 

• R. a S. I. Vol. X, p. 43. 
t Catalogue of Keptiles of India, p. 10* 
t R. G. S. I. VoL XII, p. 186. 
i PaL Mem. VoL I, p. 382. 
I R. G. S. I, Vol II, p. 89. 
K Loo. cit. 
♦• Loc. cit 

22 R. Lydekker— ^ Skelch of the [No. 1, 

bits Central and Southern India and Ceylon. In the Indian Museum there 
arc numerous remains of Emyda from the Siwaliks of the Punjab, Burma, 
and Perim Island, which may or may not belong to the last-named species. 
General Remarks, — The foregoing notes will show that the fossil 
reptiles of India are noticeable for the extreme paucity of species knowo, 
and for the fi'agmentary remains of the known species. The Mesozoie 
Roptilia belong, as far as described, to extinct genera: the one known £oeene 
reptile {Hydragpis) belongs to a living genus, but one which is now far 
removed from In^lia. The Siwalik (Mio- Pliocene) reptiles appear in great 
part to belong to living Indian genera, and in many cases to living species ; 
the modem representatives are, however, in most cases, found no longer ia 
the Sub-Himalayan disticts, but are now confined to Southern India. The 
Narbada fossil reptiles, in all probability, belong altogether to living 
species, and probably to species inhabiting the same district. 

Fossil Bikds. 

Mio-Pliocene. — Fossil remains of birds have hitherto been found in 
India only in the Sub-Himalayan Siwaliks, and there only in comparative- 
ly small numbers. Some of their remains are in the Indian Museum, and 
have been partly described by myself,* while others are in the Britash 
Museum, and have been lately described by Mr. Davies.f Among the 
carinate birds, a tarso-metatarsus is considered by Mr. Davies to belong to 
a cormorant, possibly of the genus Oracuius.X A species of pelican (J^ele^ 
canus cautleyi) is indicated by a fragment of an ulna ; this bird, according 
to Mr. Davies, must have been somewhat smaller than the living Indian P. 
mitrattis. Another part of an ulna has been referred to a new species 
(Felecanus sivalensis) by Mr. Davies, with a reservation as to the generic 
determination. A gigantic wader has been described by myself, under the 
name of Megaloscelornis sivaleruU^ from the evidence of a sternum and tibio- 
tarsus. A distal extremity of a large bird humerus in the Indian Museum, 
collected by Mr. Fedden in Sind, has a diameter of 2 inches across the 
condyles : I cannot at present identify this bone with the humerus of 
any living genus of bird : from its size it might belong to Jlljega^ 
losceiomis ; it makes some approach to the humerus of Ploteus. A 
species of adjutant has been named by Milne-Edwards Argala falconeri.^ 

• R. a. S. I. Vol. XII, p. 62. 
t Qcol. Mag. January 1880, p. 18. 

1 This bone was doubtfully referred by M. Edwards to Thaeton. 
\ The bone in the British Museum referred to by myself on page 56 of the aboTa 
quoted paper belongs to this species. 

1880.] Hidory of the Fossil Teriehrata of India, 28 

There are also two small undetermined bird bones in the Indian Museum. 
The Strutbioid or Hatitian modification of bird structure appears to have 
been represented by three Siwalik species ; viz.^ an ostricb (Struthio asiaticus) 
indicated by some of the bones of the lower leg and foot and by vertebra : 
an emeu (Dromaus sivalensisjy by bones of the foot : and, according to Mr. 
Davies, a tbree-toed bird, intermediate between these two genera, by a 
single phalangeal bone. The living ostrich is confined to the African con- 
tinent, and the emeu to New-Holland ; the occurrence of fossil species of 
these genera in the higher Tertiaries of India, probably points to a late land 
connection between these countries. 

Fossil Mammj^ls. 

JEocene. — No traces of mammals have hitherto been detected in India 
below the Eocene, and in the latter formation only some fragmentary bones 
have been obtained by Mr. "Wynne in the Nummulitics of the Punjab. The 
only determinable bones consist of the distal portion of the femur and meta- 
tarsals of a probably perissodactyle animal, and the astragalus of an artiodac- 
tyle.* The femur was obtained from the Nummulitic (Subdthti) zone of the 
Punjab, while the astragalus was obtained immediately above the Nummulitic 
clays of Fatehjang in the Punjab, which are probably of upper Eocene age. 
The astragalus seems certainly to be that of a ruminant, as it belonged to 
an animal in which the navicular and cuboid bones were united, If this 
determination be correct, ruminants existed in the upper Eocene period. 

MiO'Pliocene. — The Tertiary ossiferous rocks of Perim Island, Sind, 
the Punjab, the Sub-Himalayan Siwaliks, Sylhet, Tibet, and the valley of 
the Irawadi, have yielded a large number of mammalian and other verte- 
brate fossils, many of which are represented in the collection of the Socie- 
ty, now transferred to the Indian Museum. The fossils of the Irawadi 
valley were first brought to notice by Crawf urd and Olift, while those 
of the typical Siwaliks were rendered classic by the labours of Falconer and 
Cautley, and other former members of this Society. Some of these fossili- 
ferous beds are of Miocene, and others of Pliocene age, and an admirable 
resume of their distribution and relations are given in the ' Manual of the 
Geology of India,' to which work I must refer my readers desirous of 
further information on this subject. 

The Siwalik Primates are at present known merely by a few frag- 
ments of upper and lower jaws and teeth, and it is probable that more 
species remain to be discovered. The known forms comprehend a large 
anthropoid ape, which has been named Palceopithecus sivalensis ;\ this 

♦ R. G. S. I. Vol. IX, p. 92. In that passage the words " mamntaliferous clays," 
slioiild be " nummuliferous clays." 
t B. G. S. I. Vol. XI I, p. 38. 

24 R. Lydekker— -i Sketch of the [No. 1, 

species is known by the palate of a female and the canine of a male, and 
seems to have been allied to the living orang of Borneo, but is distinguished 
by the form of its premolars; two species of (probably) SemnopUheetu 
and two of Macacus* have also been determined. 

Among the Garni vora, we have a large tiger (Felis cristata)\ charac- 
terized by its large sagittal crest ; a second species has lately been described 
by Mr. P. N. Bose under the name of F» grandicrUtata^X ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ 
larger crest ; while a third and much smaller species is indicated by a lower 
jaw in the Indian Museum. Of the genus Machairodu8 (Macharodus), 
there is M. sivalensis of Falconer and Cautley, said by Mr. Bose to be 
equal in size to the jaguar, and a larger species described by the same 
writer under the name of M. palcBhuiicm. The genus jPseudalurus, dis- 
tinguished from Felis by the presence of an additional lower premolar, ia 
known by one lower jaw, which I have referred to a new species under the 
name of P. sivalensia.^ Among the civet-like animals, we have Viverra 
haJeeri of Mr. Bose, said to be closely allied to the living civet, and 
Ictitherium sivalense described by myself from a lower jaw. || The hyaenas 
are represented by Sycsna sivalensis of Falconer and Cautley, said by 
Mr. Bose to present relationship both to the Indian JJ. striata and the 
African H. crocuta; and H, felina of Mr. Bose, distinguished by the 
absence of the first upper premolar. The dogs, according to the same 
writer, are represented by two species of Canis (G. curvipalatus and C, 
cautley i)^ the latter closely allied to the wolf; there is a specimen of 
the palate of a Ganis in the Indian Museum, but I am at present unable to 
say whether it belongs to either of the above species. The genus Amphi- 
cyon, distinguished from Ganis by the presence of an additional upper molar, 
is represented by A. pal(jpindicm,% remains of which have been obtained 
from Sind and the Punjab. The bears are known by a single undescribed 
cranium of Ursus in the Indian Museum, and by the remarkable genus 
Hycenarctos, of which two species are known : JET. sivalensis** was the origin- 
al species on which the genus was founded, and has the upper molars with 
quadrangular crowns ; a tooth apparently belonging to this species has been 
described by Professor Flower from the newer Pliocene (Red Crag) of 

• R. G. S. L Vol. XIL p. 92. 

f Pal. Mem. Vol. I, p. 315. In manuscript the name of FelU paUsotigrU occuin. 

t Of this and five other species of Siwalik Camivora, described by the same writer, 
I have only seen the notice given in ' Nature,' Jan. 1st; 1880. 

§ R. G. 8. 1. Vol. X, p. 83. 

11 Ibid. p. 32. 

\ Pal. Ind. Ser. X, VoL I, p. 84. Megalotii (OtocyonJ normally agrees with 
Amphicyon in having throe upper true molars : it may, however, according to VviL 
Flower, have four of those teeth. 
•• F. A. S. pi. O. 

1880.] Eistortf of the Fossil Vertehraia of India. 25 

England : the second species, named bj myself H, paUeindieus,^ is known 
onlj bj an upper jaw, not jet figured ; the upper molars of this species 
have triangularly shaped crowns, sonnewhat like those of Amphicyon, Of 
the subursoid Carnivora, we have the living Indian and African genus 
Mellivora, represented by M. sivalemisyf apparently very closely allied 
to the living Indian species. A species of badger (Meles) is indicated 
by one lower jaw collected by Mr. Theobald. :( Of the otters, one species 
of Lutra {L, palteindica) has been named by Falconer and Oautley from a 
skull and lower jaw § ; another lower jaw in the Indian Museum, coUected 
by Mr. Theobald, not improbably belongs to a second Siwalik species. 
Enhydriodon\\ is a genus peculiar to the Siwaliks, and is allied to the living 
sea-otter (Enhydris) now inhalnting the shores of the North Pacific ; the 
Siwalik genus was not improbably a river-dwelling form. 

Of the Proboscidia, now represented only hy the Indian and African 
elephants, there were a large number of Siwalik species, belonging to the 
genera JElephas, Mastodon, and Dinatherium. Of the first-named genus, 
there were three sub-genera living in Siwalik times, viz*<t Muelephas, Loxodon, 
and Stegodon, Ettelephas was represented by M, kysudri&us, provided with 
simpler molars than the living representative of the sub-g^nus ; Loxodan was 
represented by L. planifrons, remarkable for being the only species of 
elephant in which premolars are known to have been developed. The sub- 
genus Stegodon is peculiar to South-Eastern Asia, and was represented by four 
species in the Sub-Himalayan and other Indian Siwaliks : these species 
are named 8. ganesa, S. insignis, 8. bomhifrons, and 8, diftii. The molars 
of the two first are more complex than those of either of the other two, 
and are indistinguishable from each other ; the skull of the first species is 
distinguished by its enormously developed tusks. The intermediate molars of 
8, diftii have not more than six ridges each. From (probably) Pliocene 
deposits in China, two stegodons have been described by Professor Owen 
under the names of 8. sinensis and 8. orientalise which appear to be 
respectively the same as 8. diftii and 8, insignis.^ Of the mastodons, 
five species, M, sivalensis, M, latidens, M, perimensis, M. pandionis, and 
M, falooneriy have been described from the Mio- Pliocene of India : the 
three first-named species belong to the tetralophodont, and the two last to 
the trilophodont, sub-division of the genus : the two first-named species 
have a tendency to a pentalophodont molar formula. Of the European 

• R. G. 8. 1. Vol. XI, p. 103. 

t Ibid. p. 102 : named in * F. A. 8.' UrsitaxM. 

I R. G. 8. I. Vol. XI, p. 102. 
§ F. A &. Bupl. pi. Fl. 

II Ibid. 

% PaU Ind. Ser. X. Vol. I. pt. & (in the press.) 

26 R. Lydekker— -4 Sketch of the [No. 1, 

Miocene genus Dinotheriwn^ three species, D. indicum, 2>. pentapotamim^ 
and D. sindiense, have been described from the Indian Mio- Pliocene : the 
last species presents a remarkable approximation to the mastodons in the 
form of its mandible.* 

The perissodactyle modification of the great order TJngnlata is well 
represented, both in genera and species, in the Indian Mio- Pliocene. Of 
Mhinoeeron there are four named species, JS. iravadicus, R. sivalensis, B, 
palcpindicusj and i2. platyrhinus ;t the molars of the two first are constructed 
on the type of those of JR. sumatrensU ; those of the last on the type of those 
of JR. indicus; JR. sivalensis and S, palaindicus were unicorn, and jB. 
platyrhintM was bicorn. Bones of one species have also been obtained from 
Tibet. The hornless rhinoceroses were represented by Acerotherium peri' 
mensCy of which there is a fine undescribed skull from the Punjdb in 
the Indian Museum. ;|; It is doubtful if the genus Tapirus is represented 
in the fossil state in India ; a symphysis of a mandible has been figured 
in the second volume of the second series of the 'Transactions of the 
Geological Society of London' by the late Mr. Clift, and referred to 
TapiruSf but I think the determination is at least open to doubt. Molars 
of Listriodon were described in MSS. by Falconer under the name 
of Tapirus and so published in the * Palseontological Memoirs/ § The 
genus ListriodonW is represented by two species, 2/. pentapotamico and 
L. theobaldi. The genus Ghalicotherium is represented by one species 
(O. sivalense),^ presenting some peculiar points in its dentition : this genus 
has till lately been classed with Anoplotherium among the Artiodactjla, 
but Professor Cope has lately come to the conclusion that it is a perisso- 
dactyle allied to JPalaeotherium. The horses are represented by the genera 
JEquus and JHJippotherium {Ripparion). JEquus is known by a Siwalik 
species (JE. sivalensis) ** never fully described, and by one from the Tibetan 

* For figures and descriptions of the Indian fossil Proboscidia, see F. A. S. and 
Pal. Ind. Scr. X, Vol. I, pt. 5 (in the press) : a jaw of D. pentapotamia was described 
as Antoletherium by Falconer. 

t F. A. S. and Pal. Ind. Ser. X, Vol. I. 

J Some molars of this species were described by myself under the name of JWiiw- 
eeros planidens. H. Sivalensis has lately been made the type of a new genus ZakHs 
by Prof. Cope, but on insufficient grounds. 

§ Vol. I, p. 415. 

II Pal. Ind. Ser. X, Vol. I. and R. G. S. I. Vol. XI, p. 98 I have followed Pro- 
fossoT Cope in classing this genus with the tapirs ; Eowalewsky was inclined to place 
it among the artiodactyles. 

f Pal. Mem. Vol. I, pi. XVII. 

** Professor Huxley (Q. J. G. S.L. 1870, Presid. Address) remarks that sorni of 
the Siwalik horses show traces of a *' larmial" cavity on the skull. I do not know 
whether this remark applies to the Siwalik or Narbada horse, but probably the former 
as the older. 

1880.] History of the Fossil Vertehrata of India. 27 

Tertiaries : of Hippotherium, there are two Siwalik species, H, antilopinum 
and S, theobaldi* : remains of the genus have also been obtained from 
Tibet. M. Gaudrj remarkst that the Siwalik Hippotheria have no lateral 
digits ; this may possibly be the case with H, antilopinum^ but it is 
certainly not so with the larger H. theobaldi, of which there is a nearly 
complete tridactyle foot in the Indian Museum. JET. theobaldi has not 
yet been fully described ; it is very like H. gracilcj to which species some 
Siwalik molars were referred by H. von Meyer]; under the name of JE^uus 

Of the artiodactyle modification of the Ungulata, there is a still longer 
list in the Indian Mio-Pliocene. In the bunodont sub-division, we have 
Sippopotamus represented by two species (H, iravadicus and H, sivalen* 
»is)y both belonging to the hexaprotodont sub-genus. A Siwalik bunodont 
(Tetraeonodon magnum) § is noticeable for its enormous conical premolars ; 
this genus is probably related to Entelodon (JSlotherium) of the Ter* 
tiaries of Europe and America. The true pigs (Sus) are represented by 
three species, 8. giganteus^ 8, hgsudrict^, and 8, punjabiensis ; the two 
former were named by Falconer and Cautley, while the last name was applied 
by myself. || 8anitherium is a small suine animal, only known by the lower 
molars. JSippohgus is a genus of suine animals whose molars present a pecu« 
liar complexity of pattern, recalling that of the molars of the horse ; the 
genus is peculiar to the Siwaliks, where it appears to have been repre* 
fiented by two species.^ The European Miocene genus Eyotherium is 
represented in the Tertiaries of Sind and Perim Island by a species which I 
have provisionally named H, sindiense.** Of the suine animals with sele- 
nodont teeth, we have, among the forms with five cusps on the molars, a 
species of Anthracotherium (A, silistrense)ff from Sind, the Punjab, and 
Sylhet, and a species of Hyopotamus (JEL, sindiense)XX from Sind: among the 
forms characterized by having only four cusps on the molars, we have four 
genera, Mergeopotamus, Charomeryx, JSemimeryx, and 8ivameryx,%^ all 
peculiar to the Sind and Punjab Siwaliks, and each known only by a single 
species : || || the two last genera are at present undescribed. 

* Milk-molars of this species were at first referred to a new genus, Sivalhippus^ 
by myself (R. G. S. I. vol. X. pp. 31. 82). 

t ** Animanz Fossiles and Geolog^e d^ TAttique" p. 231. 

t PalsBontographica, Vol. XV, p. 17. 

§ Pal. Ind. Ser. X, Vol I. 

II R. G. S. I. Vol. XI, p. 81. A Buine animal has been named by myself ffippo* 
potamodon, but I am now not certain of its generic distinctness. 

f Ibid. p. 82. •• Ibid p. 77. 

ft Ibid. p. 78, a jaw of this species was described by me as A. ptmjabiense, 

}t Ibid. Vol. X, p. 77. §§ Ibid. Vol. XI, pp. 78, 80. 

nil Falconer in a MS. note described some teeth of J><n'catheriumj under the name 
of Merffcopotamm nanus, (Pal. Ind. Ser. X, VoL 1.) 

28 R. Lydekker— ^ Sketch of the [No. 1, 

Among the true ruminants, we have the deer family represented bj 
several species of Oervus, namely, O. trtpUdenSf O, simplieidens, and O. 
latidens ; the genus of the last being somewhat doubtful. A fourth 
undescribed species has been named C, sivalensis.* The genus Dorea- 
therium is represented by the two species, 2>. majus and 2>. m«ittM.t 
At least one of the Siwalik deer had branching antlers with a flattened beam, 
somewhat like those of the living O, duvaueellii, Oervu9 iriplidens had a 
large accessary column in the molars, while O. timplicidens was a species as 
large as the K4shmir stag, with a much smaller accessory molar column. A 
single molar in the Indian Museum seems to indicate a Siwalik representative 
of the genus Pdlaomeryx. The giraffes were represented in India by pro- 
bably two species, one of which has been named CamelopardalU sivaieU' 
9is.X Of the family SivatheriidiB, which, with the exception of Helladothe* 
rium^ from the Pikermi beds of Attica, is peculiar to India, we have four 
genera in the Mio- Pliocene. Ifydaspitherium is represented by probably 
three species, S. megaeephalwn known by the skull, which carried a 
massive conjoint horn-base above the occiput ; and H. l^tognathu9 and 
H, ffrande, by lower jaws and teeth. Bramatherium perimetue is known 
by the skull, teeth, and jaws ; this species seems to have carried a pair 
of horns over the occiput and a large conjoint horn-base on the fron- 
tals. Vishnutherium iravadieum is at present only known definitely 
by a fragment of a lower jaw from Burma of much smaller size than any 
of the other genera : it is not impossible, however, that some nondescript 
upper molars, in the Indian Museum, from the Punjab, may belong to this 
genus. Sivatherium giganteum was the first known of this group of ani- 
mals, and was originally described in the Society's Journal || as a fossil elk : 
several skulls of this species are known ; the male carried two pairs of horns, 
placed like those of the living Indian four-homed antelope {Tetrae&ro9\ 
while the female was hornless. An elaborate memoir on this interesting 
animal has been published by Dr. Murie.^ The molar teeth seem to be 
nearest to those of the giraffes, and also approach those of OervuM 
tnegaceros and Alces : Dr. Murie comes to the conclusion that the horns of 
Sivatherium were intermediate in structure between the antlers of deer 
and the horns of the true cavicorn ruminants, and that they probably 

* PaL Ind. 8er. X, Vol. I, Preface (in the press). 

t Ibid. 

X Remains of this species were described under the names of O, sivaletuis and C 
^finit by Falconer. See R. G. S. I. Vol. XI, p. 83. 

{ PaL Ind. Ser. X, Vol. I, R. G. S. I. Vol. XI, p. 90. M. Gaudry in his work, 
'Les Enchainements du Monde Animal,' mentions that HeUadotkerium occnn in 
India : I am unacquainted on what grounds. 

II Vol. IV, p. 606. 

f Geol. Mag. Vol. VIII, p. 438. 

1880.] History of the Fossil Vertehrata of India, 29 

carried a deciduous sbeath like those of the living American prong-buck 
(Antilocapra). Of the antelopes, several species have been described, the 
largest of which (A, palaindieaj)* is supposed to have presented affinities 
to some African forms ; A, sivalenstsf is allied to the Indian blackbuck 
(A. cervieapra) ; while A. patulicomis and A, acutioomis do not appear 
to come close to any living forms. Other molar teeth belong to a 
species of Portaa, now only represented by the living nilghai of India. 
Others again are like those of Falaofyx, a genus of antelopoid ani- 
mals described from the Fikermi beds of Attica; this determination, 
owing to the absence of skulls and the g^eat difficulty of precisely deter- 
mining isolated ruminant teeth, is only provisional. The oxen are repre- 
sented by five genera, among which Hemihos is represented by three species, 
H, occipitalis, H. acutieomiSy and S. antilopinus :X this genus is peculiar to 
the Siwaliks, and connects the oxen and antelopes. Leptohos falconeri is 
another species of antelopoid oxen, known by some crania. The genus 
Bubalus is represented by Buhalus platyceros, a species with horns concave 
superiorly; and, in the highest Siwalik, by B.palaindicus, which is extreme- 
ly close to the living wild buffalo of Assam. Of the genus BisoUy there 
is only one species in the Siwaliks, which has been named B. sivalensis, and 
which seems to have been related to the extinct European B. priseus. Of 
the true oxen (Bos) there are three Siwalik species, namely, Bos aeutifrons 
remarkable for its enormous horns and angulated forehead ; B, planifrons 
with shorter horns and a flattened forehead, and allied to the gigantic Bos 
primigenius of Europe ; and Bos platyrhinus only known by the lower half 
of a skull, and of which the generic affinities are doubtful. There seem to have 
been four species of goats in the Indian Tertiaries, most of which are probably 
of Pliocene age, viz.^ an unnamed species with horn-cores very like those 
of the Himalayan Capra faleoneri (markhor), and two named species, 
C sivalensis and C perimensisy both of which are only known by front- 
lets and horn-cores: the fourth species has been described by Professor 
Butimeyer under the name of Bueapra daviesii. No remains of the 
genus Ovis have hitherto been described from the Sub-Himalayan or 
other Indian Siwaliks, but a cranium obtained from the presumably 
Siwalik strata of Tibet has been referred by the late Mr. Blyth to this 
genus. The genus Oamelus is known by O. stvalensis, which presents a pe- 

• Pal. Mem. VoL I, pi. 28. 

t Pal. Ind. Ser. X, YoL L Two species (A, pieta and A. pyricomisj were named 
in MSB. by Falconer. 

t Thefle three species have been also described under the generic names of Hvbu* 
AfllKt, AmphiboBy and Fifribof ; the synonomy will be found in the first volmne of the tenth 
series of the 'PalsBontologia Indica,' where all the other Indian fossil ruminants are 
noticed. Part of this volume \a still in the press. 

30 R. Ljdekker— -4 SIretch of the [No. 1, 

culiarity in tbe lower molars, connecting it with the American aucbeniaa, 
and distinguishing it from the other old-world camels.* The similarity of 
the lower molars of the Siwalik camel and Auehenia is very noteworthy, 
since America is supposed to have been the original home of the Gamelida : 
this supposition is supported by the connection between the liying Ame- 
rican camels (Auehenia) and the Pliocene old-world camels. 

The other orders of Mammalia are only represented by a few species 
of Eodentia and one of Edentata. Among the rodents, a rat (ifiw) is 
mentioned by Falconer as a member of the Siwalik fauna. A species of 
bamboo-rat (Rhizomys sivalensis)^ has been named by myself, from some 
lower jaws collected by Mr. Theobald in the Punj&b. A porcupine (Hysiris 
sivalensts) is known by a part of a cranium and a lower jaw. 

The edentates are only known by one species of pangolin (Monk 
Mindiensis), which has been named on the evidence of a solitary phalangeal 
bone from Sind.{ 

The Mio-Plocene mammalian fauna of India, as a whole, is charac- 
terized by the great number of forms belonging to the orders including 
animals of large corporeal bulk, and also by the admixture of modem Afri- 
can and Miocene European genera with those now peculiar to India. The 
Proboscidia and the perissodactyle Ungulata, now so sparingly represent- 
ed on the globe, were abundant in Mio- Pliocene India, and were probably 
the dominant forms : the ruminants have now diminished somewhat in num- 
bers in several groups, but not to such a striking extent as the proboscidians. 
The selenodont hogs, like Merycopotamt» and Anthracotherium, belong 
to a group which has completely passed away, while their congener the 
hippopotamus is now confined to Africa. Of the larger mammals nov 
inhabiting India, nearly all are generically represented in the Pliocene, 
while forms, like Anoa (the living representative of Semibot), inhabiting 
neighbouring countries seem to have descended from Indian ancestors. 
The micro-mammalia are practically unrepresented in the Mio-Pliocene, 
but this is probably due to the smaller chance of their remains being pre- 
served in a fossilized condition, or, if so preserved, of being discovered. 


The mammals of the Pleistocene of India are as yet even less well 
known than those of the Mio-Pliocene, owing to the smaller areas in which 

* A second species of Siwalik camel was named in MSS. C, antiquus by Falconer. 
This species cannot now be identified. 

t For descriptions of this and other Siwalik rodents, see B. 0". S. I. Vol. XI, p> 
100. Rhi»omy» is probably the same as Typhlod<m of Falconer. 
i Pal. Ind. Ser. X, Vol. L 

1880.] History of tie Fossil Vertehrata of India. 31 

thej are found. It seems, however, even with our present knowledge, to 
be pretty safe to say that the numerical strength of species of the 
larger mammals so characteristic of the Mio-Pliocene had disappeared in the 
Pleistocene. From the older alluvium of the Jamna river, mammalian hones 
have been obtained in considerable quantities, but only two species have been 
satisfactorily determined ; the remaining bones have only been generically 
named, and are, therefore, not referred to here, as it is in many cases 
impossible to say whether they belong to living or to extinct species. 
The presence of Hippopotamus remains in a stratum is pretty good 
evidence of such stratum being not newer than the Pleistocene. The 
discovery of a molar and canine of this genus in the alluvia of the Pem- 
ganga river, by Mr. Fedden, consequently shows that some of those deposits 
should be referred to the Pleistocene. In many cases, as in the delta of 
the Ganges, it is often most difficult, or impossible, to draw the line between 
the Pleistocene deposits and the Recent aUuvium of the same area. 

In the laterite of Madras, stone implements, and a human tibia have 
been found by Mr. Foote, and are assigned to the Pleistocene by Profes- 
sor Boyd-Dawkins. Stone implements have likewise been obtained from 
the ossiferous beds of the Narbada valley, in association with the remains 
of extinct mammals. The mammalian fauna of the Narbada beds comprises, 
among the Carnivora, a species of bear (Ursus namadicus), named by the 
authors of the ' Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis' on the evidence of a portion of 
the maxilla with the molar dentition : this specimen is now in the British 
Museum, presented by Captain Frazer.**^ Among the Proboscidia, we have 
the extinct Suelephas namadicus, characterized by the extraordinary ridge 
on the forehead ; the molars of this species are very like those of the Eu- 
ropean Ulephas antiquus, from which Professor Leith Adams has thought that 
the Indian and European forms might belong to the same species. Stegodon 
was represented by 8, ganesa and, possibly, by S, insignis. Among the fossil 
perissodactyles of the Pleistocene, we have Rhinoceros deccanensisf of Mr. 
Foote from the Deccan, a species without permanent lower incisors, and 
shewing African affinities ; and from the Narbada the living i2. indicus^ 
remains of which were at first named i2. namadieus, A third species 
(R. namadicus) probably also existed in the Pleistocene. The horses are 
represented by Equus namadicus,X as yet' not fully described. Among 

* F. A. S. plate 0. I have elsewhere mentioned a species of Felit from the NaT« 
bada beds, the determination having been made on the evidence of the olecranal por- 
tion of an ulna in the old collection of the Geological Survey ; the history of the 
specimen is, however, unknown, and from its mineral condition I am by no means sure 
that it is from the Narbada. 

t Pal. Ind. 8er. X, Vol. I. 

{ Faun. Ant. 8iv. E, palaonua seems to be the young of £, namadicus. 

32 R. Lydekker— ^ Sketch of the [No. 1, 

the arfciodactylesy we find two species of MippapotamtM, one of wluch 
(H, namadictu) belongs to the hexaprotodont type, while the other (R, 
palaindieus) is tetraprotodont, like the hu^er living spedes;* S, 
paMndieu9 has also been found in the older alluvia of the Jamna. 
The pigs seem to have been represented bj Sus giganteusjf A species of 
stag was named by Falconer Gervus namadicug, but never described; 
a single molar from the Narbada in the Indian Af useum is indistin- 
guishable from the corresponding tooth of the living O. (Bucertnu) 
duvaueellii. Three species of Narbada oxen have been described, vu., 
Bos namadicus of Falconer and Cautley, a taurine ox showing some affini- 
ties to the living Asiatic genus Bihos, also occurring in the Pem-ganga 
alluvium and, possibly, in the Deccan ; Bt^alus palteindieus of the 
same authors, very closely allied to the living wild Indian bufEalo, also 
found in the Jamna alluvium ; and Leptohos frazeri of Professor Buti- 
meyer. A species of nilghai (Portax) has lately been described by 
the same writer from the Narbada rocks, under the name of P. namadiciu; 
teeth of the same genus have also been obtained from the Pem-ganga allii- 

The Pleistocene rodents are only represented by some incisors proba- 
bly belonging to the genus Jlftf«, obtained from the Narbada valley, and 
now in the Indian Museum. 


The Recent deposits have not yet, as I have said, in many cases been 
satisfactorily separated from the Pleistocene, and the very local occurrence 
of mammalian bones renders this point of doubt one not likely to be soon 
cleared up. Any alluvial deposits of bones from which Hippopotami is 
absent, and which do not contain any other extinct animals, I should be 
disposed to class as Recent. 

Human remains have been obtained in the alluvium of the plains in 
various localities, at considerable distances below the surface, but generally 
in very imperfect condition. Specimens of the teeth and jaws of Maeacut 
rhesus are exhibited in the Indian Museum, obtained from the allum 
of Assam and Madras ; those from the former locality are in a highlj 
mineralised condition. Molars of the Indian elephant have been obtained 
in the alluvium of the plains of India, and in that of the delta of the 
Irawadi. A last upper molar of Bhinoeeros indicus has been obtained 
by Mr. Foote in the alluvium of Madras : this specimen is very interesting 
as shewing the former range of that species far to the south of its present 
habitat, which Jerdon gives as " the Terai from Bhotan to Nepal." Siu 

• The smaller Liberian hippopotamus fCluBropaUJ has only two lower inciBOis. 
t The authority for introducing this species in the Narbada fiiuna is the spedmefl 
drawn in plate LXX, fig. 8. of the F. A. S. 

1880.] History of the Ibssil Vertehrata of India, 33 

mdicua has also been obtained by Mr. Foote in tbe same formation. Antilope 
eervieapra is represented by a fossil horn-core in the Indian Museum whose 
exact localitj is uncertain. Antlers, born-cores, and teeth of species of B09 
and Cervu9 have been obtained from alluvia of various parts of the plains, 
and from raised beaches on the Eattiawar (Kattjwar) coast ; as, however, 
those specimens are not yet specifically determined, no more can be said 
about them. 

List of the Fossil Yebtebbata op India asd Bubma. 

The following list exhibits in a systematic form all the well-establish- 
ed species of Indian and Burman fossil vertehrata, together with the best 
authenticated of the unnamed species with which I am acquainted. For 
the g^at divisions of geological times, the terms Anthropozoic (Age-of- 
Man), Theriozoic (Age-of-Mammals), Saurozoic (Age-of-Eeptiles), and 
Ichthyozoic (Age-of- Fishes), have been employed in lieu of the old terms 
Post-Tertiary, Kainozoic, Mesozoic, and Palaeozoic, as being more applicable 
to a chronology of vertebrate evolution, and as forming a series of symme« 
trical terms. 


1. Recent Alluyia. 

MAMMALIA. Pbimates. Homo (sapiens ?). Plains. 

Macacus rhesus. Gtilpara and Madras. 
Pboboscidia. Euelephas indicus. India and Burma. 
Ungulata. Rhinoceros indicus. Madras. 

Sus indicus. Madras. 
Cervus. Eattiawar. 

Antilope eervieapra. Ganges Valley. (?) 
Bos. sp. Kattiawar and Plains. 
REPTILIA. Chblonia. ? (plates) Calcutta. 

Other undetermined remains of, probably, recent species. 

2. Pleistocene. 

MAMMALIA. Pbimates. Homo. sp. Narbada (weapons) and Madras 

(weapons and bones). 
Cabnitoba. Ursus namadicus. (F. and C.) Narbada. 
Pboboscidia. Euelephas namadicus. (F. and C.) Narbada. 

Stegodon ganesa. (F. and C.) Narbada. 

? insignis. (F. and C.) Narbada. 

? Mastodon pandionis. (Falc.) Deccan. 
Ungulata. Rhinoceros deccanensis. (Foote.) Deccan. 

■ indicus. (Cuv.) Narbada. 

■ namadicus. (F. and C.) Narbada. 
Equus namadicus. (F. and C.) Narbada. 

84 R. Lydekker— ^ Sketch of the [No. 1, 

MAMMALIA. Ungulata. Hippopotamus namadicus. (F. and C.) Narbada. 

— ^— pulseindicus. (F. and C.) Nar. and J. 

ep. P : G. 

Sns giganteus. (F. and C.) Narbada. 

Cervus sp (? duvancellii) (Narbada). 

Bubalus palsindicus (F. and C.) Narbada and J« 

Bos namadicus. (F. and C.) Narbada. P: G. 

and (?) Deccan. 

Leptobos frazeri. (Riit.) Narbada. 

Portax namadicus. (Riit.) Narbada. and P : G. 
RoDEirriA. Mus. sp. Narbada. 
EEPTILIA. Cbocodilta. Crocodilus (?) sp. Narbada. 

Ch£L02?ia. Pangsbura tectum. (BelL sp.) Narbada^ 

Batagur (? dbongoka ) Narbada. 

Trionyx (? gangeticus.) Narbada. 


1. Plio-Miocenb. 

MAMMALIA. Pbimates. Palseopithecus sivalensis. (Ljd..) S. 

Macacus sivalensis. (Ljd.) S. 

sp. S. 

Semnopitbecus subbimalajanus. (Myr.) S. 

sp. S. 

Cabnitoba. Felis cristata. (F. and 0.) S. 

grandicristata. (Bose.) S. 

sp. S. 

Macbairodus sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. 
— ^— — palseindicus. (Bose) S. 
Pseudselurus sivalensis. (Ljd.) S. 
Ictitberium sivalense. (Lyd.) S. 
Viverra bakerii. (Bose.) S. 

Hyaena sivalensis. (F. and C.) S» 

felina. (Bose.) S. 

Canis curvipalatus. (Bose.) S. 

cautleyi. (Bose.) S. 

Ampbicyon palaeindicus. (Lyd.) S. Sd. 
Ursus. sp. S. 

sp. I. 

Hysenarctos sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. Sd* 
■ palsBindicus. (Lyd.) S. 

Mellivora sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. 
Meles, sp. (Lyd.) S. 


nUtory of the FosmU Vertehrata of India, 



MAMMALIA. Cabkitoba. Lutra palseindica. (F. and C.) S. 

Enhjdriodon sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. 
Pboboscidia. Euelephas hysudricus. (F. andC.)S. 

Loxodon planifrons. (F. and C.) S. 
Stegodon ganesa. (F. and C.) S. 

insignia. (F. and C.) S. 

bombifrons. (F. and C.) S. 

cliftii. (F. andC.)S. 

Mastodon sivalensis. (F. and 0.) S. 

latidens. (F. and C.) S. I. Sd. P. 

perimensis. (F. and C.) S. Sd. P. 

pandionis. (F.) Sd. S. P. 

— ^-^ — falconeri. (Lyd.) Sd. S. 
Dinotberium indicum. (Falc.) S. P. 
■ pentapotami». (Falc.) S. 

sindiense. (Lyd.) Sd. S. 

''Cbalicotberium sivalense. S. Sd. 
Bbinoceros iravadicus. (Lyd.) I. 

palaeindicus. (F. and C.) S. 

platyrbinus. (F. and C.) S. 

■ sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. Sd. 

sp. Tibet. 

Acerotberium perimense. (F. and C.) P. Sd. S,L 
Listriodon pentapotamise. (Falc. sp.) 

tbeobaldi. (Lyd.) S. 

(?) Tapirus, sp. (Clift.) I. 
Equus sivalensis. (F. and 0.) S. 

sp. Tibet. 

Hippotberium antilopinum. (F. and C.) S. 
tbeobaldi. (Lyd.) P. S. Sd. 

^ sp. Tibet. 

'Hippopotamus iravadicus. (F. and C.) L 

sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. 

Tetraconodon magnum. (Falc.) S. 
Sus giganteus. (F. and C.) S. 

- bysudricus. (F. and C.) S. P. Sd. 

- punjabiensis. (Lyd.) S. 
Hippobyus sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. 

sp. S. 

Sanitberium scblagintweitii (Myr.) S. 
Hyotberium sindi6nse(Lyd.)Sd. 
Antbracotberium silistrense. (Pent.) Sy. S. Sd. 
^Hyopotamus pal»indicus. (Lyd.) Sd. 








R. Lydekker — A Sketcli of the 

[No. 1, 

M AM M ALIA . Ungulata. fMerycopotamus dissimilis. (F. and C.) S. 

Chaeromeryx saistrensis. (Pom.) Sy. 
Hemimeryx, sp. (Lyd.) Sd. 
Sivameryx, sp. (Lyd.) Sd. 
Cemifl triplidens. (Lyd.) S. 

sivalensis. (Lyd. Mss.) S. 

simplicidens. (Lyd.) S. 

(?) latidens. (Lyd.) S. 

Dorcatherium majus. (Lyd.) S. 

minus. (Lyd.) S. 

PalsBomeryx, sp. (Lyd.) S. Sd. (?) 
Camelopaidalis sivalensis. (F. and C.) S. P. 

— ^-^— sp. S. 

Hydaspitherium grande. (Lyd.) S. 

' leptognathus. (Lyd.) S. 

— megacephalum. (Lyd.) S. 

Bramatherium perimense. (Falc.) P. 
Sivatherium giganteum. (F. and C) S. 
Visbnutherium iravadicum (Lyd.) I. S. (?) 
Antilope palseindica. (F. and C.) S. 

patnlicomis. (Lyd.) S. 

porrecticornis. (Lyd.) S. 

■ sivalensis. (Lyd.) S. 

? PalflBoryx, sp. (Lyd.) S. 
Portax, sp. (Lyd.) S. 
Hemibos occipitalis. (Falc. sp.) S. 

acuticomis. (Falc. sp.) S. 

' antilopinus. (Falc. sp.) S. 

Leptobos falconeri. (Rut.) S. 
Bubalus platyceros. (Lyd.) S. 

. palseindicus. (F. and C.) S. 

Bison sivalensis. (Falc. MSS.) S. 
Bos acutifrons. (Lyd.) S. 

planifrons. (Lyd.) S. 

platyrhinus. (Lyd.) S. 

Bucapra daviesii. (Riit.) S. 
Capra perimensis. (Lyd.) P. 

sivalensis. (Lyd.) S. 

sp. (Lyd.) S, 
? Ovis, sp. (Blytb.) S. T. 
Camelus sivalensis, (F. and C.) S. 


1880.] Butory of the Fossil Vertehrata of India. 37 

MAMMALIA. Bodhttia. Mqs. sp. S. 

Bhizomys sivalensis. (Ljd.) S. 

Hjstrix sivalensis. (Ljd.) S. 
Edentata. Mania sindiensis. (Ljd.) Sd. 
AVES. Cabikatje. Graculus (?), sp. (Dav.) S. 

PelecanuB cautleyi. (Dav.) S. 

— P sivalensis. (Dav.) S. 
Megaloscelomis sivalensis (Lyd.) 
Megaloscelomis. (?) sp. Sd. 
Ajrgala falconeri (M. Ed.) S. 

BATiTiB. Strnthio asiaticos. (M. Ed.) S. 

Dromseas sivalensis. (Lyd.) S. 

Gen. indet. (Brit. Mus. Col.) S. 
BEPTILIA. Cbocodilia. Crocodilus palustris (Less.) S. P. 

— • sp. I. 

Gharialis gangeticus (Gmel.) S. Sd. I. 

leptodus (F. and C.) S. 

crassidens. (F. and C.) S. Sd. 

Lacebtilia. Yaranns sivalensis. (Falc.) S. 

Ophidia. Gen. indet. S. Sd. 

Chelonia. Oolossochelys atlas. (F. and C.) 

Testudo (?), 5 sp. S. 

Bellia sivalensis. (Theo.) S. 

sp. S. 

Damonia hamiltonoides. (Falc. sp.) S, 

Emys, sp. S. 

Cautleya annuliger. (Theo.)S. 

Pangsbura tectum. (Bell, sp.) S. 

Batagur, sp. S. 

Trionyx, sp. S. I. P. 

Emyda vittata. (Pet.) S. 

sp. S. I. P. 

PISCES. Elabmo- Carcbarias, sp. I. 

BBAKCHii. Lamna, sp. Sd. 

p (vertebrae.) P. 
P P (palatal teetb) S. Sd. 

Teleostbi. Cbaca (?), sp. S. 

P (vertebrae.) S. Sd. 

2. Eocene (Intbatbappean and NtTMMULiTic). 

MAMMALIA. Ungulata* (perissodactyle femur). Punjab. 

(artiodactyle astragalus) Punjab. 


E. Ljdekker — A Sketch of the 

[No. 1, 

EEPTILIA. Cbocodilia. 





(teeth and vertebrae) Punjib. 
Hydraspis leithii (Carter sp.) Bombaj. 
Oxjglossus posillos. (Owen, sp.) Bombaj. 
(?) sp, Bombaj. 

Mjliobatis, sp. (Ljd.) Punj&b. 
Diodon foleji, (Ljd.) Bamri I. and Pt. Blair. 
Capitodus indicos. (Ljd.) Punjab. 
P (Cjcloid scales) Nr. Tbayetmjo. 


1. Cbetageous Sebies. 

EEPTILIA. DmoBAJTBiA., Megalosaorus, sp. (Lameta and Tricbinopoli) 

Titanosauros blanf ordL (Ljd.) Lameta gp. 

indicus. (Ljd.) Lameta gp, 

? (unknown reptile.) Lameta gp. 
(ampbicselian sp.) (Ljd.) Sind. 
? (plates.) Lameta, Eajamabendri, and Sind. 
IcHTHYOSAiTBiA. Ichth josaurus indicus. (Ljd.) TrichinopolL 
PISCES. Elasmobbanchii. Corax incisus. (Eg.) Tricbinopoli. 

pristodontus. (Ag.) Tricbinopoli. 

Encbodus serratus. (Eg.) TrichinopolL 
Lamna complanata. (Eg.) TrichinopoU. 

sigmoides. (Eg.) TrichinopolL 

Odontaspis constrictus. (Eg.) Tricbiaopoli. 

oxjpeion. (Eg.) TrichinopolL 

Otodus basalis. (Eg.) TrichinopoU. 
divergens. (Eg.) Tricbinopoli. 

-' marginatus. (Eg.) TrichinopolL 

■ minutus. (Eg.) Tricbinopoli. 

nanus. (Eg.) Tricbinopoli. 

semiplicatus. (Eg.) TrichinopolL 

Oxjrhina triangularis. (Eg.) Tricbinopoli. 

sp. (Stol.) Tricbinopoli. 

Ptjebodus latissimus. (Ag.) Tricbinopoli. 
Pjcnodus (?), sp. (Stol.) Tricbinopoli. 

? (scales) Lameta. 

P (scales) Intratrappean. Bajamabendrl 



2. Jttba-Tbiassio Sebies. 


EEPTILIA. DnfOSAUBiA. Ankistrodon indicus (Hux.) Pancbet gp. 

Cbocodilia. (ampbicselian sp.) (Ljd.) Chari gp. 


Mistory of the Fossil Vertehraia of India, 


B£PTILIA. Obogodilia. Parasuchus, sp. (Hux.) (hidopii. MSS.) 

Maleri gp. 

? sp. (Lyd.) Denwa gp. 

LacebtilijL. HyperodapedoQ, sp. (Hux.) Maleri gp. 
DiCTNODON- Dicjnodon orientalis. (Hux.) Panchet gp. 

TiA. sp. Panchet gp. 


BTA. Plesiosaiirus indicus (Lyd.) Umia. gp. 
BATBACHIA. Labybintho- Brachyops laticeps. (Ow.) Mangli. gp. 

DONTIA. Gonioglyptus longrostris. (Hux.) Panchet gp. 
Pachygonia incurvata (Hux.) Panchet gp. 
Archegosaurus (?) Bijori gp. 
PISCES. Dipnoi. Ceratodus hislopianus. (Old.) Maleri gp. 

hunterianus. (Old.) Maleri gp. 

virapa. (Old.) Maleri gp. 

Ganoibei. Dapedius egertoni. (Syk.) Eota gp. 

Lepidotus breviceps. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

calcaratus. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

deccanensis. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

longiceps. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

— — pachylepis. (Eg.) Kota gp. 
Tetragonolepis analis. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

■ oldhami. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

rugosus. (Eg.) Kota gp. 

? ? (Scales) Sripermatdr gp. Kota gp. 

1. Cabbonifebous. 

Sigmodus dubius. (Waag.) Salt-range. 
Poecilodus paradoxus. (Waag.) Salt range. 
Psephodus indicus. (Waag.) 
Helodopsis elongata. (Waag.) 
abbreviata. (Waag.) 




giganteus. (Waag.) do. 

Psammodus, sp. 
Petalorbyncus indicus. (Waag.) 
Xystracanthus gracilis. (Waag.) 
major. (Waag.) 

Thaumatacanthusblanfordi. (Waag ) do. 

Abbreviations used in the above, 

Ag. = Agassis ; Dav. = Davies ; Eg. = Egerton ; F. and C. = Fal- 
coner and Cautley ; Gmel. = Gmelin ; Hux. = Huxley ; I. = Irawadi 

40 R. Lydekker — A Sketch of the History^ Ife. [No. 1, 

(Irrawaddj) vallej, Burma ; J. = Jamna ; Less. = Lesson ; Ljd. = 
Lydekker ; M. Ed. = Milne-Edwards • Myr. = Herman von Meyer ; Old. 
= Oldham ; Ow. = Owen ; P. = Perim Island, gulf of Cambay ; Pent. 
= Pentland; P : G. = Pem-ganga; Pet. = Peters; Pom. = Pomd; 
liiit. = Riitimeyer ; S. = Siwaliks (including Punj4b) ; Sd. = Sind ; 
Stol. = Stoliczka ; Sy. = Sylhet ; Syk. = Sykes ; T. = Tibet ; Theo. = 
Theobald ; Waag. = Waagen. 


In the foregoing sketch of the fossil vertebrata of India, but few 
new facts have been recorded, and, indeed, the main objects in penning it were 
the hope, firstly, of inducing persons interested ia. scientific enquiries to 
aid us in our endeavours to increase our knowledge of this interesting 
branch of science, and, secondly, of making one of those landmarks, so neces- 
sary in an ever-increasing subject like the present, from whence new 
advances can again be made. With regard to the first object, it may be 
observed that District Officers in India, and other officials, in the course 
of their periodical professional tours through the country, have far greater 
opportunities of collecting the larger and more conspicuous fossils than can 
possibly fall to the lot of the officers of the Geological Survey of India, 
who are few in number, and who, for years t<^ether, are not called upon to 
visit many parts of the country. To all who have opportunities of travelling 
through unfrequented parts of India likely to contain fossil remains, 
the appeal is here made for assistance in our endeavours to obtain a more 
complete knowledge of the fossil vertebrata of India. Any fossils sent 
to the Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India (Calcutta) will 
be most gratefully received, and, after comparison or description, either 
returned to their owners, or, if presented, carefully preserved in the 
collection of the Indian Museum. 

iVb^tf.— Additions to this paper have been made while it was passing through the 
press, bringing it up to date. 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0« Standard Weights. 41 

V. — Aceotmt of the Verification of some Standard Weights with consi- 
derations on Standard Weights in general, — Bg CoL. J. F. Tenn ant, 
K. E., F. R. S., Master of Her Majestg's Mint, 

(Heed. Jan. 6th;— Eead Feb. 4th, 1880.) 

When I first contemplated the verification of a series of weights from 
a primary standard, I had little information as to procedure, and indeed 
1 have till now had little as to details. I had intended in this paper to deal 
with the verification of a whole series of ounce weights ; but circumstances 
beyond my control have delayed the latter portion, and I think that probably 
this shorter paper will be as much as the patience of my readers will stand : 
in it are described, with examples, all the cases I shall meet ; while the ex- 
planations will, I trust, enable any one to follow my procedure and some- 
how to verify any other set of weights. This end being gained^ the delay 
of the paper to add the numerical results of farther work, would add little 
to its popular, or even scientific value, and this circumstance has induced 
me to offer it in its present state to the Asiatic Society. 

I am aware that I am open to the charge of excessive (factitious) 
accuracy, and I freely admit that I have used an excessive number of 
decimal places ; but the number was originally fixed by the fact that it caused 
no trouble and saved thought. The difference between the trouble of 
dealing with 5 or 6 figures and 4 with an arithmometer is, in my case, more 
than compensated by the absence of the absolute necessity of watching 
the increase of the last figure : and too, 1 had not, till 1 had gone some 
way with these weighings, so clear an idea of the probable errors as I now 
have. The systematic calculation of these is, so far as I know, new : 
it has taught me much, and guided me where I might have gone wrong. 
1 think that it should always be carried out ; but of course, the foundation 
of the calculation — the estimation of the probable error of one comparison, 
will not commend itself to all men : — those who in other respects may 
follow my procedure may prefer a different course in this, and, when the 
system of weighment is different, this datum must be determined in a cor- 
respondingly different manner. Even then, 1 hope, that the conclusions 
I have come to may have their use, for the evidence they offer of the rapid 
accumulation of error in multiplying from a small primary standard, is quite 
independent of the amount ascribed to the error of one comparison. 

I have added the Tables requisite in reducing the comparison of weights 
of varying density and in determining specific gravity. These are deduced 
from the same data precisely as those used in the British Standards Depart- 
ment^ but I have employed Fahrenheit's thermometer, the English iuch^ and 

42 J. F. Tennant— On Standard Weights. [No. 1, 

the English grain, because, to me, those units were more accessible (as they 
will be to most readers of the English language) and not because I prefer 
them. I have thought that it was more important to aToid conveisioDS 
of the data before using them than to adhere to general considerations ; 
just as (with the late Warden of the Standards) I have preferred uniformity 
of data for reduction ; rather than a possible scientific accuracy, which is, 
after all, not demonstrably gained. 

Section I. — On Weights. 

In May 1879, I received from England a set of Bullion Weights of 
gilt bronze, with their errors on the Commercial Standard of England 
roughly given, and a Troy Ounce of Platinum-iridium, with its error in va- 
cuo in terms of the Parliamentary Standard Pound PS. I at the same 
time received a set of Metric Weights of Platinum-iridium from 100 grammes 
to one milligram, with their errors in terms of the Kilogramme des Archives, 
which is the Normal Standard weight of France. My paper here will be 
confined to dealing with some of the Bullion Weights : and it will be neces- 
sary in order to understand the procedure I follow, and also the scientific 
principles of weighing, that I should give an account of the English 
system of weights. 

Ordinary weights are made of brass, iron, or some other cheap metal, 
but all these are liable to oxidation, and thus none of these metals is suitable 
for a Standard. The metal chosen for the English Standard was platiQum, 
which is nearly indestructible. Since then it has been found that, whereas 
platinum is soft, an alloy with iridium is hard, has the other advantages 
of platinum, and can be made with sufficient readiness for the purpose 
required : this alloy is used in my Primary Standards as it is in the European 
Standards now being made in Paris. The use of such substances for 
Standard Weights, however, leads to some complication : these metals are 
heavy ; while the metals and alloys ordinarily used are comparatively light. 
Now the weight of a body in air is different from its weight in vacuo by 
the weight of the air displaced, and this varies with the state of the atmos- 
phere : consequently the relative weight of a pound of brass and one 
of platinum, which are alike in vacuo, will, in air, be found to vary con- 
tinually relatively to each other. In order to avoid the inconvenience of 
this, it has been found desirable that the Commercial Standard should be 
of brass or bronze ; both of vrhich, having nearly the same density as the 
metals used in ordinary weights, will show the same differences at all times 
and places, with sufficient accuracy for commercial purposes ; and which, 
moreover, are cheap enough to allow of the weights of all sizes being made 
of them. For general Standard purposes, weights are now made of gilt 
bronze, the gilding preserving them to a great extent from changing by 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— On Standard Weights. 43 

As the Parliamentary Standard o£ England P S. has its true weight 
in yacuo,* the first impression would he, that the Commercial Standard in 
ordinary air should weigh the same as P S. in vacuo : hut this has not heen 
the practical solution. When the Houses of Parliament were destroyed in 
1834, the English standards were destroyed in them, and the new Standard 
-was meant to he a restoration of the old one. Now the old Standard 
was a hrass Troy Pound made in 1758, of which there were a variety of 
copies more or less accurate. On the evidence from these, and some other 
sources, was determined the difference between the lost pound and a piece 
of platinum, both taken in vacuo. Then (the Government of the day 
having determined that the new Standard should represent the Avoirdupois, 
and not the Troy Pound as before), a second piece of Platinum P S. was 
made which should weigh very nearly 7000 such grains as those of which 
the destroyed Pound (U) contained 5,760, both being taken in vacuo, and it 
is believed that the result was accurate to a very small fraction of a grain, 
thanks to the great labours of Professor Miller. In reverting to the 
Commercial Pound, that would be 7,000 grains of wbich U weighed 5,760, 
both taken in air, and then, as the density of the new commercial Pound 
was very close to that of U, all sensible uncertainty arising from the de- 
struction of U and the impossibility of knowing its exact deubity would 

Professor Miller found the Platinum Pound P S. to be 700000093 
grains of U both weighed in vacuo, and by Act of Parliament, this was 
declared to be the true standard of weight, and that one grain should be a 
seven-thousandth part of it. The Commercial Pound W was an imaginary 
Found, supposed to be made of brass of a density of 8*15034, which was 
what Professor Miller estimated as the density of the lost Pound U. 
Though the standard in vacuo was changed, as above, by a minute quan- 
idty, it would have been wrong to change the weight of W in air. In 
order then that its weight in vacuo should become that of the Pound P S., 
it became necessary to suppose that this weight in vacuof) and consequently 
its density, were changed, and to ascribe to it a new density of 8*1430. 

The present definition of the English Commercial Pound then is — 

* I have followed the wording of my predecessors, but I should prefer to call the 
<' mmght in wteue" the " Mats" and restrict the term *^ weight'' to the apparent force 
exercised. If this distiiietion were made, the questions involved would be much clearer. 
The Parliamentary Standard has been treated as one of Mass ; hence two of the gilt 
secondary standards, each of the same Mass as P. S., will not have ordinarily the same 
weighty unless they have the same specific gravity. 

t The weight in vacuo was 7000 grains of U, and in consequence of the Act of 
Parliament it became necessary that it should be the same as that of P S. or 7000*00093 
grains of U. 

44 J. F. Tennant— On Siandurd WeighU. [No. 1, 

The weight Id standard air of a piece of brass whose weight in vacao 
is the same as that of P S., and whose density, compared with that of water 
at its maximum density (the brass being at the freezing point), is 81430. 
If we know the value of a weight in terms of P S , we shall he able 
to find its value in terms of W by adding the weight of air displaced bj 
the same weight of brass similar to that of which W is supposed to be made, 
and deducting that actually displaced by the weight to be determined. 

The Standard Platinum-Iridium ounce sent me is certified to weigh (in 
yacuo) 479'95979 grains in terms of P S., and the density has been assumed 
as 21*414, which is that of the 100 gramme weight. In English Standard 
Air its weight is given as 480'00502 grains, but that datum is useless for 
purposes of reference. It is called E I in the books of the Standards 
Ofiice in London, and I propose to retain this name. 

The ounce weight of the bullion set was certified to weigh 480*00145 
grains in vacuo in terms of P S. and 48000208 grains in English Standard 
Air in terms of TJ^^ 

The following matter must be borne in mind in order that the 
procedure in my weighments may be understood : 
The sign = means that the weights on each side of it are equal in 

The sign » means that these are equal in air at the time ; and, in the case 

of Commercial Weights, that they are sufficiently equal 
for practical purposes at all times. 
The sign ^ means that the weights on each side being in the respective 

pans of the balance there would be equilibrium. When no 
division of the scale is mentioned as the resting point, it 
is assumed to be 10 for Oertling No. 1 and 15 for Oertling 
No. 2. 
On is one of the set of Gilt Bullion Weights — ^the subscript number denotes 

its nominal value in Troy ounces. 
Pn is one of a set of grain weights which have been used for small quan- 
tities, and n is the number of grains nominally : all weights 
not less than 1 grain are of platinum and have been cleaned 
by incandescence in a spirit-lamp. The tenths of grains 
are of aluminum and the hundreths of uncertain material. 
B^ and B^ are two riders (approxinately of one-tenth of a grain each) used 

with the balance Oertling No. 1. 
The Tables I have used in my reductions have been calculated by my- 
self to the units of the Barometer and Thermometer scales commonly 
used in England, and which it was most easy for me to refer to. That 
for the density of air, has been calculated from the formula given by Pro- 
fessor Miller, in his paper in the Philosophical Transactions, with the neces* 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0» Standard Weiglits. 45 

eary changes for units, and for the position of Her Majesty's Mint at 
Calcutta. The density of water has been calculated from a formula similar 
to Professor Miller's ; but with the constants deduced from the new Tables 
of the British Standards Office. The other Tables, for the expansion of 
metals, are deduced from the same data as those of Professor Miller, but the 
form makes them more compact and conyenient without any loss of accu- 
racy. All will be found at the end. 

Section II. — The Balances, 

Oeriling Xo, 1 is a chemical balance by Oertling with a beam 365 
m. m. (14*56 inches) between the extreme knife edges. The principal 
knife edge is 28 m. m. (1*1 inches) long and the smaller ones 16' 5 m. m. 
or 0'65 inches ; all are of agate resting on agate planes. The beam is 
divided for the use of riders, and I have satisfied myself that the divisions 
are sufficiently accurate for this purpose. The scale is placed on the lower 
part of the pillar, and is read by a long index attached to the centre of the 
beam : this is in my opinion, the best arrangement. 

Oertling No, 2 is a balance whose beam carries knife edges 404 m. m 
(15*9 inches) apart. The central knife edge is 38-4 m. m (li inches) 
long and those at the ends, 22 m. m or 0*87 inches. They are all of 
agate and rest on agate planes. The beam is very strong, and divided with 
sufficient accuracy for the use of a rider. There is an index of soft iron 
at each end of the beam to read an ivory scale. The left scale had very 
fine graduations and appeared to me useless. I have substituted a better 
one and removed the right scale. 

Section III. — Density of O Set of Weights. 

In order to compare Oi with EI it is necessary to have a density of 
Oj : I have determined that of O3 and assumed it to be the same as that 
of Oi and of the other O weights. 

It appears from the papers received from the Standards Office that 
O3 s 3 Troy ounces s 1440 grains with sufficient accuracy for this 
purpose, its exact value will be seen later. 

On July 4th 1879, the balance Oertling No. 1 having been prepared 
for taking specific gravities, and a platinum hook, intended to support O3 
in water, having been hung by a fine wire of platinum so as to be immersed 
in distilled water ; Og was placed in the pan in air, and counterbalanced 
with weights. O3 being then placed in the hook, and all air bubbles care- 
fully removed, it was found that ; X being about 1490'2 grains: 

X ^ O3 in water (temp. = 84**. 1) + hook &c. in water + (O.3 + 


0-04 + O.0Q6 + 0.004) in air + 4. -r^ at 10*02 divisions of the scale — 

46 J. F. Teiinant— O/t Standard Weiglts. [No. 1, 

then, removing Og from water, carefully drying it, and placing it in the 
pan, I found after adding 180 minims of water 

X :^ Oj in air + hook &c. in water + 2*72 ^ at 10'02 divisionB. 
Hence the loss of weight apparently = O.g + O.q* + O,^ + O.^^ + 

My approximate calculations gave me the sum of the ahove four 
weights as 167-6400 grains, and the value of the rider is approximately ^th 
of a grain, the difference from the true value being negligible. Hence the 
loss of weight between air and water was 1675528 grains, and, though I 
did not observe the Barometer, it may be considered as 29-46, and the tern- 
perature 87°'5 ; this gives A O, = 8-5649. 

Again on July 7th, I found in the same way. 

(A) X + 6 — =^ O J in water -h hook &c. in water 

+ 167-54i grains + 3 ^ at 13 30 Div. 

R, ^ . ^ ..,«.. i. I'water 84^25?. 

(B) X + 5 — i- =^ Og m water + hook &c. m water 

+ 167-54. grains + 6 -j^ at 4*72 Div. 

and, after adding 169 minims of water. 

(C) X + 5 YY =as O J in air + hook &c. in water + 7 ^ at 14-80 Div. 

Bar. 29^-446. 

(D) X + 5~^=^0, inair-h hook Ac. in water + ^ ^ a* 8-85 Div. 

Temp. 85*7 P. 
Hence by interpolating between (A) and (B) 

X -f 6 ^ sfe O3 in water + hook Ac. in water ^ 

Water 84**-25F. 

Air 85-7 
Bar. 29445 


+ 167-54 grs. +4*14 

and from (C) and (D) 

X + 5— i- =^08 + hook &c. in water + 8-49 -^ 

Thus the loss of weight was apparently 167*4965 grains, and A Og = 8-5676. 
Giving this last result triple weight, on account of better observing, we hare 
as a mean ; A Og = 8-5669 : which may be considered the density for all 
the weights of this set ; and which will not be altered by the true values of 
the weights used, being substituted for the approximate ones. 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0» Standard Weights. 4/1 

Section IV. — Sygtem of Weigliments, 

I have adopted a uniform system of weigbment for comparing the 
weights. Some years ago I made a considerable number of experiments 
on the species of errors which occurred in practice, and the present system is 
the outcome : there have been minute deviations, but in all material points the 
procedure has been uniformly followed, and I think it has been successful 
in eliminating all progressive errors. The principal of these is the ten* 
dency of the arms of the balance to expand unequally with temperature, 
but there are others which have occasionally been found. I annex specimens 
of the form I have used in work. 

The weights to be compared being placed in the pans, a preponderance 
is given to one side of the balance ; so as to make the resting point, when 
the whole is in equilibrium, lie on one side of the centre point ; yet so slightly, 
that the weight used to get the value of the scale, shall deflect the resting 
point to the other side. In the first example with Oertling No. 1, it will 
be seen, that with £1 in the left pan and O^ in the right, the Bight Rider 
was placed at 1*2 of the beam scale ; in this state the index had its 
resting point at 7'54 divisions (10 being the middle). Then the weight 
P.QI was added to the left side and the resting point became 15*81 Div. 
Each resting point is deduced from 4 readings, two low l-^ and l^, and 
two high \ and h^. The beam having been carefully released, the 
first excursion outwards, and the return towards the scale centre, are neglec- 
ted ; and the next four readings of the extremes of oscillation taken. The 
first reading will thus usually be low, if the resting point be low ; and high, 
if that be high : but, when signs of irregularity occur, this may not be the 
case, as 1 have always, in such cases, freely omitted readings till the oscillations 

have become regular. Then, supposing a low reading first, -^ -^ and 

-^ * — ' would be readings of the resting points, and the sums in the nu- 

merators have been rapidly formed separately during the work, added, and 

divided by 8. This has been afterwards checked by -^^ q — "^ • 


of course, when h comes first, the h's take the place of the V9 in these 
formulse, and vice versd. 

We thus have two "partial weighments^^ 

EI :^ Oi -h 1-2 -^ at 7-54 divisions and 
EI + P-oi =^ Oi + 1-2 ^ at 15-81 divisions 

48 J. P. Tennant— 0» Standard WeighU. [No. 1, 

from which I get, by interpolation, as a result of the '^ weighmenf' 
EI ^ Oi + 1-2 ^ -P.01- |||orOi + 1-2 ^-0-297 P^ 

The second weighment is made after the weights are interchanged in 
the pans and the result deduced the same way. These t<^ether make one 
" comparison ;** and then a second comparison is made, every operation baing 
followed, but precisely in the reverse order, to make a " complete compari- 
«o»." The result of the four equations when summed is 

4 EI s 4 Oi + 0191 P.Qi or 
EI s Oi + 004775 P-oi 

The interpolations are made with sufficient accuracy with a slide 

In all the comparisons of the O set and P set, except those of EI 
with Oj, which were made with the balance Oertling No. 1, I have used 
one of the riders (the right) to add a constant weight to one side and 
the other in variable positions. Assuming that the rider can be accurately 
placed on the divisions, and that these are suffiiciently accurate, it seems 
to me that I may safely use the rider in this way, and that the error of 
determination of the weight of the rider will thus be of less importance 
than that of a small weight. 

In the case of the very small weights I have added the weight P^ to 
one pan, and P,* to the other, in order to steady them, with great ad- 

Section V. — Determination ofO^yin tenns of the English 

Commercial Pound. 

I have before mentioned that I have received as a Standard a Troy 
ounce of Platinum- Iridium, whose weight in terms of the Parliamentary 
Standard Pound P S. is 47995979 grains of PS.; and I have explained 
the relations between the English Standard Pound and the commercial 
Pound. In order that I may determine the errors of the Bullion set of 
Weights, it is necessary that I should determine Oj in terms of the English 
Commercial Pound : I have it is true the determination made in London, 
but it is necessary to verify this, not only to make the standard of weight 
now, identical with that I should get again, but also because the gilt 
weights may have slightly changed in the long voyage. 

The Barometer I have used is an Aneroid Barometer by Brown- 
ing, which I have found give corrected Barometer readings without 
sensible error. I have, except in the first comparison, used two Ther- 
mometers which were examined for me some years ago at Kew, aud 
whose zero point I have recently re-determined : these were suspended in 
the balance case of Oertling No, 1, so as to hang about half way between 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0;i Standard Weights. 49 

the pillar carrying the central plane, and the suspensions of the scale pans. 
The Humiditj has been deduced from a new Masons Hygrometer : I have 
not the errors of its Thermometers, but they are modern, and not likely to 
have any producing sensible corrections to my result. 

The following is a specimen of computation for the comparison of EI 
and O^ which is entered in the type form ; in it, i? EI = volume of water 
at its greatest density which is displaced by EI at 32°. F. 

wt. EI 479-95979 
it therefore = -^- = -^^:^jj- = [1-35051] 

May 24th, 1879 a. u. 
Commenced at 6 h. 48 m. Ended at 7 h. 83 m. 

Dry Bulb 85 9 F. Dry Bulb 854 

Wet do. ^ I ^^^^ Tension ^et do. m | ^^^^^ tension 

Diff. 4-9) ^•^^''^- 5-3) ^-^^''''- 

o in. 

Mean of Thermometers 85*5 Mean Bed. Barometer 29*605 
Correction 000 0189(0-993 +0-960) =0369 

Mean Temperature 8550 h. = 29 236 log — 1 46592 

log At (Tab I.) 5-59005 

705597 705597 

log V EI 1-35051 log V Oi ... 174842 

(Tab. III.) log(l + EPt) 0-00035 (Tab. III.) log (1 + E Bt) ... 000066 

Air displaced by EI ^ . „ _ o. ^0^00 Air displaced by Oj ) , _ o.^rt-wiR 
= 0<)25517 gra. j '°» - ^ *^3 = 063831 grs. ]'<«-» 80506 


Weight EI in Vacuo = 479 95979 of P S. 
Air displaced = — 0-025517 

EI s 479-934273 

Air displaced by Oj = + 0-063834 
Oj s EI — 0000476* 

Oi = 479-997632 

• In section IV, I found EI = Oi + 04775 P.qi and (Sec. VI) P.qi - 0-009947 grains. 

60 J. F. Tennant— 0« Standard WeighU. [No. 1, 

Abstract of Comparisons. 
1879 May 24, Oj = 479-997632 P S. grain. 
28, „ -997489 

30, „ -996732 

31, „ -997266 

„ June 1, „ -996911 „ 

Mean Oj = 479997206 ± 0000115 P S. gnins. 

I have received, from the Meteorological Reporter to the Government 
of Bengal, the following mean data for Calcutta which 1 take as the defini- 
tion of Standard Air 


Reduced Barometer,... 29*787 \ 

r« . ^^ ^ « f whence A A 

Temperature, 79*0 P. > «» 7.06610. 

Humidity, "76 per cent. / 

Hence I have weight of Oj = 479 997206 grains of P S. 
Deduct displaced Standard Air = — 0065178 
Add Standard Air for ^«^ W = -f 0-068571 

O^ 5 480000599 grains of English Com- 
mercial Poimd. 

This value differs slightly from that sent me and which 1 have quoted 


Sectiok VL — On the determination of the errors (^single weights. 
In the interval between O^ and O^q there are, in all English bullion seta, 
weights O5, 0.J, O3, and Og ; so between O^o and (^^ come 0^ 0^ 0^ 
and O5Q, and so on. 

Between these weights we may make comparisons giving the foUowbg 
equations : 

Oio s Og + O4 + Oi + d?i ± e (a) 
= Og + O3 + Og -h or'i ± e (i) 
« O4 + Oa + O2 + Oi + a/'i + o {e) 
O5 s O4 + Oi -f- iTg + e e being the p. e. of one com- 

Og = O3 + O2 + *8 ± e [parisoa 

O4 = Oj -h Oi + a?^ + e 

Os = O3 -h Oi + a?6 ± e 

Hence we have Og s 2 O^ + ar^ — x^ -V ^% ± e \/3" 

Og s 3 Oi -h iTg + ^4 — *8 + ^2 ± e \/3r 
O4 = 4 Oi -f dfg -h 2xj^ — d?3 4- iTg ± e \/7 
Ofi s 5 Oi + cFg + 2a?4 — iTg + 2j?2 ± e \/iO 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0» Standard Weights. 61 

^ s 10 Oi + 2d?6 + 4a?4 — 2ar3 + Sarg + a?! ± o \/34 from (a) 

^10 j s 10 Oi + 2iF6 -h 4a?4 — 3a?3 + ^r^ -f ar/ ± e \/46 from (6) 

Cs 10 Oi + 2^5 -h 40^4 — arj + arj +ir/ ± e \/39 from (<?) 

iirhich equations give the ascending series ; and it is important to note, that 
if the probable error of the observations be alike, there is a disadvantage in 
using any comparison but (a), and that even if (b) and (6) be observed as 
checks, the J should not be used in computing, as they will lower the weight 
of O^o, on the accuracy of which we are dependent for continuing the up- 
ward series ; thus the mean value of O^q from (a) and (c) will be 

Oio s 10 Oi + i (4d?6 + 4r4 — 6x^ -h 6x^ + a?i -f a;^") ± e \/^- 
and if the series (b) had been involved the loss of probable accuracy would 

have been greater. 

Neat as to descending or decreasing series from W^q, 
IH, Descending through (a) 

o. a=AO„-h '''~"^ ±WW 

0« a A Oio + A (2*. + 4r» — 2*, — ar, — 4*,) ± e v/*i~ 
O, = A 0.0 + ^ (4r, — 2*. — 4r, + <r, — 3;rJ ± e s/^f 

O, = A Oio — ^ (**. — ar« + 6*, — 4;p, + 2*0 ± e >/|i~ 
0» s Vff O.o — ^ (2«. + *p» — 2x, + 3*. + * J ± e V^^ 

Again descending through (fi) 
O, s V^ Oi, + i(*, — *,') ± e v^ii" ^ 

0« s A Oio + T^r (2*. + 4r» + 2*. — &P, — 4*/) ± e ^/i§ 
O, s tJ\j 0.0 + T>ff (4^^. — 2«« — *, — 2ar. — 3*.') ± e y/fj- 
O, 3 -At 0,0 — ^^^ (4r. — 2af» + 4p, — 2«, + 2^;/) ± e \/f^ 
O. s tIj 0.0 — tV (2*. + 4«^ — 3«, + 4p, + */) ± e ^/^§. 

Also descending through (c) 

O, s T^O.o + -! ^ 1- ± e v/^» 

O. s Vfe 0,0 + T^ (2*. + 4*« + 2a:, — 2ar, — 4a:/) ± c %/^ 

O, s T^ 0,0 + tV (4*. — 2*. — «, + «, — 3*,*) ± e >/-U_ 

O, 3 A 0,0 — ^ (4*. — 2*4 + 4*, — 4x, + 2*,*) ± e s/^ 

O, s ^ 0,0 — -At (2*. + 4«rt — 3*. + 3«, + «,') ± e s/^]}. 

If we were to be guided here by the same consideration as before, we 
should absolutely prefer the use of series (a) alone, but it is easy to sec, 
that as the probable error of O, involves only y^ of that of 0,0 ; the 

52 J. F. Tennant— 0« Standard Weights, [No. 1, 

determination of its weight will be almost entirely dependent on the error 
generated in the comparisons of the group* of the series, and not on that 
derived from the starting weight : this renders the choice less important. 

As a matter of fact I have worked both through (a) and {b) taking 
the mean result and in this case. 

O. 3 V^ 0,0 + i (*8 + *. + d?, -h */) ± e s/\f 

O* s T^ 0,0 + tV (4*6 + "8^4 — 8*. — 4d?, — 4p,0 ± e \/H _ 
Os - T% 0,0 + ifi (8a?. —4a?^ — 5d?, — *, — 3*, — 3*,0 ± e s/^ 
O. s ^ 0,0 — Vir(8*. —4*^ + 10*,— 6*. -f 2*, -h 2*,0 ±e\/|^ 
Oi = T^y 0,0 — A (4*, + %x^ —5*, 4- 7*, + *i + *,0 ± e 

Mj choice was a matter of accident, but it turns out that the sum of 
the squares of the probable errors of all the deduced weights is less than for 
any one of the single series. 

The other system of weights, which I have in this paper slightly to 
deal with, is what I shall call the " English grain systemJ'^ In it the weights 
interpolated between 10 and 1 are 6, 3 and 2. Thus starting from either 
end of the decad there are four weights to be derived ; bat among these 
weights alone, only three equations can be obtained. 

p,„ = p. + p, + p, + *. 
p, = p, + p. + p. + «, 
p, = p. + p, + *.. 

To make a definite resect the best plan is to use a second P, called 
P,': P., -f P.J + P., from the next lower decad height be \i8ed but the 
equations would not be independent for the separate decads. 

P, = P, -h P,' -h x^ and P, = P,' -h X. 

and we now have 5 equations to determine 5 quantities, and the result is 
definite. Of course by substituting P', for P,, we can get 3 more equations 
like the first three, but the labour would be increased, and the result would 
still be definite, though slightly more accurate, especially as regards the 
spare weight P,'. 

From the equations we have ; in ascending (increasing weights) 

Px'=Px"-*5 ± e. ^ 

P. = 2 P, — ar. + d?^ ± e \/2 

Ps = 3 P, — *, + ar^ + «, ± e \/3" 

* 1 nse tlie term deead to include the weights from 0*1 to 1, or from 1 to 10, &c., 
the last being ten times the first ; and a ffroup of equations consists of those cosnectuig 
the weights of a decad. 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0» Standard Weiglts. 63 

P. = 6 Pi — 2ar, -f 2*^ + «3 + «, ± e >/W 
P,o = 10 Pi — 3*3 + 3*^ + 2ar, + *, -f ar, ± e v^SiT" 
While deseendingy we have 
P. = A Pio — iV (2*a - 2a;, + 2^, - 4*. + 6* J ± e ^/fT 
P, = APio — tV(*5— **— 4*, +3a;, +3^J± e V^fg-_ 
P. = APio — A (4*5 — 4** + 4^, + 2*3 + 2*0 ± e s/^ 
Pi =tVPio +tV(3*5— 3**— 2*. -*, — *J± e v^f^ 
P/= T^ Pio — i^y C^*5 + 3*^ + 2ar, + *, + *J ± e V^fJ. 

Section VII. 

1 now proceed to the determination of the actual values of the weights 
helow Oi, and of the P set, in commercial grains. The equations have all 
been determined in terms of the rider R^, in the balance Oertling No. 1, and 
they are given in this way. Of course the whole of the computations were 
made with this unknown factor, but it has been determined (see page 56) 
and the value has been substituted in the results to save repetition. 
The difEerences between the two determinations of the constant term in 
each equation are given, and from them is derived a probable error of one 
equation. I had intended that the observations in each decad should be 
separately valued, but when that is done the results are so nearly alike 
that it seems unnecessary to adhere to this. The mode of determining the 
probable error of each weight is the subject of the next section, but the 
values are given in this. 

Value of Weights of W set hehw W^ with Balance Oertling No, 1. 

I have here the following equations : 

Oj 3 O.J + O., + O.^ —0-213325 R^ Difference = 2600 

O, sO., +0., +0., —0-238825 „ „ =1450 

O.e sO.^ +0.1 —0001800 „ „ = 350 

O., sO.3 -hO., —0124325 „ „ = 500 

O.^ sO., +0., —0 002913,, „ = 825 

O., sO., +0., —0011113,, „ = 275 

0.1 sO.05 -h 0.04 +0.01 —0033200 Rj Difference = 200 

0.1 s0.05 +0.0, + 0.0. —0 042213 „ „ = 2925 

0.05 «0.o4 +0.01 —0020938,, „ = 475 

0-05 -0.0, +0.0. —0032138 „ „ =1475 

O.o* =0.0, +0.01 —0030838 „ „ = 775 

O.oa -0.0. +0.01 —0035763,, „ = 475 


J. F. Tennant — On Standard Weights. 


0.«, sO. 




^'00 6 ™* ^' 













+ 0.004+0.00.— 0012263 R, 
0.„„. +0-00, +0.00.— 0021500 
+ 0-001 —0076963 

+ 0.00. —0 015813 

+ O001 —0040638 

+ 0-00 1 —0093775 „ 

sO-o, +0-00. — 0.016100 B. 

From these equatious I deduce 

grs. gis. 

s 240000300 + 0056006 R^ s 240006927 






DifEerence = 425 
= 150 


0-00. sO. 



= 1625 
= 1725 
= 675 
= 100 
Difference = 200 






O.n. S 


On, S 


o.«. = 


0.«, s 








O ' = 


Vr.ft o ■ SSS 


s 192-000240 -h 0127762 
s 144000180 + 0100631 
s 96000120 + 0081700 
s 48000060 + 0030044 
s 24000030 -h 0020606 
19 200024 + 0015988 
14-400018 + 0021269 
9-600012 -h 0031475 
4-800006 + 0025537 
2-400003 + 0030932 
1-920002 -h 0065261 
1-440002 — 0018011 
0-960001 + 0033130 
0-480001 -h 0-042634 
12000016 + 036101 
















a 192013076 

= 144 010290 

s 96-008328 

s 48003078 

s 24002100 

s 19-201630 

5 14-402155 

s 9-603180 

s 4-802574 

s 2*403111 

5 1-926559 

s 1-438193 

s 0-963329 

5 0484284 

5 12-003642 

p. e, = 0000061 
















The two largest weights P,^ and P *^ of the P set are each approii- 
matelj equal to 24 grains and their sum is of course nearly = O.^ but 
they are of platinum while O.^ is of gilt bronze. Small as these are the 
errors cannot be neglected when accuracy is required. The purpose of 
the determination being mainly to get the values of the small weighU of 
the P set with accuracy so that they may be used to determine differences, 
it is enough to correct the value above given of O. ^ so that the deduced 
value of P.,^ + P,"*!^ may be the same as if the comparison had been 
made in standard air. For all ordinary purposes the resulting values of 
these weights may be used without correction. 

I have found that 48 grains of platinum would weigh less in my 
standard air than under the circumstances of the observation by O.OOO063 

grains. Also O^ = P,^ + P.* -h 0050238 R,. 

The value of O.^ is s 48000060 + 0030044 R^ 
/. in actual air P,^ + P.* s 48 000060 — 0020194 R, 
and the correction to standard air is — 000063 
Hence in standard air P,^ + P.* = 47999997 — 0020194 R^ 


J. F. Tennant — On Standard Weights, 


I shall for convenience write M for 47*999997 grains and place the equations so far as 
tey are necessary to determine the weights down to P^ in a form suitable for use thus — 


4- P* 

14 -^14 



M + 0020194 R, s 0-275 R^ 

— p 

p p 

-^10 -"^ 16 


•■• 20 

— p. 

— P, 

— P p p 

* 10 * ■■■ 8 

P P P 

■^16 *10 -^6 

P P P 



— 0006438 „ 

— 0-012918 „ 
+ 0000125 „ 
+ 010138 „ 

— 008500 „ 

— 0.018400 „ 

s 0-475 
s 01125 
s 0.650 
s 0-900 
s0 25 
= 01700 
= 775 

p p — p — p 

-^8 -^8 -^1 -^X 

P P P 

■*■ 8 -"^ 1 •*• X 

— 004813 „ 

+ 0018908 „ s 375 

-h 0015463 „ s 01075 



P. — Pi—P'i -1-0009388 „ =0 1175 „ 
P^—P^— 0005838 „ s 01275 „ 

I have tried various ways of dealing with these equations but, when 
the probable errors are wanted, the method of least squares is the easiest, 
I thus get — 

grs. grs. 

P,^ s 23-999999 — 0006997 B^ s 23-999296|?. e. = 0000042 





•^ 10 



s 23-999999 — 0003185 „ 
s 19-999999 — 0014515 „ 
s 15-999999 — 0006007 „ 
s 9 999999 — 0009026 „ 
s 6000000 — 0-015531 „ 
s 3000000 — 0006360 „ 
= 2000000 -I- 0001371 „ 
s 1-000000 -I- 0-008077 „ 
s 1 000000 + 0-002461 „ 

s 23-998679 
s 19-998541 
5 15-999396 
= 9-999092 
= 5 998440 
= 2-999361 
s 2000137 
s 1000811 
= 1000247 











Further Pi s P.^ -l- P.^ + P-i + 0000038 R^ 
P.^ s P.3 -h P-a -h P-i + 0005525 „ 

Jr-3 — Jr. 3 -f- Jr. 1 
P. = P' 

— 0-004675 „ 
-f 006963 „ 
-I- 0-005813 „ 


Diff. 725 R^ 









Whence P.« s 0*600000 -h 002673 R, s 0600269 i?. c. = 0000056 
P., s 0-300000 -I- 0005647 „ s 300567 „ 0000035 
P., s 0-200000 + 0-002832 „ s 0200285 „ 0000042 
P., s 0-100000 + 0-000842 „ s 0100085 „ 000028 
P'.j 5 0- 100000 — 0-0O1971 „ s 0099501 „ 0000045 

56 J. P. Tennant— Ort Standard Weights. [No. 1, 

By weighing the riders against the nearly equal weight P. ^ I ha?e 

Rj = P.J + 003813 R, Diff. 426 

R, » P., + 000375 Ri „ 600 

Substituting Buccessively for the value of R^, of P.^, and of B^ 

we get 


R, s 0.1003814 + 000847 R^ s 0* 100466 grs. j>. e, = 0000062 
R, s 100000 + 0001217 R, s 0- 100122 „ „ = 0000062 
Also— P., s P.oe + P-os + 0089038 R, Diff. 825 
P.oc = Po3 + P-o, + 0104750 „ „ 1550 

Po» = P-o. + 0105075 „ „ 900 

P.O. s 0099438 „ „ 137 

Whence P-oe ^ | P.^ — 0059467 R, s 0060769i>. e. = 0000047 
p.^^ s i P.j — 0029571 „ s 00304iOO „ 000003i 
P.O. s ^ P., — 0- 134646 Ri s 0019881 „ 0000047 
P.Q, s 0.099438,, s 009956 „ 0000056 

Sectiok VIII. — Determination of the probable errors of the values of the 

O and P sets. 

In Section VI, I have shown that if the probable error of the constant 

terms in the equations of a group be known, we can determine the probable 

errors of the determinations in the group, so far as they depend on it : and 

we have now to consider what may be taken as the probable error of one 


Each coefficient of R is derived in the preceding work from two 
determinations which rarely agree. The differences are noted in tenns 
of the 6th decimal place of the coefficient. If we were certain that the 
true values of the constants lay between the determinations, then, caUing 

the difference of the two 2a, we should have = the mean of errors 


2 a 
and p. e. of an equation = e = 0*8454 ; but this value is clearly too 

small ; because, if the occurrence of positive and negative errors be equally 
probable, then there is an even chance that a fourth of the values of 2a 
will be the difference and not the sum of the two actual errors. 
I prefer therefore to use the formula 

mean of errors = — ==z=. ' w being the number of complete 

\/m {m — 1) 

and probable error = 0*8454 

V^w {m — 1) 

applying this to any one determination we shall have its probable error 

= 0-8454 ^^ = 0-8454 y/2a = 11955 a 

1880.] J. F. Tennant— On Standard Weights. 67 

Of course this is a very uncertain estimation, but we have a good 
many such equations, and the mean of the values may I think be taken as 
the fairest estimate. If then n be the number of equations, I take 

2 a 
p, e. of any one determination is 1*1955 

The group of equations determining the P weights would give the probable 
error from their residuals ; but, there being only 12 equations to determine 10 
quantities, I do not think this is so satisfactory as the above method ; and I 
have used, for evaluating the errors in them, the weights of the results, 
deduced as usual, combined with the p. e. of an equation derived as above. 
Assuming that we may neglect the difference between the values of K^ 
and B, in these differences, we have 41 values of 2 a ; and it does not seem 
that there is any marked tendency to decrease with the weights : I therefore 
take the mean of all and I get 

-— - = 463-53 R «. tf. = 55416 B = 55651 = e of Section VI 

n -^ 

in which R is taken 0-100464 = ^^^i + ^^« 


Hence e» is 3097-0 
The probable error of any determination as of that of O.o, for in- 
stance, depends : — 

1st on the amount arising from its own group. 

2nd probable error of the value assumed as known : in this case O. ^ 
drd on the probable error of the rider which was employed in taking 
the difference of weights in the pans. 

Lastly O^ itself has its probable error 0*000115 grains from the deter- 
minations ; but there is also a portion dependent on P.^^, which is involved 
in determining the difference between it and EI, the mean factor of P.q^ 
being 0'0877. It is necessary, therefore, to start our evaluations with 
-values of the probable errors of B^ B, and P.qi ; ftnd, fortunately, these 
are readily determined. 

Let E be ihep, e, of P.^ from all sources except B^ 
e as before the p, e. of one determination 
c the p, e. of B^ 
It will be seen from the table of deduction of probable errors that the 
value of E* is 758'2 and that it involves nothing unknown. 
Hence (p. e, B^)" = e* 

= (1-003813) • E* + (0000842) • c* + e^ 
= 7640 + 0000007 €« + 30970 = 3861-0 

••. 6 = 0-000062 = — v^38610 


J. F. Tennant— 0/1 Standard WeighU. 


again |7. «. B, 
p, e. P.Qi 

\/E« + c" + 00003758 <■ = JqT v/38610 = 0^)00062 
v/(5» +0-099438" (R,)» = v^3135-2 = 000056 
Determination of Probable JSrrors. 

Squares of Probable Errors (unit is 6th decimal place). 











• • • 

• • • 












• •• 






25 7 






« ■ • • • 












5 3 















1 16-4 







0-0. . 










* 10 
























































1880.] J. F. Tennant— 0^1 Standard Weighti. 69 

1 y ^^^. ^ ,^^ 1 

Also ;?.<?. P. a = -^^ \/2064-6 -h 1695 + 13-6 = -- ^ \/22477 = 0000047 

10« "^ 10 

fi.<?.P.o» = ,4 V'1032-3 + 84-2-|-13-3=l \/ri29^ = 0000034 
■^ o» xo® 10« 

l>«Po. = 4. v/2064-6 + 84-2 + 700 = '-^^ \/22jj8 = 000047 

Section IX. — Determinattona ofihe WeighU O, ^o O^, and aUo Frinsep*^ 

Bronze Troy Found, 

The comparisoDs of the weights from O, to O^o have been made with 
the balance Oertling No. 2. Three complete comparisons were made in 
each case, and the weight P.^^, has been always used for valuing the scale. 
I have deduced the following equations of condition : — 

O3 sO,+0, -0-37200 P.o J sO,+Oi 0000000 -0-37200 P. ^ 3 

O^ sO,-f O, +P.o« +0-74542 P-o, = Oa+O, +0060769+0-74542 P.^, 

O3 sO.+O.+R, +0-37867 P.o»s03+0, +0100085+0-37867 P.08 

s O^ +0, +P.0, +0-60467 P.08 s O^ +0, +0019881+0-60467 P-^^. 

O,o=0e+0^+0, — P., - P.oe + 0-45742 P.oa = 0^ + 0^+0,— 

0160854 + 0-45742 P. 0^ 
Whence I deduce by the FormulsB in Sec. VI. 
O, s 20,+ P.oe + P.o»— P. X +0-97142 P.oa s 960011294 grs. 

;?. 6. =0-000757 „ 
O, s 8O1+ P.ofl + P-ot— P.1+ 0-59942 „ s 1440-000584 „ =0000900 „ 
O^ s 40, +2 P.oe + P.O.— P., +1-34484 „ s 1920084613 „ 

/?.«. =0001194 „ 
O. s 60,+2P.oe +2P.04— P., +1-94951 „ s 2400123435 „ 

^.e. =0001438 „ 
0,o=100,+8P.oe +3P.o,—3P., +8-75167 „ =4800-061736 „ 

jp. e. =0002795 „ 
In the last Section, I have given a general formula for finding a 

probable error of observation. In this case, I have S (o) = 3941*2 -jj^, 

whence the probable error of one equation of condition will be 

3941*2 P 
= 0-8454 •-^=•4— = 0-000413-5 
\/3-2 10 


The probable error of each determination of a weight depends-^ 

1st, on its error derived from O, of which it is nearly a multiple, 
2nd, on the error derived through the weights of the P set used to 
nearly counterbalance. 


J. F. Tennant — On Standard Weights. 


drd, on tlie error due to the fraction of P.^, which is involved in 

its determination, 
4th, on the error generated in the weighings of the series. 
The following Tahle shows the error from each source separately. 

Squares of Probable Errors from 





of Series. 


Error x 10*. 

































In making these csdculations, I have neglected to attend to the fact 
that the P weights used have a common origin ; the sum of the squares 
of the probable errors given in the Table at the end of Section YIII 
is taken, and here (as will be seen by turning back) the error from their 
common origin O. ^ is unf elt, but this is not always the case. 

Among the weights in the Assay Office is a bronze Standard Troy 

Pound in a wooden case, on which case is stamped ) * -ci -f ( » ai^d in ink 

is written 

J. Prinsep. ") 
Std. 1 a 3 

On the weight itself is engraved — 

British Troy Pound, 

= 5760 grains, 

3SosaI Mint 
The surface of the weight is thinly oxidized, but it seems to be quite 
uninjured. I some time ago compared it, as well as I could, with the 
weights of the Gilt Troy set belonging to the Assay Office, which were 
supplied many years ago, and which were made by Bates in 1824 No 
record of any previous comparisons of these exists. The conclusion 1 
came to was, that Prinsep's Troy Pound was about a mean of all the Gilt 
Pounds, the latter weights having sensible errors. I have then thooght 
it worth while to determine the value of the Prinsep's Pound, and I find— 
Frinsep's Found s O^o + O, -f P^ + P.^j — 0-487 P-o, 

» 5760*148354 grains, 
from a single complete comparison. 

1880.] J. P. Tennant— On Standard Weights. 61 

To find the probable error of this we must substitute in the above equation 
the sjmbolio values of O^o +0, and thus we have — 

Prin8ep'sPoundsl20i -hP.oi -h^P-o, -h 4P.oe — 3P.i -|-4-23606P.os 
from which the probable error will (when the errors generated in deter- 
mining O, and 0^0, and also in the single comparison of this weight are 
allowed for) 

= Y5aV^8878998 = 0002890 

and we may consider Prinsep's Pound « 5760*148 ± 0003 grains. 

Sectioit X. — Considerations as to the Weights which should he made use of 

in a series. 

The only generally used decimal system of weights, is the metric, 
which is so largely di-£Eused. In it the weights between W^ and W^ ^ are 
Wg, Wg in duplicate, and W^. When the system was adopted in England 
permifisively, the intermediate weights chosen were Wg Wg and W,. The 
other series in use, are those I have described before as the Bullion, and the 
English Grain Series. In making a series of weights of tolahs for the use 
of the Indian mints, I have therefore a choice ; and it is worth considering 
which series is the best. 

Oommerdally, the fewer weights required to make any weighment, the 
better. I think, too, that commercially it is undesirable to have duplicate 
weights, and of course none should be superfluous. In the strict French 
Metric system there are 3 weights required to weigh 9 and 8, while two are 
wanted for 7, 6, and 3, and the 2 is in duplicate ; and in the English modifi' 
cation there are 3 weights wanted for 9 only, while 8, 7, 6, and 4 require 
two each, and there is no duplicate : I think then that the English modi- 
fication is preferable to the original system. 

In our English Bullion system there are never 3 weights wanted for 
any purpose ; and 9, 8, 7, and 6 require two weights. But there are more 
weights than are wanted, there being 5 weights in each decad instead of 4. 

In the English Qrain system there are never 3 weights wanted ; 9, 8, 7, 6. 
and 4 require two each, there are no duplicates, and none superfluous. I think 
then that the English Grain system is the best for commercial purposes. 

Scientifically, the best system is that of which the values can be most 
accurately deduced from the standard Prototype. It is worthy of note, 
that neither of the Metric systems, nor the English Grain system, admit 
of the weights of a decad being completely determined without a second 
unit in each decad. 

This is not an unmixed disadvantage. The 1, 10, <&c., being necessary 
for this purpose only, and not used in common, may be kept separately, and 
referred to for verifications whenever desired, and by such use the errors 
of the weights of any decad, can be determined with comparatively little 

62 J. F. Tennant— On Standard Weiglis. [No. 1, 

labour and without its being necessary to refer back to a primaiy ireiglit. 
Thus, checking becomes much more manageable, and, by such a plan 
as I have adopted in dealing with the P set, one of the duplicates is far 
more accurately determined than the other, and can be laid aside for re- 
ference ; the accuracy of the second being ordinarily sufficient. 

The English Bullion system, as we have seen, contains the means of 
determining the values of all the weights without duplicates, and it is 
possible to have one weight practically unused, if we consent to make either 
8 or 9 by three weights ; this reference weight, however, is not so convenient 
for use as in the other cases. 

The English Grain system has this advantage over all the others, that 
any weight from 1 to 10 requires at most two weights to make it. It has 
the disadvantage that 6 is not the half of ten, but, on the other hand, 3 is 
the half of 6 ; and I do not see the great gain of this relation, unless it be 
admitted that the system of division should be binary. In France, it was 
proposed that each multiple of a unit by ten, and each division by ten, 
should be a new unit. Some slight gain might have come if thia had 
become a thoroughly practical procedure ; but, in fact, one rarely hears of 
any but the kilogramme, gramme, and milligramme, and so of the other 
numbers of the series. I think, then, that the advantage of being able to 
have a single weight for half a hectogramme, &c. is dearly purchased, if 
there be a disadvantage in the determinations ; and, in deciding on a system 
of weight, it is necessary to consider the probable errors of these deter- 

In each of these proposed systems, 5 comparisons, giving 5 equations^ 
are enough to connect all the weights in a decad. If this number be 
alone used, then the probable errors of W^ ^ derived from W^ will be 

English Grain System e \/24 

" ^'^°" " -^l tionbeteker 

„ Metric e v^38 

Original Metric e v^26 

In this respect the English Grain system seems best, and the Modified Metric 
System the worst. The Original Metric system is nearly as good as the 
English Grain system, and it is possibly better if a good deal more labour 
be given to each ; but I think — when it is considered that weighing by the 
English Grain system requires only two weights iu each decad, and that 
the standard system should coincide if possible with that in use — ^the palm 
will be assigned to the Grain system. 

I think, too, that those who have gone with me so far, will feel as 
strongly as myself the great gain of a ''large primary unit." It has 


1880.] J. F. Tennant— On Standard Weights. 68 

always been considered necessary to have the primary unit very indestructi- 
ble, and no doubt this is a very important point : the lead was taken in 
France, where the Normal Kilogramme was made of platinum ; platinum was 
again used in England for the Standard Pound, and now standards of re- 
ference are made of a Platinum-iridium alloy. The cost of the mere metal 
is very heavy (a kilogramme is at present worth £60 for mere material), 
and the use of such a metal for large weights is of course out of the ques- 
tion. It seems to me doubtful whether equal accuracy could not be 
obtained by employing a large weight of gilt or nickelized bronze ; from 
which copies could be made with far greater accuracy than they could be 
separately deduced from the small primary. It is possibly too late to 
change the material of Primary Standards now, but at all events the 
standard of Commercial Weight should be a large mass of gilt bronze. 

Acting on these principles, I have nearly made a set of weights from 
1000 tolahs to 0001 tolah from these bullion weights. There will be 
several copies of the largest, carefully compared, some of which I trust 
Government will allow me to distribute. The individual weights are on 
what I have called the English Grain system : that is, there are — 
1000 tolahs. 100 tolahs. 10 tolahs. 1* tolahs. 0*10 tolahs. 0010 tolahs. 
600 „ 60 „ 6 „ 0-6 „ 006 „ 0006 „ 
800 „ 80 „ 8 „ 0-3 „ 03 „ 0003 „ 
200 „ 20 „ 2 „ 0:2 „ 002 „ 0-002 „ 
100 „ 10 „ 1 „ 01 „ 001 „ 0001 „ 
The final adjustments and deductions have yet to be made i but after what 
I have said, there will be little new in this. I have been very greatly 
assisted by Mr. Durham, Senior Assistant in the Assay Office, who has 
superintended all of the gilding ; and to whom I owe devices which will 
allow the gilt weights to be made true almost to the accuracy of a single 
comparison by substitution. 

Table I. 

Logariihma for calculating the Weight of the Air ad^ipted to Fahrenheifa 


This Table gives 10 + the logarithm of the ratio which the weight of 
air at the temperature named and at Calcutta bears to that of the same 
volume of water when at its maximum density, the logarithm of the height 
of the barometer. 

If B be the reading of the barometer reduced to freezing point ; the 
temperature and V the elasticity of the vapour in the air 

then log sq. of air = At + log (B — 0-238 V). 


J. F. Tennant— 0» Standard Weights. 


The value of At at sea-level in latitude 45^ can be got from these 
numbers by adding 0000786-7 to each and thence the value for any other 




Ad) At. 




Ad) At. 

At. Ad) At 



































































































































































5809938 i 7785 








5802163 . 7772 











































J. F. Tennant— 0» Standard Weights. 


Table II. 

Logarithm of the Ratio of the Density of Water to its Maximum Density 

for each degree of Fahrenheifs Thermometer. 

This Table is founded on that given at page 66 <&c. of the Beport of 
the Warden of the Standards for 1871-72. Certain values of the Table 
there given, were taken and the constants found to express them in a 
series of the form A (t — w^)" + B {t — »,)*, and, these having then 
been suitably modified to change the scale of the thermometer from 
Centigrade to Fahrenheit, the present Table was computed. 


Log. Ratio. 

Ad) R. 


Log. Ratio. 

Ad) R. 

Log. Ratio. 

Ad) R. 






































— 99 









— 78 









— 56 









— 35 









— 15 









-h 06 









-f 27 












































































































8 0001846 





4 0002115 







J. F. Tennant—On Standard Weights. 

[No. 1, 

Table III. 

Logarithms far facilitating the Calculation of the Cubical EacpansUm of 


Log. (1 + EMt.) 

G = M 


S = M 


P = M B = M 

Platinum Bally 's metal 

Br = M 

— 839- 14 

— 441-41 

— 208-32 — 394-98. 


— 398-27 




000006510 000012343 

OKXXX) 12446 

















































This table is founded on the supposition that up to 100^ of Fahrenheit's 
Thermometer ; log expansion for n^ ^sin x log expansion for 1^ ; which is 
true sufficiently. The linear expansions of Gold and Silver have been taken 
from Vol. I of Professor Miller's Chemistry ; the others from the paper 
in the * Philosophical Transactions' on Standard Weights. 

The argument of this Table is to be T — 32* ; or T itself can be 
taken if the number at the head of the column be applied. 

Thus for brass at 85*35° we have 

Br 50* 0000622-30 or ] 















— 398-27 

0000663 99 


May 24^A, 1879. 

J. P. Tennant— 0« Standard WeighU. 

Type Compabison I. 

Comparisons of EI with O^. 


Oertling, No. 1. 

on left side. 


EI + P., 

O. + P.oi 



0, +P.OI 

EI + P.O. 


on right side. 



EI + 1-2^" 




Ox + 1-2 S- 









3 8- 








17 4 

10 7 








16 21 






li. in. 
Commenced at 6*48 a. m. 

A. Bar. 2960. Temp. 85*^0 F. 

Dry Bulb 86-9. Wet Bulb 81*0, 

in. o ^ 

Bar. 29 61. Temp. 860 F. 

Dry Bulb. 86^4 Wet Bulb 80 1. 
Ended at 733 a. m. 

TT T?T.^n a. i.9!^«— ?i^P =a:0 +1-2— •—0-297 P.oi. 
Hence EI ^^ Oj + V^ -rr — 5-5^ i^^-oi — "1 ^ ^ ** 10 

10 8-27 

10 8-26 


TjT^r. i.o^»j.?i2p aO — r2=-? +040J.P.01. 


10 ■ 8-48 
EI-0,-M-2|«-||P.O.-0. + 1.2^«-0-286P.„,. 

.♦. 4 EI « 4 O, + 0191 P.ox : or EI « 0^ + 0-04775 P.,,. 

Note.— la. the original the sucoeadon of obserratioiw hM l)oen distinguished, but 
want of space rendered it necessary to give this up. 


J. P. Tennant — On Standard Weights. 

[No. 1, 


June 5th, 1879. Oerfeling No. 1. 

Comparisons of O^ with 0.54-0^4-0.^=8. 

on left side. 


8 + oe5; 



on right side. 






















O, +5 


S + 4-2^- 



10 4 















B / S'12\ B It 

O.^S-4-2j^ + (0-6 + ^)^^S-4.2^ + 01O15B, 

B / 3"02\ B B 

O, «Jt S — 4 2— + (0 6-f-?— 1 — =^8 — 4-2— +0 .002R,. 
^ 10 \ 7-61/10 10 '^^^»i' 

^a . A.o ^« /«c.A . 2"01\Bi^Q . ^ -2 --— 0-5272 Ri- 

Hence O 

8-H4-2^-('60 + H:5ll\5i^S-h4-2?i 
^10 \ ^7-41/10 ^10 

« o.o, ,, ^ _ ^ • o.^ + O.J — 0.212026 R, 

* iU \ 7-41/ iU 

.-. 4 Oi s 4 8 — 0-8481 R^ or O^ s 0., + 


J. F. Tennant— 0« Standard Weights. 


Type Compabisok III. 

Oetoler 22nd, 1879. Oertling No. 2. 

Comparisons of O^ with O^ + O^ + Rq, = S. 

on left side. 

on right side. 








S + P.o» 



S + P.os 






S + P.os 


22 7 











23 3 





S + P.O. 







Hence 0. =fli S + grga ^o. =* S + 0-453 P.„. 

0. -0= S + — P.„, =a. S + 0-732 P.„.. 

0. =^ S + g:^ P-o. =^ S + 0-737 P.O.. 

3 09 
O. ^ S + g^ p-o. * S + 0-497 P.O.. 

.-. 4 0, ■ 4 S + 2-419 P.,, and 0, s S + 0-60476 P.„,. 

- Oi+0.4-P.o.+0-64475P.„.. 


70 H. F. Blanford — On High Atmospheric Pressure [No, 1, 

P. S. June 29th, 1880. — ^After the earlier pari of this paper was 
drafted, I learnt that M. St. Claire Deville had proposed to make standards 
of the Commercial Kilogram in a new manner. The metal is to be the 
Platinum -iridium alloy so as to secure hardness and indestructibility, but, in 
order that the density may be nearly that of brass, it is to be hollow, the 
parts are to be soldered together by fusion so as to enclose a constant 
mass of air, which, of course, will be included in the weighings. This plan 
has been adopted by the International Commission for making the Euro- 
pean Metric Standards, and will no doubt be a great improvement on the 
old Commercial Standard of Prance, which is made of brass. The volume 
of these weights is to be 125 cubic centimetres, so that the density will be 
80 ; which is a little lower than that of good sound weights of brass, and 
materially lower that that of gilt bronze ; while it is greater than that of 

Certainly, the visible Commercial unit, to which reference can be made, 
appears preferable to the imaginary unit of £ngland. Such a weight 
would vary in Calcutta with respect to the scientific unit to the extent of 
about 11 milligrams, and it would be needless to take notice (for commer- 
cial purposes) of the much smaller variations with respect to such weight 
as may be compared with it. 

VI.— 0« the High Atmospheric Pressure of 1876-78 in Asia and Australia, 
in relation to the Sun-spot Cycle. — By Henby P. Blaktobd, Met 
Mep, to the Govt, of India, 

(Beceived December 24th, 1879 ; Bead January 6th, 1880.) 

(With Plate I.) 

The three years 1876, 1877, and 1878, more especially the two former, 
were characterized by a deficiency of rainfall in one or many parts of India, 
and by a more general and very persistent excess of atmospheric pressure. 
With but slight and local interruptions, from August (in some parts of 
India from May) 1876 to August (in some cases only to May) 1878, over 
the whole of the Indian area, the barometer ranged above the average of 
many years. Nor was this excess of pressure restricted to the land. The 
register of Port Blair at the Andaman Islands, and that of Nancowry at 
the Nicobars, shew that, at these insular stations, the excessive pressure was 
of greater duration and more persistent and intense than at any contmen- 
tal station at or near the sea-level j indeed, with one striking exception, 
more intense than at any other station in the entire region. At these 
isLwids, the pressure rose above the average in May 1876 ; and, from that 
time to August 1878 inclusive, the mean pressure of every month was from 
•001.' to -071' in excess of the average ; derived, in the case of Port Blair 

1880.] in Belation to the Sun-spot Chfcle, 71 

from eleven, and, in that of Nancowry, from six years' registers. On the 
mean of the whole period and of the two stations, the excess amounted 
to •0327'. 

The single exceptional station, which shews a greater average excess 
than the Bay islands, is the hill station of Darjiling in the Sikkim Hima« 
laya, at an elevation of nearly 7000 feet above the sea. At this station^ 
where the barometer has been registered steadily for upwards of 12 years, 
the mean excess of the same period of 28 months was not less than '0332' ; 
or, since the first rise took place in August 1876, the mean of the whole 
unbroken period of 25 months' excess was '0379^^. On the plains of Bengal, 
the mean excess (average of six stations) was only '0298 on the 28 months 
and '0354 on the 25 months, a reduction, as compared with Darjiling, which 
is probably explained by the fact that, in Bengal, as indeed generally in 
India, the mean temperature of the air was also on the whole considerably 
in excess of the average ; so that the stratum of air resting on the plains 
had less than the average density. This fact is of pregnant importance ; 
for it shews that the excessive pressure in question was due to tlfe condition 
of the higher atmosphere ; of those strata, at all events, that lay above the 
elevation of 7000 feet ; and that, in fact, the prevailing excess, instead of 
being caused by the conditions recorded at observatories on the plains, was 
to some extent counteracted by a deficiency in the mass and static pressure 
of the lower strata. 

In his report on the Meteorology of India in 1877, Mr. Eliot drew 
attention to the persistently high barometric pressure of that year, and 
pointed out that the barometric registers of Sydney and Melbourne in 
Australia also '^ indicated, on the whole, a marked tendency to excessive 
pressure ; and that, therefore, there is a slight probability that this is a 
feature of the whole area, from India southwards to Australia, including 
the sea area of the Indian Ocean." Furthermore, that it appeared, from 
the register of Hongkong, '^ that the pressure in that part of China was as 
markedly and persistently in defect as it was in excess in India." 

A re-examination of the data shews, however, that this latter conclu* 
sion is extremely doubtful, and indeed probably mistaken. I find that the 
Hongkong barometric registers of past years have been so variously treat- 
ed that no trustworthy comparison can be instituted on them ; and, on the 
other hand, 1 find that the excellent registers of Zi-ka-wei near Shanghai 
point to an opposite conclusion, and shew that here also, on the east coast 
of China, the pressure was excessive during the greater part of the period 
in question, though to a much less degree than in the Indian region. 

In the case of Australia, Mr. Eliot compared the registers of Sydney 
and Melbourne only. I have examined that of Adelaide in addition, and 
find that not only does it confirm the general conclusion drawn from the 
two former registers, but, further, shews that in South Australia the excess 

72 H. F. Blanford— On Sigh AtmoMpheric Pressure [No. 1, 

was more intense than at any other station yet examined either in Aastralia 
or India. At this station, the pressure rose above the average in May 1876 
(as at the islands in the Bay of Bengal) and, with the exception of 4 months, 
remained in excess until June 1878 ; the average excess of the whole period 
being not less than '0681'^ or -^ of an inch of the barometer. At Mel- 
bourne, during the same period, it averaged '0387'^ and was leas prolonged. 
For Sydney, I have registers only up to September 1878, and these shew an 
excess much below that of Melbourne. It would seem, therefore, that in 
Australia as in Asia the excessive pressure diminished towards the east 
coast of the continent. 

As a link between the data of the Indian and Australian regions, I have 
the registers of Singapore and Bat a via ; for the latter of which I am 
indebted to the kindness of Dr. Bergsma. At Singapore, the same barome- 
ter has not been in use throughout. The barometer registered in 1869 and 
1870 having been injured, was replaced by another in 1871 which had never 
been compared directly or indirectly with the former ; and the relative values 
of the registers in the two former and subsequent years are, therefore, mors 
or less open to doubt. The position of the instrument also has been 
changed once or twice ; but, in comparing the registers of past years, I 
have applied an appropriate correction for the changes of leveL The 
registers extend from May 1869 to the present time. According to these, 
during the four and a half years, from May 1869 to October 1873, and 
certainly from July 1871, in only two months, was the me«i pressure of 
any month slightly above the general average of the month, as deduced 
from the whole series of years ; whereas, from November 1873 to February 
1875 (16 months in all), ten months ranged above it, and six only below it ; 
and from March 1875 to June 1878, every month shews an excess, except- 
ing April 1876 (which was the same as the average) and November 1876 
and December 1877, which were slightly below it. Hence, it appears that 
the excessive pressure began earlier and was more prolonged at Singapore 
than at any other station yet examined ; but it was less than half as intense 
as at Adelaide ; the average of the 26 months, May 1876 to June 1878, 
being only •0293\ 

The register of Batavia affords evidence very sinular to that of Singa- 
pore. Here also from November 1869 to August 1878, a period of 3 years 
and 10 months, in only four months did the pressure range slightly above 
the average ; from the latter date to April 1876, in ten months it exceeded 
the average ; and from May 1876 to August 1878, it was above the average 
in every month except three. The average excess of this period was *0256.' 
Thus, at these two sub-equatorial stations, there is evidence of a gradual rise 
of atmospheric pressure since 1870 ; and the Batavian register recorded 
under the careful superintendence of Dr. Bergsma is of the highest validity. 

In Ceylon and Southern India, the excessive pressure was of shorter 


in BeUtion to the Sun-spot Chicle. 


duration than at the Bay islands, and on the average of the whole period 
not more than half as great ; viz,, *020'. 

As far as can be judged, then, from the available evidence, the excess 
appears to have been greatest (in the Indian region) on an axis lying 
between the Nicobars and Bengal. And, in Australia, at Adelaide, or possi- 
bly to the westward of that station. In the absence of any sufficient 
registers for Western Australia, this must remain an open question. To 
the eastward, however, it certainly diminished greatly at Melbourne, and 
still more at Sydney. Whether, however, the condition of excessive pres- 
sure was continuous between Batavia and South Australia or otherwise, 
there is no distinct evidence to show. 

In Asia, the excess was less in Assam than in Bengal, and was compara- 
tively small at Shanghai (Zi-ka-wei). To the westward, it also diminished, 
but not quite regularly ; since, in Orissa and on the Gangetic plains, it was 
less than on the plateaux of Chutia Nagpur and Bundelkand, and slightly 
less than in Eajputana and Sind. Some of these irregularities probably 
depend on variations of the temperature, and therefore density, of the lower 
atmosphere ; and partly also are apparent only, and owing to the fact that 
the averages which have served as the standard of the comparison are 
derived, in some cases, from longer series of years than in others. That, 
notwithstanding these irregularities, there was, on the whole, a general 
decrease of the excessive pressure to the westward of the axis above defined, 
appears, however, pretty clearly, from the following average values of this 
excess for the whole period of the 28 months of its duration. 

Bengal f •0298'^ 

Arakan + 0317''^ 

Bayialandfl + 0327^ 



& Bundel- 

+ -0191".. .Punjab +-0132* 

+ 0284' 


+ 0164" 

\ and Sind 
Nagpur and 


+ -OBIS'* 

+ •0219"Bombay + -0196" 

+ •0127'' W.Coaat + ■0102*' 
+ -0199" Ceylon +-020'^ 

It may here be observed that this axis or ridge of greatest intensity, 
if prolonged, lay across the middle of the two great continental masses, 
Asia and Australia, from Western Siberia to South Australia ; a position 
which suggests the probability that the phenomenon was in some measure 
dependent on the presence and position of these large land masses. 

The variation of the anomalous pressure from month to month, at all 

the stations above referred to, is given in the accompanying Table I, which 

shows the deviation of the pressure, in each month, from the average of that 

month and place (or district), as derived from the registers of many years. 



H. P. Blanford — On Hijh Atmospheric Pressure [No. 1, 

Table I. — Deviation of pressure in each monihfrom the 









South Central Pro- 
vinces and Berar. 






Kast Coast and Oama- 

1876. April, 


— •046 

— 054 

— •033 

— •055 

— 043 

— •054 

May, ••• 


— •045 

— •046 

— •037 

— 048 

— •018 

— •029 

June, ••# 


— •008 

— •012 

+ -008 

— •003 

— •002 

— •008 



— •037 

— •048 

— •049 

— •041 

— •026 

— •026 

August, ••• 


+ -004 

+ -006 

+ -016 

+ -005 

— •015 

September, ... 


+ -024 

+ 014 

+ 016 

+ 010 

+ ^020 

— •001 

October, ... 


+ ^034 

+ -044 

+ -044 

+ -042 

+ -028 

+ -022 

November, ... 


— •008 

— 015 

— •004 

— •004 

— •009 

— •004 

December, ••• 


+ •osi 

+ 034 

+ ^042 

+ ^044 

+ -032 

+ •044 

1877. January, ... 


+ 067 

+ -067 

+ 069 

+ 059 

+ -030 

+ •056 

February, ... 


+ -024 

+ -062 

+ ^054 

+ -031 

— 004 

+ -021 

Harch, .«• 


+ -016 

+ -024 

+ -033